Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-888d5979f-8vdwt Total loading time: 0.478 Render date: 2021-10-26T09:46:58.867Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Chronic Daily Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Multi-Faceted Syndrome

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2016

Shashi S. Seshia*
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Shuu-Jiun Wang
Department of Neurology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
Ishaq Abu-Arafeh
Paediatric Neurology, Stirling Royal Infirmary, Stirling; Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow; University of Dundee, UK
Andrew D. Hershey
Pediatrics and Neurology, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
Vincenzo Guidetti
Italian Headache Society, Department of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, University of Rome, “La Sapienza,”, Roma, Italy
Paul Winner
Palm Beach Headache Center, Premiere Research Institute, Palm Beach Neurology, Nova Southeastern University, West Palm Beach, Florida, USA
Çiçek Wöber-Bingöl
Department of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Vienna, Wien-Vienna, Austria
Department of Pediatrics (Division of Pediatric Neurology), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 0W8 Canada
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Chronic daily headache (CDH) is a multi-faceted, often complex pain syndrome in children and adolescents. Chronic daily headache may be primary or secondary. Chronic migraine and chronic tension-type are the most frequent subtypes. Chronic daily headache is co-morbid with adverse life events, anxiety and depressive disorders, possibly with other psychiatric disorders, other pain syndromes and sleep disorders; these conditions contribute to initiating and maintaining CDH. Hence, early management of episodic headache and treatment of associated conditions are crucial to prevention. There is evidence for the benefit of psychological therapies, principally relaxation and cognitive behavioral, and promising information on acupuncture for CDH. Data on drug treatment are based primarily on open label studies. The controversies surrounding CDH are discussed and proposals for improvement presented. The multifaceted nature of CDH makes it a good candidate for a multi-axial classification system. Such an approach should facilitate biopsychosocial management and enhance consistency in clinical research.

Review Articles
Copyright © The Canadian Journal of Neurological 2010


1. Mathew, NT, Stubits, E, Nigam, MP. Transformation of episodic migraine into daily headache: analysis of factors. Headache. 1982 Mar; 22(2): 66–8.Google Scholar
2. Holden, EW, Gladstein, J, Trulsen, M, Wall, B. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Headache. 1994 Oct; 34(9): 508–14.Google ScholarPubMed
3. Gladstein, J, Holden, EW. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: a 2-year prospective study. Headache. 1996 Jun; 36(6): 349–51.Google Scholar
4. Abu-Arafeh, I. Chronic tension-type headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. 2001 Oct; 21(8): 830–6.Google Scholar
5. Hershey, AD, Powers, SW, Bentti, AL, LeCates, S, deGrauw, TJ. Characterization of chronic daily headaches in children in a multidisciplinary headache center. Neurology. 2001 Apr 24; 56(8): 1032–7.Google Scholar
6. Koenig, MA, Gladstein, J, McCarter, RJ, Hershey, AD, Wasiewski, W, Pediatric Committee of the American Headache Society. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents presenting to tertiary headache clinics. Headache. 2002 Jun; 42(6): 491500.Google ScholarPubMed
7. Esposito, SB, Gherpelli, JL. Chronic daily headaches in children and adolescents: a study of clinical characteristics. Cephalalgia. 2004 Jun; 24(6): 476–82.Google Scholar
8. Seshia, SS. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004 Aug; 31(3): 319–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Wöber-Bingöl, C, Wober, C, Karwautz, A, Schnider, P, Vesely, C, Wagner-Ennsgraber, C, et al. Tension-type headache in different age groups at two headache centers. Pain. 1996 Sep; 67(1): 53–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
10. Moore, AJ, Shevell, M. Chronic daily headaches in pediatric neurology practice. J Child Neurol. 2004 Dec; 19(12): 925–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
