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Analyzing the Gerundial Patterns of prevent: New Corpus Evidence from Recent English

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 February 2022

Juhani Rudanko*
Affiliation:
University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Paul Rickman*
Affiliation:
University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

Abstract

One well-known difference between British and American English concerns the verb prevent. In both varieties, the verb is commonly found in constructions with NP from -ing, as in […] the extreme temperature of the cold tenderises the flesh and prevents it from becoming tough (NOW Corpus 2010), and in British English it is also commonly found in corresponding constructions lacking the preposition from, as in Morgan […] fastened a belt around his wrists to prevent him saving himself (NOW Corpus 2011). There are major unresolved issues relating to the two types of constructions illustrated. One question is whether the constructions involve object control or a Raising rule. One novel idea proposed is that an ACC -ing analysis should be available for the pattern without from. The British and American segments of the NOW corpus offer good sources of data, which have not been used in earlier work on prevent.

Résumé

Résumé

Une différence bien connue entre l'anglais britannique et l'anglais américain concerne le verbe prevent. Dans les deux variétés, le verbe se trouve couramment dans des constructions avec NP from -ing, comme dans […] the extreme temperature of the cold tenderises the flesh and prevents it from becoming tough (Corpus NOW 2010), et en anglais britannique il se trouve aussi couramment dans des constructions correspondantes sans la préposition from, comme dans Morgan [] fastened a belt around his wrists to prevent him saving himself (Corpus NOW 2011). Il existe d'importantes questions non résolues concernant les deux types de constructions illustrées. L'une d'entre elles est de savoir si les constructions impliquent un contrôle de l'objet ou une règle de montée vers l'objet. Une nouvelle idée proposée est qu'une analyse ACC -ing devrait être disponible pour le modèle sans from. Les segments britannique et américain du corpus NOW offrent de bonnes sources de données, qui n'ont pas été utilisées dans les travaux antérieurs sur prevent.

Type
Article
Copyright
Copyright © Canadian Linguistic Association/Association canadienne de linguistique 2022

