Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-vmftn Total loading time: 0.322 Render date: 2023-02-01T07:27:32.066Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

James L. Hanula*
Affiliation:
Southern Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, 320 Green Street, Athens, Georgia, United States 30602-2044
Gary L. DeBarr
Affiliation:
Southern Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, 320 Green Street, Athens, Georgia, United States 30602-2044
Julie C. Weatherby
Affiliation:
Forest Health Protection, USDA Forest Service, 2500 Shreveport Highway, Pineville, Louisiana, United States 71360
Larry R. Barber
Affiliation:
Forest Health Protection, USDA Forest Service, 200 Weaver Boulevard, Asheville, North Carolina, United States 28804
C. Wayne Berisford
Affiliation:
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, 413 Biological Sciences Building, Athens, Georgia, United States 30602
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: jhanula@fs.fed.us).

Abstract

Because Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) is a key pest in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae), seed orchards in the southeastern United States, improved timing of insecticide applications would be valuable for its control. To time two fenvalerate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC) applications we tested four variations of a degree-day model that was developed to predicted when various proportions of D. amatella eggs would hatch during the spring generation. We compared reductions in Dioryctria spp. cone damage to unsprayed checks and a standard operational spray regime of four monthly applications of fenvalerate. In addition, we examined seeds from healthy cones to determine if sprays to control D. amatella also reduced seed damage caused by Leptoglossus corculus Say (Heteroptera: Coreidae) and Tetyra bipunctata (Herrich-Schäffer) (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae). Trials were conducted from 1984 to 1986 in two orchards in South Carolina and one in Alabama. Degree-day accumulations (threshold = 11 °C) were begun on the day when the cumulative number of male D. amatella equaled or exceeded five captured in 15 Pherocon 1C® traps baited with 100 μg of Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate. One application per year was insufficient to control D. amatella or reduced seed-bug damage. Two sprays based on D. amatella phenology significantly reduced coneworm and seed bug damage, and were as effective as four sprays applied monthly. None of the treatments reduce spring cone losses, which are primarily caused by Dioryctria merkeli Mutuura and Monroe. Several variations of the model performed well, but we suggest that the best, based on efficacy and ease of use, was when sprays were applied immediately after five males were caught (degree-day = 0) and again when the model predicted 50% of the spring generation eggs had hatched.

Résumé

Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) est l’un des principaux ravageurs des pépinières de production de graines du pin à encens, Pinus taeda L. (Pinaceae), dans le sud-est des États-Unis; il semble donc important de déterminer le moment le plus propice à l’application d’insecticides pour lutter contre ce parasite. Pour établir le moment idéal de deux applications de fenvalérate (Pydrin® 2.4 EC), nous avons examiné quatre variantes d’un modèle basé sur l’accumulation de degrés-jours pour déterminer à quel moment les diverses proportions des oeufs de D. amatella de la génération de printemps devraient éclore. Nous avons comparé les réductions des dommages infligés aux cônes par Dioryctria spp. dans des parcelles témoins non traitées et dans des parcelles soumises à un régime de quatre traitements mensuels de fenvalérate. Nous avons, en outre, examiné les graines des cônes sains pour déterminer si les applications réduisent également les dommages causés aux graines par Leptoglossus corculus Say (Heteroptera : Coreidae) et par Tetyra bipunctata (Herrich-Schäffer) (Heteroptera : Scutelleridae). Les tests ont eu lieu de 1984 à 1986 dans deux pépinières de la Caroline du Sud et une de l’Alabama. L’accumulation des degrés-jours (seuil de 11 °C) a commencé le jour où le nombre cumulatif de mâles de D. amatella capturés dans des pièges de 15 Pherocon 1C® garnis de 100 μg d’acétate de Z-11-hexadécényle a été égal ou supérieur à cinq. Une seule application par année ne suffisait pas à assurer le contrôle de D. amatella, ni à réduire les dommages causés aux graines par les punaises. Deux applications prévues en fonction de la phénologie du parasite ont réduit significativement les dommages causés par les punaises et par la pyrale et se sont avérées aussi efficaces que quatre arrosages mensuels. Aucun des traitements n’a réussi à réduire les pertes de cônes au printemps, attribuables surtout à Dioryctria merkeli Mutuura et Monroe. Plusieurs variantes du modèle se sont montrées fonctionnelles, mais nous croyons que la meilleure, par son efficacité et sa facilité d’utilisation, est celle basée sur les vaporisations effectuées immédiatement après la capture de cinq mâles (somme des degrés-jours = 0) et de nouveau lorsque le modèle indique que 50% des oeufs de la génération de printemps ont éclos.