11. Galli, F, Patron, L, Russo, PM, Bruni, O, Ferini-Strambi, L, Guidetti, V. Chronic daily headache in childhood and adolescence: clinical aspects and a 4-year follow-up. Cephalalgia. 2004 Oct; 24(10): 850–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
12. Chakravarty, A. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: a clinic based study from India. Cephalalgia. 2005 Oct; 25(10): 795800.Google Scholar
13. Raieli, V, Eliseo, M, Pandolfi, E, La Vecchia, M, La Franca, G, Puma, D, et al. Recurrent and chronic headaches in children below 6 years of age. J Headache Pain. 2005 Jun; 6(3): 135–42.Google Scholar
14. Scalas, C, Calistri, L. Chronic daily headache in a paediatric headache centre. J Headache Pain. 2005 Sep; 6(4): 274–6.Google Scholar
15. Wiendels, NJ, van der Geest, MC, Neven, AK, Ferrari, MD, Laan, LA. Chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Headache. 2005 Jun; 45(6): 678–83.Google Scholar
16. Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR, Juang, KD. Chronic daily headache in adolescents: prevalence, impact, and medication overuse. Neurology. 2006 Jan 24; 66(2): 193–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
17. Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR, Juang, KD. Outcomes and predictors of chronic daily headache in adolescents: a 2-year longitudinal study. Neurology. 2007 Feb 20; 68(8): 591–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18. Wang, SJ, Juang, KD, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR. Psychiatric comorbidity and suicide risk in adolescents with chronic daily headache. Neurology. 2007 May 1; 68(18): 1468–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
19. Cuvellier, JC, Couttenier, F, Auvin, S, Vallée, . The classification of chronic daily headache in French children and adolescents: A comparison between the second edition of the international classification of headache disorders and Silberstein-Lipton criteria. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2008 Feb; 4(1): 263–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
20. Seshia, SS, Phillips, DF, von Baeyer, CL. Childhood chronic daily headache: a biopsychosocial perspective. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008 Jul; 50(7): 541–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21. Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR. Chronic daily headache in adolescents: an 8-year follow-up study. Neurology. 2009 Aug 11; 73(6):416–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
22. Arruda, MA, Guidetti, V, Galli, F, Albuquerque, RC, Bigal, ME. Frequent headaches in the preadolescent pediatric population: a population-based study. Neurology. 2010 Mar 16; 74(11): 903–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
23. Cuvellier, JC, Couttenier, F, Joriot-Chekaf, S, Vallée, L. Chronic daily headache in French children and adolescents. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Feb; 38(2): 93–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
24. Manack, A, Turkel, C, Silberstein, S. The evolution of chronic migraine: classification and nomenclature. Headache. 2009 Sep; 49(8): 1206–13.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
25. Manzoni, GC, Torelli, P. Chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache: are they the same or different? Neurol Sci. 2009 May; 30 Suppl 1: S81–4.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
26. Seshia, SS, Wober-Bingol, C, Guidetti, V. The classification of chronic headache: room for further improvement? Cephalalgia. 2009; In Press.Google ScholarPubMed
27. Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Headache Classification Committee of The International Headache Society. Cephalalgia. 1988; 8 Suppl 7: 196.Google ScholarPubMed
28. Silberstein, SD, Lipton, RB, Solomon, S, Mathew, NT. Classification of daily and near-daily headaches: proposed revisions to the IHS criteria. Headache. 1994 Jan; 34(1): 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
29. Nappi, G, Granella, F, Sandrini, G, Manzoni, GC. Chronic daily headache. How should it be included in the IHS classification? Headache. 1999 Mar; 39(3): 197203.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
30. Olesen, J, Rasmussen, BK. The International Headache Society classification of chronic daily and near-daily headaches: a critique of the criticism. Cephalalgia. 1996 Oct; 16(6): 407–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
