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Progress in the classical biological control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in North America

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 May 2015

Leah S. Bauer*
Affiliation:
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Lansing, Michigan 48910, United States of America
Jian J. Duan
Affiliation:
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit, Newark, Delaware 19713, United States of America
Juli R. Gould
Affiliation:
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Center for Plant Health Science and Technology, Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts 02542, United States of America
Roy Van Driesche
Affiliation:
Department of Environmental Conservation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States of America
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: lbauer@fs.fed.us)

Abstract

First detected in North America in 2002, the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive phloem-feeding beetle from Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus; Oleaceae) trees. Although few parasitoids attack EAB in North America, three parasitoid species were found attacking EAB in China: the egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and two larval parasitoids Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In 2007, classical biological control of EAB began in the United States of America after release of these three species was approved. In 2013, release of the larval parasitoids was approved in Canada. Research continues at study sites in Michigan, United States of America where the establishment, prevalence, and spread of O. agrili and T. planipennisi have been monitored since 2008. However, establishment of S. agrili remains unconfirmed in northern areas, and its release is now restricted to regions below the 40th parallel. In 2015, approval for release of Spathius galinae Belokobylskij (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an EAB larval parasitoid from the Russian Far East, may be granted in the United States of America. Researchers are guardedly optimistic that a complex of introduced and native natural enemies will regulate EAB densities below a tolerance threshold for survival of ash species or genotypes in forested ecosystems.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Entomological Society of Canada 2015. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. 

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Footnotes

Subject editor: Krista Ryall

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