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Managers and Ministers: Instilling Christian Free Enterprise in the Postwar Workplace

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 April 2015

Abstract

This article examines the early industrial chaplain movement. In the midst of a postwar religious revival, companies, primarily in the South, hired Protestant ministers to care for their workers' spiritual needs. Many were motivated by both religious convictions and the desire to build a productive, loyal workforce. The opposition of unions and liberal Protestantism slowed the movement's growth, although over the last three decades thousands of employers have rediscovered the benefits of faith-based workplace programs. This article illuminates important postwar trends such as the persistence of paternalism and the importance of religion in managerial strategies.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The President and Fellows of Harvard College 2015 

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References

1 Francis K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain—His Employee and Community Relations Significance” (master's thesis, Boston University, 1956), 42–43; J. Gordon Peterson, “A Foundation for the Roof,” typescript report, n.d., box 26, RG 10, National Council of Churches Papers, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia (hereafter NCC).

2 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 44; “Religion in Industry,” unpublished report, c. 1954, box 158, J. Howard Pew Papers, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del. (hereafter HPP).

3 With the exception of a short, suggestive piece by Chad Seales, which ends with a call for more research on industrial chaplaincy, the movement has received little attention from historians. It is mentioned briefly in works by Elizabeth Fones-Wolf and Darren Dochuck, and Sarah Hammond's dissertation examines the National Association of Evangelicals' effort to promote industrial chaplaincy immediately after World War II. Seales, Chad E., “Corporate Chaplaincy and the American Workplace,” Religion Compass 6, no. 3 (2012): 195203CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth, Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism (Urbana, 1994), 224–25Google Scholar; Dochuk, Darren, From Bible Belt to Sunbelt: Plain-Folk Religion, Grassroots Politics, and the Rise of Evangelical Conservatism (New York, 2011)Google Scholar; Sarah Ruth Hammond, “‘God's Business Men’: Entrepreneurial Evangelicals in Depression and War” (PhD diss., Yale University, 2010); Clarence Woodbury, “Religion in Industry: ‘Not Only to Make a Living . . . but a Life,’” Nation's Business, June 1954, 74.

4 Seales, “Corporate Chaplaincy, 195.”

5 Phillips-Fein, Kim, Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan (New York, 2009)Google Scholar; E. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise; Hammond, “'God's Business Men’”; Dochuk, From Bible Belt to Sunbelt; Moreton, Bethany, To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise (Cambridge, Mass., 2009)Google Scholar.

6 For some of the most important works on the limitations of the concept of the “labor-capital accord,” see Harris, Howell, The Right to Manage: Industrial Relations Policies of American Business in the 1940s (Madison, Wis., 1982)Google Scholar; E. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise; Lichtenstein, Nelson, State of the Union: A Century of American Labor (Princeton, 2002)Google Scholar; Cowie, Jefferson, Capital Moves: RCA's Seventy-Year Quest for Cheap Labor (Ithaca, N.Y., 1999)Google Scholar.

7 Jesse Cavileer, “Report on a Field Study of Industrial Chaplaincy,” typescript report, n.d., box 1572, John Ramsay Papers, Southern Labor Archives, Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University, Atlanta (hereafter JRP); Poethig, Richard, “Marshall Logan Scott and the Presbyterian Institute of Industrial Relations,” Journal of Presbyterian History 83 (Spring/Summer 2005): 522Google Scholar.

8 Thomas Doyle, “The Industrial Chaplaincy,” Religious News Service (typed newsletter), 18 Mar. 1944, box 2, folder 1, RG 301.6, Board of National Missions Papers, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia (hereafter BNM); Chester F. Underhill to Harlan M. Frost, 19 Oct. 1943, box 2, folder 1, RG 301.6, BNM; Cavileer, “Field Study of Industrial Chaplaincy.”

9 Harris, The Right to Manage; Lichtenstein, State of the Union; Zieger, Robert H. and Gall, Gilbert J., American Workers, American Unions: The Twentieth Century (Baltimore, 2002), 104–43Google Scholar.

10 On postwar human relations, see Gillespie, Richard, Manufacturing Knowledge: A History of the Hawthorne Experiments (Cambridge, Mass., 1991)Google Scholar, and Hoopes, James, False Prophets: The Gurus Who Created Modern Management and Why Their Ideas Are Bad for Business Today (New York, 2003), 9799, 143–33, 161–67Google Scholar.

11 On industrial restructuring, see Cowie, Capital Moves. There is a growing literature on the political mobilization of business after World War II and its contribution to conservatism, including most recently Phillips-Fein, Invisible Hands, and Moreton, God and Wal-Mart, but also McGirr, Lisa, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton, 2001)Google Scholar.