31. Welch, KM, Goadsby, PJ. Chronic daily headache: nosology and pathophysiology. Curr Opin Neurol. 2002 Jun; 15(3): 287–95.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
32. Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society. The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd ed. Cephalalgia. 2004; 24 Suppl 1: 9160.Google Scholar
33.Headache Classification Committee, Olesen, J, Bousser, MG, Diener, HC, Dodick, D, First, M, Goadsby, PJ, et al. New appendix criteria open for a broader concept of chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2006 Jun; 26(6): 742–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
34. Solomon, S. New appendix criteria open for a broader concept of chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2007 May; 27(5): 469; authorreply 469–70.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
35. Mathew, NT, Reuveni, U, Perez, F. Transformed or evolutive migraine. Headache. 1987 Feb; 27(2): 102–6.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
36. Mack, KJ. What inrefs new daily persistent headache in children? Pediatr Neurol. 2004 Aug; 31(2): 122–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
37. Kung, E, Tepper, SJ, Rapoport, AM, Sheftell, FD, Bigal, ME. New daily persistent headache in the paediatric population. Cephalalgia. 2009 Jan; 29(1): 1722.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
38. Sun-Edelstein, C, Bigal, ME, Rapoport, AM. Chronic migraine and medication overuse headache: clarifying the current International Headache Society classification criteria. Cephalalgia. 2009 Apr; 29(4): 445–52.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
39. Pakalnis, A, Butz, C, Splaingard, D, Kring, D, Fong, J. Emotional problems and prevalence of medication overuse in pediatric chronic daily headache. J Child Neurol. 2007 Dec; 22(12): 1356–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
40. Radat, F, Creac’h, C, Guegan-Massardier, E, Mick, G, Guy, N, Fabre, N, et al. Behavioral dependence in patients with medication overuse headache: a cross-sectional study in consulting patients using the DSM-IV criteria. Headache. 2008 Jul; 48(7): 1026–36.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
41. Abu-Arefeh, I, Russell, G. Prevalence of headache and migraine in schoolchildren. BMJ. 1994 Sep 24; 309(6957): 765–69.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
42. Laurell, K, Larsson, B, Eeg-Olofsson, O. Prevalence of headache in Swedish schoolchildren, with a focus on tension-type headache. Cephalalgia. 2004 May; 24(5): 380–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
43. Zhang, LM, Zhou, SZ, Chai, YM, Yang, JD, Xue, J, Liang, J. Prevalence of chronic headache in Shanghai children and adolescents: a questionnaire-based study. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2007 Apr; 45(4): 262–6.Google Scholar
44. Ozge, A, Bugdayci, R, Sasmaz, T, Kaleagasi, H, Kurt, O, Karakelle, A, et al. The sensitivity and specificity of the case definition criteria in diagnosis of headache: a school-based epidemiological study of 5562 children in Mersin. Cephalalgia. 2003 Mar; 23(2): 138–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
45. Cevoli, S, Sancisi, E, Grimaldi, D, Pierangeli, G, Zanigni, S, Nicodemo, M, et al. Family history for chronic headache and drug overuse as a risk factor for headache chronification. Headache. 2009 Mar; 49(3): 412–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
46. Seshia, SS, Abu-Arafeh, I, Hershey, AD. Tension-type headache in children: the Cinderella of headache disorders ! Can J Neurol Sci. 2009; 36(6): 687–95.Google Scholar
47. Montagna, P, Cevoli, S, Marzocchi, N, Pierangeli, G, Pini, LA, Cortelli, P, et al. The genetics of chronic headaches. Neurol Sci. 2003 May; 24 Suppl 2: S51–6.Google ScholarPubMed
48. da Silva, A Jr, Costa, EC, Gomes, JB, Leite, FM, Gomez, RS, Vasconcelos, LP, et al. Chronic headache and comorbidities: A two-phase, population-based, cross-sectional study. Headache. 2010 Feb 12. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 20163479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
49. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed. Revision, Text ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000.Google Scholar
50. Fujita, M, Fujiwara, J, Maki, T, Shibasaki, K, Shigeta, M, Nii, J. Pediatric chronic daily headache associated with school phobia. Pediatr Int. 2009 Oct; 51(5): 621–25.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