[Traduit par la Rédaction]

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2002

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, J.C. 1976. A modified sine wave method for calculating degree-days. Environmental Entomology 5: 388–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berisford, C.W., Garguillo, P.M., Canalos, C.G. 1984. Optimum timing for insecticidal control of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 174–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, I.L. 1969. Insects and other arthropods associated with cone-shoot complex of loblolly and shortleaf pines in Arkansas. MS thesis, University of Arkansas, FayettevilleGoogle Scholar
Cameron, R.S. 1984. Timing of insecticide applications in southern pine seed orchards. pp 147–56 in Yates, H.O. III (Ed), Proceedings of the Cone and Seed Insects Working Party Conference, Athens, Georgia, 31 July – 6 August 1983. Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment StationGoogle Scholar
Chatelain, M.P., Goyer, R.A. 1980. Seasonal attack periods of cone-feeding insects of loblolly pine cones. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 73: 4953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coulson, R.N., Franklin, R.T. 1970. The occurrence of Dioryctria amatella and other insects in Cronartium fusiforme cankers. The Canadian Entomologist 102: 353–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeBarr, G.L. 1970. Characteristics and radiographic detection of seedbug damage to slash pine seed. Florida Entomologist 53: 109–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeBarr, G.L. 1978. Southwide tests of carbofuran for seedbug control in pine seed orchards. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper SE-185 [Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
DeBarr, G.L., Ebel, B.H. 1974. Conelet abortion and seed damage of shortleaf and loblolly pines by a seedbug, Leptoglossus corculus (Hemiptera: Coreidae). Forest Science 20: 165–70Google Scholar
DeBarr, G.L., Merkel, E.P. 1971. Mist blower spraying of longleaf pine for cone and seed insect control. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper SE-76 [Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
DeBarr, G.L., Merkel, E.P., O'Gwynn, C.H., Zoerb, M.H. Jr 1972. Differences in insect infestation in slash pine seed orchards due to phorate treatment and clonal variation. Forest Science 18: 5664Google Scholar
Ebel, B.H. 1965. The Dioryctria coneworms of north Florida pines (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 58: 623–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ebel, B.H., Flavell, T.H., Drake, L.E., Yates, H.O. III, DeBarr, G.L. 1980. Seed and cone insects of southern pines. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical Report SE-8 (revised) [Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
Fettig, C.J., Berisford, C.W. 1999. Nantucket pine tip moth phenology in eastern North Carolina and Virginia: implications for effective timing of insecticide applications. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 23: 30–8Google Scholar
Garguillo, P.M., Berisford, C.W., Canalos, C.G., Richmond, J.A. 1983. How to time dimethoate sprays against the Nantucket pine tip moth. Georgia Forestry Commission Research Paper 44 [Macon: Georgia Forestry Commission]Google Scholar
Garguillo, P.M., Berisford, C.W., Canalos, C.G., Richmond, J.A., Cade, S.C. 1984. Mathematical descriptions of Rhyacionia frustrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) cumulative catches in pheromone traps, cumulative eggs hatching, and their use in timing of chemical control. Environmental Entomology 3: 1681–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garguillo, P.M., Berisford, C.W., Godbee, J.W. 1985. Prediction of optimal timing for chemical control of the Nantucket pine tip moth, Rhyacionia frustrana, (Comstock) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the southeastern coastal plain. Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 148–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanula, J.L., DeBarr, G.L., Berisford, C.W. 1984 a. Oviposition behavior and temperature effects on egg development of the southern pine coneworm, Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology 13: 1624–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanula, J.L., DeBarr, G.L., Harris, W.M., Berisford, C.W. 1984 b. Factors affecting catches of male coneworms, Dioryctria spp., (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in pheromone traps in southern pine seed orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 1449–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanula, J.L., DeBarr, G.L., Berisford, C.W. 1985. Adult activity of Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in relation to development of immature stages in loblolly pine cones. Environmental Entomology 14: 842–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanula, J.L., DeBarr, G.L., Berisford, C.W. 1987. Threshold temperature and degree-day estimates for development of immature southern pine coneworms (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at constant and fluctuating temperatures. Journal of Economic Entomology 80: 62–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haverty, M.I., Shea, P.J., Stipe, L.E. 1986. Single and multiple applications of fenvalerate to protect western white pine cones from Dioryctria abietivorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 158–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowe, W.J., Barber, L.R., Cameron, R.S., DeBarr, G.L., Hodge, G.R., Jett, J.B., McConnell, J.L., Mangini, A.C., Nord, J.C., Taylor, J.W. 1994. A southwide test of bifenthrin (Capture®) for cone and seed insect control in seed orchards. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 18: 72–5Google Scholar
