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Clinical epidemiology and centre variation in chylothorax rates after cardiac surgery in children: a report from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 May 2017

Jason R. Buckley*
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
Eric M. Graham
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
Michael Gaies
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Cardiology, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Jeffrey A. Alten
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, United States of America
David S. Cooper
Affiliation:
The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
John M. Costello
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Cardiology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America
Yuliya Domnina
Affiliation:
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Division of Cardiac Intensive Care, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America
Darren Klugman
Affiliation:
Department of Critical Care Medicine and Cardiology, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America
Sara K. Pasquali
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Division of Cardiology, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Janet E. Donohue
Affiliation:
Michigan Congenital Heart Outcomes Research and Discovery Unit, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Wenying Zhang
Affiliation:
Michigan Congenital Heart Outcomes Research and Discovery Unit, University of Michigan Congenital Heart Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America
Mark A. Scheurer
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America
*
Correspondence to: J. R. Buckley, MD, 601 Children’s Hospital, 165 Ashley Avenue MSC915, Charleston, SC 29425, United States of America. Tel: +843 792 9146; Fax: +843 792 5878; E-mail: buckleyj@musc.edu

Abstract

Introduction

Chylothorax after paediatric cardiac surgery incurs significant morbidity; however, a detailed understanding that does not rely on single-centre or administrative data is lacking. We described the present clinical epidemiology of postoperative chylothorax and evaluated variation in rates among centres with a multicentre cohort of patients treated in cardiac ICU.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study using prospectively collected clinical data from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium registry. All postoperative paediatric cardiac surgical patients admitted from October, 2013 to September, 2015 were included. Risk factors for chylothorax and association with outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic or linear regression models, as appropriate, accounting for within-centre clustering using generalised estimating equations.

Results

A total of 4864 surgical hospitalisations from 15 centres were included. Chylothorax occurred in 3.8% (n=185) of hospitalisations. Case-mix-adjusted chylothorax rates varied from 1.5 to 7.6% and were not associated with centre volume. Independent risk factors for chylothorax included age <1 year, non-Caucasian race, single-ventricle physiology, extracardiac anomalies, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, and thrombosis associated with an upper-extremity central venous line (all p<0.05). Chylothorax was associated with significantly longer duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, cardiac ICU and hospital length of stay, and higher in-hospital mortality (all p<0.001).

Conclusions

Chylothorax after cardiac surgery in children is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A five-fold variation in chylothorax rates was observed across centres. Future investigations should identify centres most adept at preventing and managing chylothorax and disseminate best practices.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2017 

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Clinical epidemiology and centre variation in chylothorax rates after cardiac surgery in children: a report from the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium
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