51. Galli, F, Canzano, L, Scalisi, TG, Guidetti, V. Psychiatric disorders and headache familial recurrence: a study on 200 children and their parents. J Headache Pain. 2009 Jun; 10(3): 187–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
52. Goder, R, Friege, L, Fritzer, G, Strenge, H, Aldenhoff, JB, Hinze-Selch, D. Morning headaches in patients with sleep disorders: a systematic polysomnographic study. Sleep Med. 2003 Sep; 4(5): 385–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
53. Paiva, T, Farinha, A, Martins, A, Batista, A, Guilleminault, C. Chronic headaches and sleep disorders. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Aug 1125; 157(15): 1701–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
54. Rains, JC, Poceta, JS. Headache and sleep disorders: review and clinical implications for headache management. Headache. 2006 Oct; 46(9): 1344–63.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
55. Vgontzas, A, Cui, L, Merikangas, KR. Are sleep difficulties associated with migraine attributable to anxiety and depression? Headache. 2008 Nov-Dec; 48(10): 1451–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
56. Bruni, O, Fabrizi, P, Ottaviano, S, Cortesi, F, Giannotti, F, Guidetti, V. Prevalence of sleep disorders in childhood and adolescence with headache: a case-control study. Cephalalgia. 1997 Jun; 17(4): 492–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
57. Zarowski, M, Mlodzikowska-Albrecht, J, Steinborn, B. The sleep habits and sleep disorders in children with headache. Adv Med Sci. 2007; 52 Suppl 1: 194–6.Google Scholar
58. Bruni, O, Russo, PM, Ferri, R, Novelli, L, Galli, F, Guidetti, V. Relationships between headache and sleep in a non-clinical population of children and adolescents. Sleep Med. 2008 Jul; 9(5): 542–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
59. Vendrame, M, Kaleyias, J, Valencia, I, Legido, A, Kothare, SV. Polysomnographic findings in children with headaches. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Jul; 39(1): 611.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
60. Gupta, R, Bhatia, MS, Dahiya, D, Sharma, S, Sapra, R, et al. Impact of primary headaches on subjective sleep parameters among adolescents. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2008 Jul; 11(3): 164–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
61. Isik, U, Ersu, RH, Ay, P, Save, D, Arman, AR, Karakoc, F, et al. Prevalence of headache and its association with sleep disorders in children. Pediatr Neurol. 2007 Mar; 36(3): 146–51.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
62. Gilman, DK, Palermo, TM, Kabbouche, MA, Hershey, AD, Powers, SW. Primary headache and sleep disturbances in adolescents. Headache. 2007 Sep; 47(8): 1189–94.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
63. Scher, AI, Stewart, WF, Lipton, RB. The comorbidity of headache with other pain syndromes. Headache. 2006 Oct; 46(9): 1416–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
64. Bigal, ME, Lipton, RB. Obesity and chronic daily headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2008 Jan; 12(1): 5661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
65. Hershey, AD, Powers, SW, Nelson, TD, Kabbouche, MA, Winner, P, Yonker, M, et al. American Headache Society pediatric adolescent section. Obesity in the pediatric headache population: a multicenter study. Headache. 2009 Feb; 49(2): 170–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
66. Pinhas-Hamiel, O, Frumin, K, Gabis, L, Mazor-Aronovich, K, Modan-Moses, D, Reichman, B, et al. Headaches in overweight children and adolescents referred to a tertiary-care center in Israel. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 Mar; 16(3): 659–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
67. Sillanpaa, M, Piekkala, P, Kero, P. Prevalence of headache at preschool age in an unselected child population. Cephalalgia. 1991 Nov; 11(5): 239–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
68. Karwautz, A, Wober, C, Lang, T, Bock, A, Wagner-Ennsgraber, C, Vesely, C, et al. Psychosocial factors in children and adolescents with migraine and tension-type headache: a controlled study and review of the literature. Cephalalgia. 1999 Jan; 19(1): 3243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
69. Juang, KD, Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR, Chen, YS. Association between adolescent chronic daily headache and childhood adversity: a community-based study. Cephalalgia. 2004 Jan; 24(1): 54–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
70. Peterlin, BL, Ward, T, Lidicker, J, Levin, M. A retrospective, comparative study on the frequency of abuse in migraine and chronic daily headache. Headache. 2007 Mar; 47(3): 397401.Google Scholar
71. Tietjen, GE, Brandes, JL, Peterlin, BL, Eloff, A, Dafer, RM, Stein, MR, et al. Childhood maltreatment and migraine (Part I). Prevalence and adult revictimization: a multicenter headache clinic survey. Headache. 2010 Jan; 50(1): 2031.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
72. Scher, AI, Stewart, WF, Lipton, RB. Caffeine as a risk factor for chronic daily headache: A population-based study. Neurology. 2004 Dec 14; 63(11): 2022–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
73. Srikiatkhachorn, A. Chronic daily headache: a scientist’s perspective. Headache. 2002 Jun; 42(6): 532–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
74. Srikiatkhachorn, A. Towards the better understanding about pathogenesis of chronic daily headache. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Sep; 89 Suppl 3: S234–43.Google ScholarPubMed
75. Nash, JM, Thebarge, RW. Understanding psychological stress, its biological processes, and impact on primary headache. Headache. 2006 Oct; 46(9): 1377–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
76. Moskowitz, MA. Defining a pathway to discovery from bench to bedside: the trigeminovascular system and sensitization. Headache. 2008 May; 48(5): 688–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
77. Meng, ID, Cao, L. From migraine to chronic daily headache: the biological basis of headache transformation. Headache. 2007 Sep; 47(8): 1251–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
78. Ji, T, Mack, KJ. Unilateral chronic daily headache in children. Headache. 2009 Jul; 49(7): 1062–5.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
79. Bigal, ME, Sheftell, FD, Tepper, SJ, Rapoport, AM, Lipton, RB. Migraine days decline with duration of illness in adolescents with transformed migraine. Cephalalgia. 2005 Jul; 25(7): 482–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
80. Marmura, MJ, Silberstein, SD, Gupta, M. Hemicrania continua: who responds to indomethacin? Cephalalgia. 2009 Mar; 29(3): 300–7.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
81. Ramadan, NM. Intracranial hypertension and migraine. Cephalalgia. 1993 Jun; 13(3): 210–11.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
82. Mathew, NT, Ravishankar, K, Sanin, LC. Coexistence of migraine and idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema. Neurology. 1996 May; 46(5): 1226–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
83. Wang, SJ, Silberstein, SD, Patterson, S, Young, WB. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema: a case-control study in a headache center. Neurology. 1998 Jul; 51(1): 245–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
84. Vieira, DS, Masruha, MR, Goncalves, AL, Zukerman, E, Senne Soares, CA, Naffah-Mazzacoratti Mda, G, et al. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension with and without papilloedema in a consecutive series of patients with chronic migraine. Cephalalgia. 2008 Jun; 28(6): 609–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
85. Beri, S, Gosalakkal, JA, Hussain, N, Balky, AP, Parepalli, S. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Jan; 42(1): 56–8.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
86. Riveira, C, Pascual, J. Is Chiari type I malformation a reason for chronic daily headache. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2007 Feb; 11(1): 53–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
87. Hershey, AD, Powers, SW, Vockell, AL, LeCates, S, Kabbouche, MA, Maynard, MK. PedMIDAS: development of a questionnaire to assess disability of migraines in children. Neurology. 2001 Dec 11; 57(11): 2034–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
88. Kernick, D, Campbell, J. Measuring the impact of headache in children: a critical review of the literature. Cephalalgia. 2009 Jan; 29(1): 316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
89. Lewis, DW, Dorbad, D. The utility of neuroimaging in the evaluation of children with migraine or chronic daily headache who have normal neurological examinations. Headache. 2000 Sep; 40(8): 629–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