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References

Corpora

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Rudanko, Juhani. 2002. Complements and constructions, Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
Rudanko, Juhani. 2003. Comparing alternate complements of object control verbs: Evidence from the Bank of English corpus. In Corpus analysis: Language structure and language use, ed. Leistyna, Pepi and Meyer, Charles, 273283. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Sag, Ivan, and Pollard, Carl. 1991. An integrated theory of complement control. Language 67: 63113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sellgren, Elina. 2010. Prevent and the battle of the -ing clauses. Semantic divergence? In English historical linguistics 2008. Vol. 1: The history of English verbal and nominal constructions, ed. Lenker, Ursula, Huber, Judith and Mailhammer, Robert, 4562. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Smet, Hendrik. 2013. Spreading patterns: Diffusional change in the English system of complementation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Visser, Frederik Theodor. 1973. An historical syntax of the English language. Part Three, Second Half. Syntactical units with two and with more verbs. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
Vosberg, Uwe. 2006. Die grosse Komplementverschiebung [The great complement shift]. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.Google Scholar
Warner, Anthony. 1993. English auxiliaries: Structure and history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aarts, Bas. 2012. Small clauses in English. The nonverbal types. Boston: De Gruyter Inc.Google Scholar
Bridgeman, Loraine, ed. 1965. More classes of verbs in English. Linguistics Research Project, Indiana University. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Linguistics Club.Google Scholar
Chomsky, Noam. 1986. Knowledge of language: Nature, origin and use. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
Davies, Mark. 2008–. The NOW Corpus (News on the Web): 10.3 billion words, 2010–present. <www.english-corpora.org/now/> [accessed June 2020].+[accessed+June+2020].>Google Scholar
Davies, William, and Dubinsky, Stanley. 2004. The grammar of raising and control. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dixon, R. M. W. 1984. The semantic basis of syntactic properties. In Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, ed. Brugman, Claudia and Macaulau, Monica, 583594. Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.Google Scholar
Dixon, R. M. W. 1991. A new approach to English grammar, on semantic principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Dixon, R. M. W. 2005. A semantic approach to English grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Duffley, Patrick. 2000. Gerund versus infinitive as complement of transitive verbs in English: The problems of “tense” and “control.” Journal of English Linguistics 28(3): 221248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duffley, Patrick. 2006. The English gerund-participle: A comparison with the infinitive. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Duffley, Patrick, and Fisher, Ryan. 2021. To-infinitive and gerund-participle clauses with the verbs dread and fear. Studia Linguistica 75(1): 7296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbst, Thomas. 2004. A valency dictionary of English: A corpus-based analysis of the complementation patterns of English verbs, nouns and adjectives. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Higgins, Roger. 1973. The pseudocleft construction in English. Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
Huddleston, Rodney, and Pullum, Geoffrey. 2002. The Cambridge grammar of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaunisto, Mark, and Rudanko, Juhani. 2019. Variation in non-finite constructions in English: Trends affecting infinitives and gerunds. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Landau, Idan. 2002. (Un)Interpretable Neg In Comp. Linguistic Inquiry 33: 465492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mair, Christian. 2002. Three changing patterns of verb complementation in Late Modern English: a real-time study based on matching text corpora. English Language and Linguistics 6(1): 105131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mair, Christian. 2006. Twentieth-century English: History, variation and standardization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mair, Christian. 2009. Infinitival and gerundial complements. In Comparative studies in Australian and New Zealand English, ed. Peters, Pam, Collins, Peter, and Smith, Adam, 263276. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Mair, Christian. 2019. American English: No written standard before the twentieth century? In Categories, constructions and change in English syntax, ed. Yáñez-Bouza, Nuria, Moore, Emma, Bergen, Linda van, and Hollman, William, 336363. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ong, Teresa. 2011. Prevent and stop complementation clauses: A corpus-based investigation of 19th, 20th and 21st century American English. Master's thesis, University of Birmingham.Google Scholar
OED (The Oxford English Dictionary), 2nd ed. 1989. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Postal, Paul. 1974. On raising: One rule of English grammar and its theoretical implications. Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Poutsma, Hendrik. n.d. Dictionary of constructions of verbs, adjectives, and nouns, unpublished Ms.: Copyright Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rohdenburg, Günter. 1995. Betrachtungen zum Auf- und Abstieg einiger Präpositioneller Konstruktionen im Englischen [Reflections on the rise and fall of some prepositional constructions in English]. North-Western European Language Evolution NOWELE 26, 67124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohdenburg, Günter. 1996. Cognitive complexity and increased grammatical explicitness in English. Cognitive Linguistics 7(2): 149182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rohdenburg, Günter. 2000. The complexity principle as a factor determining grammatical variation and change in English. In Language use, language acquisition and language history: (Mostly) empirical studies in honour of Rüdiger Zimmermann, ed. Plag, Ingo and Schneider, Klaus P., 2542. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag.Google Scholar
Ross, John. 2004. Nouniness. In Fuzzy Grammar, ed. Aarts, Bas, Denison, David, Keizer, Evelien and Popova, Gergana, 351422. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Rudanko, Juhani. 2002. Complements and constructions, Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
Rudanko, Juhani. 2003. Comparing alternate complements of object control verbs: Evidence from the Bank of English corpus. In Corpus analysis: Language structure and language use, ed. Leistyna, Pepi and Meyer, Charles, 273283. Amsterdam: Rodopi.Google Scholar
Sag, Ivan, and Pollard, Carl. 1991. An integrated theory of complement control. Language 67: 63113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sellgren, Elina. 2010. Prevent and the battle of the -ing clauses. Semantic divergence? In English historical linguistics 2008. Vol. 1: The history of English verbal and nominal constructions, ed. Lenker, Ursula, Huber, Judith and Mailhammer, Robert, 4562. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Smet, Hendrik. 2013. Spreading patterns: Diffusional change in the English system of complementation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Visser, Frederik Theodor. 1973. An historical syntax of the English language. Part Three, Second Half. Syntactical units with two and with more verbs. Leiden: E. J. Brill.Google Scholar
Vosberg, Uwe. 2006. Die grosse Komplementverschiebung [The great complement shift]. Tübingen: Gunter Narr.Google Scholar
Warner, Anthony. 1993. English auxiliaries: Structure and history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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