12 Fones-Wolf, Ken, Trade Union Gospel: Christianity and Labor in Industrial Philadelphia, 1865–1915 (Philadelphia, 1989), 184–90Google Scholar; Martin, Robert F., Hero of the Heartland: Billy Sunday and the Transformation of American Society, 1862–1935 (Bloomington, 2002), 4563Google Scholar; Brandes, Stuart D., American Welfare Capitalism, 1880–1940 (Chicago, 1976), 6970Google Scholar; Winter, Thomas, Making Men, Making Class: The YMCA and Workingmen, 1877–1920 (Chicago, 2002), 119–24Google Scholar.

13 Brandes, American Welfare Capitalism, 141–48; Jacoby, Sanford M., Modern Manors: Capitalism since the New Deal (Princeton, 1997)Google Scholar; Waldrep, G. C. III, Southern Workers and the Search for Community: Spartanburg County, South Carolina (Urbana, 2000)Google Scholar. Jacoby argues that welfare capitalism survived the Depression, albeit in a different form. On Protestantism in the thirties, see Miller, Robert Moats, American Protestantism and Social Issues, 1919–1939 (Chapel Hill, 1958)Google Scholar; Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” chaps. 2 and 3.

14 Jeffries, John W., Wartime America: The World War II Home Front (Chicago, 1996)Google Scholar; O'Neill, William L., A Democracy at War: America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II (New York, 1993), 201–66Google Scholar.

15 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 11; W. Glenn Roberts, “Report on the First Congress of Peoples' Institute of Applied Religion Held in Detroit,” 22–24 July 1944, box 2, folder 14, RG 301.6, BNM; Cavileer, “Field Study of Industrial Chaplaincy”; Board of National Missions, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., “War Industry Bulletin,” 16 Oct. 1942, box 2, folder 8, RG 301.6, BNM.

16 Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” 115–29; Carpenter, Joel A., Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism (New York, 1997), 167–70Google Scholar.

17 Dr. Wilson to Mr. Roberts, 10 Nov. 1942, and T. B. Foster to Mr. Roberts, 20 Apr. 1944, both box 4, folder 10, RG 301.6, BNM; Claude Williams to Sponsors and Friends, July 1943, box 3, folder 2, Claude Williams Papers, Archives of Labor and Urban Affairs, Walter Reuther Library, Wayne State University, Detroit (hereafter CWP); Claude Williams to J. Nelson Pyle, 15 May 1944, box 3, folder 11, CWP; Gellman, Erik S. and Roll, Jarod H., The Gospel of the Working Class: Labor's Southern Prophets in New Deal America (Urbana, 2011)Google Scholar.

18 Doyle, “The Industrial Chaplaincy”; Underwood, Kenneth, Christianity Where You Live (New York, 1945), 102–5Google Scholar.

19 Underhill to Frost, 19 Oct. 1943, BNM; reports of the Quincy Industrial Chaplain, 1 Aug. 1943 to 1 Feb. 1944, 1 Feb. to 31 July 1944, and 11 July to 12 Sept. 1944, all box 2, folder 2, RG 301.6, BNM; Chester J. Underhill to James Myers, 12 Aug. 1943, box 2, folder 2, RG 301.6, BNM.

20 Robert V. Harrison, “The Industrial Chaplaincy at R. G. LeTourneau, Inc.” (master's thesis, Bethany Nazarene College, 1970), 42–44; “A Picture Story on Industrial Chaplaincy,” Zion's Herald, 14 Mar. 1945, 165; Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” 46–47, 61–63; “Plant Parsons,” Business Week, 7 Oct. 1944, 106–7.

21 Carpenter, Revive Us Again, 212–14, 144–52; Wuthnow, Robert, The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith since World War II (Princeton, 1998)Google Scholar, 16, 67; Allitt, Patrick, Religion in America since 1945: A History (New York, 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 31.

22 Carpenter, Revive Us Again, 144–52; Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” chap. 4.

23 Thomas B. Foster to Cameron P. Hall, 27 June 1946, box 2, folder 1, RG 301.6, BNM; “Notes on Informal Conference on Industrial Chaplaincy,” 16 May 1946, and Cameron P. Hall to Dear Chaplain, 27 Aug. 1946, both box 46, folder 17, RG 18, Federal Council of Churches Records, Presbyterian Historical Society, Philadelphia (hereafter FCC); “Industrial Chaplains: A Memorandum,” n.d., box 1572, folder 196, JRP.

24 “Informal Conference,” 16 May 1946, FCC; “Are Evangelicals Being Taken for a Ride?” Christian Century, 16 May 1945, 597.