90. Abu-Arafeh, I, Macleod, S. Serious neurological disorders in children with chronic headache. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Sep; 90(9): 937–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
91. Torbey, MT, Geocadin, RG, Razumovsky, AY, Rigamonti, D, Williams, MA. Utility of CSF pressure monitoring to identify idiopathic intracranial hypertension without papilledema in patients with chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia. 2004 Jun; 24(6): 495502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
92. Eccleston, C, Palermo, TM, Williams, AC, Lewandowski, A, Morley, S. Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Apr 15; (2)(2): CD003968.Google ScholarPubMed
93. Sun, Y, Gan, TJ. Acupuncture for the management of chronic headache: a systematic review. Anesth Analg. 2008 Dec; 107(6): 2038–47.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
94. Gottschling, S, Meyer, S, Gribova, I, Distler, L, Berrang, J, Gortner, L, et al. Laser acupuncture in children with headache: a double-blind, randomized, bicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Pain. 2008 Jul 15; 137(2): 405–12.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
95. Lewis, DW, Winner, P, Wasiewski, W. The placebo responder rate in children and adolescents. Headache. 2005 Mar; 45(3): 232–9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
96. Schwartz, TH, Karpitskiy, VV, Sohn, RS. Intravenous valproate sodium in the treatment of daily headache. Headache. 2002 Jun; 42(6): 519–22.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
97. Charles, JA, Jotkowitz, S. Observations of the “carry-over effect” following successful termination of chronic migraine in the adolescent with short-term dihydroergotamine, dexamethasone and hydroxyzine: a pilot study. J Headache Pain. 2005 Feb; 6(1): 51–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
98. Borzy, JC, Koch, TK, Schimschock, JR. Effectiveness of topiramate in the treatment of pediatric chronic daily headache. Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Nov; 33(5): 314–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
99. Mack, KJ, Gladstein, J. Management of chronic daily headache in children and adolescents. Paediatr Drugs. 2008; 10(1): 23–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
100. Prakash, S, Husain, M, Sureka, DS, Shah, NP, Shah, ND. Is there need to search for alternatives to indomethacin for hemicrania continua? Case reports and a review. J Neurol Sci. 2009 Feb 15; 277(1–2): 187–90.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
101. Marmura, MJ, Passero, FC Jr, Young, WB. Mexiletine for refractory chronic daily headache: a report of nine cases. Headache. 2008 Nov-Dec; 48(10): 1506–10.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
102. Chan, VW, McCabe, EJ, MacGregor, DL. Botox treatment for migraine and chronic daily headache in adolescents. J Neurosci Nurs. 2009 Oct; 41(5): 235–43.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
103. Guidetti, V, Mittica, P, Galli, F. Evolution of chronic daily headache in children and adolescents: a 10-year follow-up study. Cephalalgia. 2009; 29((suppl 1)): 105.Google Scholar
104. Charles, JA, Peterlin, BL, Rapoport, AM, Wang, SJ, Fuh, JL, Lu, SR. Chronic daily headache in adolescents: an 8-year follow-up study. Neurology. 2010 Mar 2; 74(9): 780; author reply 780–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
105. Solomon, S, Lipton, RB, Newman, LC. Clinical features of chronic daily headache. Headache. 1992 Jul; 32(7): 325–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
106. Srikiatkhachorn, A, Phanthumchinda, K. Prevalence and clinical features of chronic daily headache in a headache clinic. Headache. 1997 May; 37(5): 277–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
107. Mack, KJ, Hershey, AD. Chronic daily headache in adolescence: a continuing problem. Neurology. 2009 Aug 11; 73(6): 412–3.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
You have Access
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Chronic Daily Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Multi-Faceted Syndrome
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Chronic Daily Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Multi-Faceted Syndrome
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Chronic Daily Headache in Children and Adolescents: A Multi-Faceted Syndrome
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *