Larvae of species representing 12 of the 13 genera of the superfamily Lebertioidea from North America are described, including members of the genera Bandakiopsis, Utaxatax, Estelloxus, and Testudacarus for the first time. Larvae of species of Sperchon, Sperchonopsis, Teutonia, Bandakia, Lebertia, Oxus, Frontipoda, and Torrenticola are also described to provide complete comparative data for the genera of the superfamily. A key to the families and genera of Lebertioidea, and preliminary diagnoses for the superfamily, families, and genera are provided based upon larval characters. Information on host associations is reviewed for each taxon. Observations on morphology and host associations of these larvae provide the basis for an original, though provisional, outline of phylogeny of Lebertioidea, and a review of the higher classification of the superfamily.