25 United Evangelical Action, June 1944, 1, and 3 Mar. 1945, 1; National Association of Evangelicals, Executive Committee meeting minutes, 13 Nov. 1945, 1–2, Oct., box 90, National Association of Evangelicals Papers, Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Ill. (hereafter cited as NAE); Ernest L. Chase to John Ramsey, 26 Nov. 1945, box 1572, JRP; Information for Industrial Chaplain Candidates by Chaplain Counselors for Industry (typed report, n.d.), box 1572, JRP. See also Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” 247–62; National Association of Evangelicals, Advance: Onward from Omaha: Report of the 5th Annual Convention of the NAE, Omaha, Nebraska, April 14–17, 1947, box 1A, NAE. By 1949 the NAE had given up its industrial chaplaincy program, although members remained interested in the concept and sought to revive it in the late fifties (Donald H. Gill to Henry Brandt, 3 Aug. 1955, box 53, NAE).

26 Jean Spencer Felton, “Religious Activities in Industry,” Industrial Medicine and Surgery, June 1958, 267.

27 E. Lansing Bennett, “Pulpits in Industry,” The City Church, Nov. 1952, 10–12; Francis Hewens, “The Factory Is His Parish,” Presbyterian Life, 28 Feb. 1948, 13–15; Edward A. Morris, “The Church's Ministry to Labor in the Synod of New Jersey,” unpublished report, Sept. 1955, box 13, accession 1412, National Association of Manufacturers Records, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del. (hereafter NAM).

28 Woodbury, “Religion in Industry,” 30; Felton, “Religious Activities in Industry,” 263–64; “More Firms Retain Ministers to Advise, Comfort Employees,” Wall Street Journal, 3 Mar. 1959; Paul John Thielo, “The Industrial Chaplain” (bachelor's thesis, Concordia Seminary, 1956); F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain”; Garwin Edison Burke, “A Consideration of the Ordained Christian Minister Serving within the Industrial Plant” (master's thesis, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1955).

29 Woodbury, “Religion in Industry,” 30; George, Carol V. R., God's Salesman: Norman Vincent Peale and the Power of Positive Thinking (New York, 1993), 103–14Google Scholar.

30 “Plant Religious Program,” Trends, Sept. 1950, 4–5; “In Industry: Prayer on Company Time,” Christian Advocate, 1 Sept. 1955, 17; “Report of the Committee on Religion in Industry to the Annual Meeting of the Executive Committee of United Churchmen” and attached “Religion in Industry Report,” 1 Apr. 1954, box 158, HPP.

31 L. J. Fletcher to E. Urner Goodman, 5 Nov. 1952, box 26, folder 51, RG 10, NCC; “Religion in Business,” Iron Age, 5 Mar. 1953, 25; Duncan Norton-Taylor, “Businessmen on Their Knees,” Fortune, Oct. 1953, 247; Woodbury, “Religion in Industry,” 29–31, 74–77.

32 Harrison, “Industrial Chaplaincy at R. G. LeTourneau,” 30.

33 Mark Burbridge and Barry Walker responses, in “Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials,” forms compiled by Chaplain Charlie Martin, 2 Dec. 1957, box 53, NAE.

34 Beverly Smith, “God's Chief Engineer,” American Magazine, June 1946, 100, 102; Rufus Jarman, “LeTourneau: America's Most Spectacular Maker of Earth-Moving Machines Is ‘In Partnership with God,’” Life, 16 Oct. 1944, 50, 52; Lorimer, Albert W., God Runs My Business: The Story of R. G. LeTourneau (New York, 1941), 8891, 143Google Scholar; Amy Porter, “God's Partner,” Collier's, 25 Dec. 1943, 36, 75–76; F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 26.

35 E. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise; Lichtenstein, State of the Union, chap. 2.

36 William H. Ruffin, “Management and Government in Human Relations,” address before the Blue Ridge Conference of Southern Industrial Executives, 18 July 1951, box 12, acc. 1412, Industrial Relations Department Papers, NAM; Gillespie, Manufacturing Knowledge; Davis, Keith, Human Relations at Work: The Dynamics of Organizational Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York, 1967), 3844Google Scholar; Bower, Marvin, The Development of Executive Leadership (Cambridge, Mass., 1949)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, 41, 44.

37 Rieff, Philip, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: The Uses of Faith after Freud (New York, 1965)Google Scholar; E. Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise, 73–86; Gillespie, Manufacturing Knowledge, 237; Jacoby, Modern Manors, 127, 220–28.

