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Laboratory studies of the toxicity of spinosad and deltamethrin to Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)1

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 April 2012

R.H. Elliott*
Affiliation:
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, 107 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 0X2
M.C. Benjamin
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E2
C. Gillott
Affiliation:
Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E2
*
2 Corresponding author (e-mail: elliottb@agr.gc.ca).

Abstract

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the contact and oral toxicity of commercial formulations of spinosad and deltamethrin to adults of the crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). Method of exposure had a significant effect on flea beetle mortality and feeding damage to canola seedlings. Topical treatment of flea beetles with deltamethrin or different concentrations of spinosad resulted in significantly lower mortality and higher feeding damage than exposure to treated canola cotyledons. Results indicated that spinosad was more toxic by ingestion than by topical contact. Mortality from treated cotyledons was significantly higher with 60 ppm deltamethrin than with 80 or 120 ppm spinosad after 24 h exposure but not after 120 h exposure. Delayed mortality in the spinosad treatments did not result in high feeding damage; damage after 120 h was not significantly different in the spinosad and deltamethrin treatments. Low concentrations of spinosad (40 ppm) strongly inhibited feeding activity within 24 h after exposure. Mortality from spinosad was higher after beetles were exposed to treated cotyledons for 120 h than for 24 h. Mortality from spinosad, but not deltamethrin, was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. An ionic surfactant, polyethylenimine, increased the toxicity of 40 ppm spinosad. Our study suggests that spinosad has potential for use as an insecticide against crucifer flea beetles on canola.

Résumé

Nous avons mené des expériences de laboratoire afin de mesurer la toxicité de contact et la toxicité orale de préparations commerciales de spinosad et de deltaméthrine chez les adultes de l'altise des crucifères, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze). Les méthodes d'exposition à l'insecticide ont un effet significatif sur la mortalité des altises et sur le dommage causé par le broutement sur les jeunes pousses de canola. Un traitement topique des altises avec de la deltaméthrine ou avec différentes concentrations de spinosad cause une mortalité significativement plus basse et des dommages de broutement plus importants qu'une exposition à des cotylédons de canola traités. Nos résultats indiquent que le spinosad est plus toxique à l'ingestion qu'au contact topique. La mortalité causée par les cotylédons traités avec 60 ppm de deltaméthrine est significativement plus élevée qu'avec du spinosad à 80 ou 120 ppm après une exposition de 24 h, mais non après 120 h. La mortalité retardée lors de l'utilisation de spinosad ne résulte pas en un dommage important dû au broutement; les dommages après 120 h ne diffèrent pas significativement lors de traitements au spinosad et à la deltaméthrine. De faibles concentrations de spinosad (40 ppm) inhibent fortement les activités alimentaires en moins de 24 h après l'exposition. La mortalité due au spinosad est plus importante après que les coléoptères aient été exposés aux cotylédons traités pendant 120 h qu'après 24 h. La mortalité due au spinosad, mais pas celle due à la deltaméthrine, est significativement plus importante à 25 °C qu'à 15 °C. Un surfactant ionique, la polyéthylènimine, augmente la toxicité du spinosad à 40 ppm. Notre étude indique que le spinosad peut potentiellement servir d'insecticide pour la lutte contre l'altise des crucifères sur le canola.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2007

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Footnotes

1

Saskatoon Research Centre Contribution 1699.

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