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LO04: Very low concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation can rapidly exclude acute myocardial infarction in a significant proportion of ED chest pain patients

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 May 2017

J. Andruchow*
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
A. McRae
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
T. Abedin
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
D. Wang
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
E. Lang
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
G. Innes
Affiliation:
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB
*
*Corresponding authors

Abstract

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Introduction: Chest pain is one of the most common presenting complaints to emergency departments (EDs) across the world, and the exclusion of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) using troponin testing is central to the care of many of these patients. Testing strategies using conventional troponin assays require repeat testing over many hours to avoid missed diagnoses. This study aims to validate the ability of very low concentrations of troponin at presentation to exclude AMI in ED chest pain patients. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted at a single urban tertiary centre and regional percutaneous coronary intervention site in Calgary, Alberta. Patients were eligible for enrolment if they presented to the ED with chest pain, were 25-years or older and required biomarker testing to rule out AMI at the discretion of the attending emergency physician. Patients were excluded if they had clear acute ischemic ECG changes, new arrhythmia or renal failure requiring hemodialysis. High-sensitivity troponin-T (Roche Elecsys hs-cTnT) results were obtained in all patients at presentation. Relevant outcomes were obtained from administrative data. The primary outcome was AMI within 30-days of ED visit, the secondary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The study was REB approved. Results: A total of 1,016 patients were enrolled from August 2014-September 2016, of which 174 (17.1%) patients had an initial troponin below the limit of blank (<3 ng/L) and 369 (36.3%) had a level below the limit of detection (<5 ng/L). The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of a troponin below limit of blank (<3 ng/L) for 30-day AMI were 100% (95% CI 89.3%-100%) and 100% (95% CI 97.8-100%), respectively. The sensitivity and NPV of a troponin below limit of detection (<5 ng/L) for 30-day AMI were 93.8% (95% CI 80.0-98.3%) and 99.5% (95% CI 98.1-99.9%) respectively. Sensitivity for 30-day MACE at both cutoffs was lower: 96.1% (95% CI 92.5-98.0%) for <3 ng/L, and 88.4% (95% CI 83.3-92.1%) for <5 ng/L, respectively. Conclusion: A high sensitivity troponin T result below the limit of blank is highly sensitive at excluding AMI and identifies patients at reasonably low risk of 30-day MACE. A result below the limit of detection will identify a larger population of patients as low risk but has a greater risk of missed AMI and MACE.

Type
Oral Presentations
Copyright
Copyright © Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians 2017