Mangini, A.C., Barber, L.R., Cameron, R.S., DeBarr, G.L., Hodge, G.R., Jett, J.B., Lowe, W.L., McConnell, J.L., Nord, J.C., Taylor, J.W. 1998. A southwide rate test of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for cone and seed insect control in loblolly pine seed orchards. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 22: 106–10Google Scholar
McLeod, P.J., Yearian, W.C. 1979. Insect control tactics in loblolly pine seed orchards. Arkansas Farm Research 28: 4Google Scholar
McLeod, P.J., Yearian, W.C. 1981. Insects associated with pine seed production in Arkansas. University of Arkansas Experiment Station Bulletin 850 [Fayetteville: University of Arkansas]Google Scholar
McLeod, P.J., Yearian, W.C. 1982. Dioryctria coneworm adult activity in a loblolly pine seed orchard in Arkansas. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 17: 513–7Google Scholar
Merkel, E.P. 1964. Hydraulic spray application of insecticides for control of slash pine seed and cone insects. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Note SE-9 [Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
Merkel, E.P., DeBarr, G.L. 1971. Trunk implantations of dicrotophos for cone-insect control in slash pine seed production stands. Journal of Economic Entomology 64: 1295–8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Merkel, E.P., Fatzinger, C.W. 1971. Periodic abundance of pine cone-infesting Lepidoptera in black light traps and sleeve cages in north Florida. Florida Entomologist 54: 5361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Merkel, E.P., Yandle, D.O. 1965. Mist blower applications of insecticides for cone and seed insect control on slash pine. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Note SE-52 [Asheville, North Carolina: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
Merkel, E.P., DeBarr, G.L., O'Gwynn, C.H. 1976. Mist blower application of Guthion for cone insect control in slash pine seed orchards. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Paper SE-148 [Asheville, North Carolina1: Southeastern Forest Experiment Station]Google Scholar
Meyer, W.L., DeBarr, G.L., Hanula, J.L., Kovalev, B., Cameron, R.S., Berisford, C.W., Roelofs, W.L. 1986. Z-11-hexadecenyl acetate, a sex pheromone for the southern pine coneworm, Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Environmental Entomology 15: 316–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neunzig, H.H., Cashatt, E.D., Matuza, G.A. 1964. Observations on the biology of four species of Dioryctria in North Carolina (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 57: 317–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nord, J.C., DeBarr, G.L. 1992. Persistence of insecticides in a loblolly pine seed orchard for control of the leaf-footed pine seed bug, Leptoglossus corculus (Say) (Hemiptera: Coreidae). The Canadian Entomologist 124: 617–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nord, J.C., DeBarr, G.L., Overgaard, N.A., Neel, W.W., Cameron, R.S., Godbee, J.F. 1984. High-volume applications of azinphosmethyl, fenvalerate, permethrin, and phosmet for control of coneworms (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and seed bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae and Pentatomidae) in southern pine seed orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 77: 1589–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nord, J.C., DeBarr, G.L., Barber, L.R., Weatherby, J.C., and Overgaard, N.A. 1985. Low-volume applications of azinphosmethyl, fenvalerate, and permethrin for control of coneworms (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and seed bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae and Pentatomidae) in southern pine seed orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 445–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SAS Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/STAT® user's guide, version 6, 4thedition. Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute IncGoogle Scholar
Saville, D.J. 1990. Multiple comparison procedures: the practical solution. American Statistician 44: 174–80Google Scholar
Tauer, C.G., Eikenbary, R.D., LeHar, G.M. 1983. Light trapping cone and seed insects (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) of pine in southeastern Oklahoma. Environmental Entomology 12: 753–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
van Buijtenen, J.P., Donovan, G.A., Long, E.M., Robinson, J.F., Woessner, R.A. 1971. Introduction to practical forest tree improvement. Texas Forest Service Circular 207Google Scholar
Weatherby, J.C., DeBarr, G.L., Barber, L.R. 1985. Monitoring coneworms with pheromone traps: a valuable pest detection procedure for use in southern pine seed orchards. pp 208–20 in Schmidtling, R.C., Griggs, M.M. (Eds), Proceedings of the 18th Southern Forest Tree Improvement, Long Beach, Mississippi, 21–23 May 1985. Sponsored publication No. 40 of the Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee, National Technical Information Services, Sprinfield, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
Yates, H.O. III, Ebel, B.H. 1975. Light-trapping and identifying Dioryctria that damage pine cones in northeastern Georgia (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 10: 7886Google Scholar
5
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Degree-day model for timing insecticide applications to control Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in loblolly pine seed orchards
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *