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Impact of placing a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries as the first stage of further palliation in the Norwood sequence for hypoplasia of the left heart

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 October 2007

Martin Kostolny
Affiliation:
Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Juergen Hoerer
Affiliation:
Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Andreas Eicken
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Congenital Heart Defects, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Claudia Dietrich
Affiliation:
Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Christian F. Schreiber
Affiliation:
Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Ruediger Lange
Affiliation:
Clinic of Cardiovascular Surgery, German Heart Center Munich, Technical University Munich, Germany
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective

We describe the experience from a single institution with the Norwood sequence of palliation for hypoplasia of the left heart, emphasizing complications related to placement of a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries and their management.

Methods

Between November, 2002 and January, 2006, we palliated 32 patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome or its variants by placing a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. We reviewed retrospectively the charts and angiograms from these patients.

Results

Hospital survival after construction of the conduit was 90.6%. There were 3 interstage deaths, of which 2 were likely due severe obstruction of the conduit. Stents were implanted into the proximal or medial portions of the conduits of 3 patients. Early revision of the distal anastomosis, and shortening the conduit, was performed early postoperatively in 2 patients. So far, 24 out 26 survivors of the first stage underwent a bi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis after a mean interval of 4.3 plus or minus 1.4 months. Of these, 3 required a semi-urgent second stage of palliation because of worsening cyanosis, with one patient dying after the second stage. Completion of the Fontan circulation by insertion of an extracardiac conduit was performed in 8 patients at the mean age of 19.8 plus or minus 2.2 months. We were able to achieve biventricular repair in 1 patient, with aortic atresia, hypoplastic arch and ventricular septal defect, 4.3 months after the initial palliative procedure. Overall survival of the whole cohort of 32 patients was 78.9%, plus or minus 7.8%, at 5 months, and 74.3%, plus or minus 8.6%, up to 25 months.

Conclusions

The introduction of the conduit placed from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries has led to an improved outcome in the complex entity of hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants. Stenosis of the conduit, nonetheless, may account for significant interstage morbidity, and often requires intervention or early installation of the second stage of palliation.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2007

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References

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Impact of placing a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries as the first stage of further palliation in the Norwood sequence for hypoplasia of the left heart
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Impact of placing a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries as the first stage of further palliation in the Norwood sequence for hypoplasia of the left heart
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