Published online by Cambridge University Press: 18 September 2015
Many HIV-infected children have neurological involvement. We present our observations in 49 cases, 58% of which had some form of clinical neurological impairment. Most of the patients affected (71%) presented with progressive encephalopathy, characterized by developmental delay with loss of acquisitions and cognitive decline, an impaired growth curve, microcephaly and corticospinal dysfunction. CT-scan imaging shows cerebral atrophy in all cases and basal ganglia calcifications in 29%. Non-specific abnormalities are found on the EEG in two-thirds of cases and in the CSF in slightly less than half the cases. Pathological studies sometime revealed HIV encephalitis or lateral corticospinal tracts degeneration. Neurological impairment secondary to vascular events, neoplasms or opportunistic infections were rare, especially when compared with the adult HIV population.