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Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting: current limitations and call for action

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 December 2015

Grace Freire*
Division of Cardiology, John Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, All Children’s Hospital, St Petersburg, Florida, United States of America
Correspondence to: G. Freire, MD, FACC, FASE, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins All Children’s Heart Institute, 2nd Floor Outpatient Care Center # 206, 601, 5th Street South, St Petersburg, FL 33701, United States of America. Tel: +727 767 6483; Fax: +727 767 8990; E-mail:


Surveillance of fetal arrhythmias in the outpatient setting remains limited by lack of monitoring modalities. Despite technological advances made in the field of obstetrics, existing devices are not currently suitable to monitor fetal arrhythmias. In this report, the author describes the current and developing fetal heart rate monitoring technologies including the recent introduction of hand-held Doppler monitors for outpatient surveillance of fetal arrhythmias.

Original Articles
© Cambridge University Press 2015 

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