38 Lorimer, God Runs My Business, 102.

39 Richard Charles Smith, “A Critical Evaluation of Industrial Evangelism in the United States of America” (doctor of theology diss., University of Geneva, 1959), 77; On LeTourneau's efforts to keep out unions, see Hammond, “'God's Business Men,’” 62–63; memorandum by Lucy R. Mason, 10 Mar. 1943, and Leon Stamey to George Triedman, 22 Nov. 1950, both microfilm, reel 64, Operation Dixie Papers, Rare Books, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

40 Report to the Committee on Religion and Industry in Connection with the Annual Meeting of the Board of Managers of the United Church Men, St. Louis (typescript), 5–7 Nov. 1954, box 27, folder 1, NCC; L. J. Fletcher to E. Urner Goodman, 30 Oct. 1953, box 26, folder 51, RG 10, NCC.

41 James A. Rowan, “Industry's Open Door,” Christian Laymen, May 1953, 1–4; James Rowan to Urner Goodman, 21 Oct. 1953, and Lem T. Jones to Rev. Clifford H. Peace, 17 Aug. 1953, both box 26, folder 51, RG 10, NCC; Jane Stewart, “The Worker and His Faith,” reprint from Guideposts, Oct. 1962, box 26, folder 12, RG 10, NCC.

42 George D. Heaton II November 8, 1908–July 4, 1996, pamphlet, [1996], box 1, folder 1, George D. Heaton Collection, University Archives, Auburn University, Auburn, Ala. (hereafter GHC); T. M. Forbes to Heaton, 23 July 1947, box 6, folder 38, GHC; Charles B. Wade to Heaton, 14 June 1957, box 10, folder 8, GHC; George D. Heaton, “The Road to Labor-Management Peace,” typescript of a speech delivered to St. Louis Executive Club, 11 Apr. 1950, box 8, folder 64, GHC.

43 George D. Heaton, “The Christian Answer to Good Human Relation in Business: Session II—The Secret of Cooperation” (typescript of a workshop lecture), 14 May 1956, box 2, folder 3, GHC.

44 George D. Heaton, “The Challenge to Management,” in Industrial Relations: The Road Ahead! A Summary of the Twenty-Eighth Annual Conference on Human Relations in Industry, Blue Ridge, N.C., 16–19 July 1947 (The Conference, 1947), GHC. For more on Heaton, see Elizabeth Fones-Wolf and Ken Fones-Wolf, “Religion, Human Relations, and Union Avoidance in the 1950s: The Electrical Industry's Southern Strategy and Its Limits,” Enterprise and Society 13 (Mar. 2012): 154–85.

45 Rev. J. K. McConnell, response to Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials sent by Chaplain Charlie Martin, 2 Dec. 1957, box 53, NAE; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 49–52; “More Firms Retain Ministers to Advise, Comfort Employees.”

46 Hammond, “God's Business Men,’” 47, 15–72.

47 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 28–30; R. C. Smith, “Industrial Evangelism,” 97; Thielo, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 27–28, 90.

48 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 44–45.

49 Rev. Tom Roth, reponse to Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials, 2 Dec. 1957, box 53, NAE; F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 45–46; Thielo, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 25–26.

50 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 17–22; John S. Sparks, “Counselor Service Program Helps Workers Do Better Job,” Petroleum Refiner, June 1954, 218, 221–22; “Novel On-Job Bible Class Big Hit with D-X Workers,” Tulsa Daily World, 22 Aug. 1952; Charlie Martin, “Industrial Chaplain-Counselor Program,” n.d., box 1572, folder 196, JRP.

51 Charlie Martin, response, in “Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials,” and Charlie Martin, “Chaplain Counselors Assist Industry,” n.d., both box 1572, folder 196, JRP; “Minister Keeps a Plant ‘On the Beam,’” Kansas City Star, 21 Apr. 1954.

52 Korstad, Robert Rodgers, Civil Rights Unionism: Tobacco Workers and the Struggle for Democracy in the Mid-Twentieth-Century South (Chapel Hill, N.C., 2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 37; “Yankee-Type Rebels,” Forbes, 1 Nov. 1952, 17.

53 Woodbury, “Religion in Industry,” 31; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 66.

54 Korstad, Civil Rights Unionism, 390.

55 Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 70; Clarence Woodbury, “They Put a Parson on the Payroll,” American Magazine, Jan. 1952, 8; “Yankee-Type Rebels,” 17.

56 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 40; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 74; Clifford H. Peace, “The Pastoral Counseling Program in R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company,” in proceedings of the Conference on Methodism's Ministry to Industry (unpublished transcript), 16–17 Dec. 1957, 73, University of Oregon Library, Eugene.

57 Korstad, Civil Rights Unionism, 390–91; “Experiment in Christianity with Its Sleeves Rolled Up,” Journal and Sentinel (Winston-Salem, N.C.), 19 Aug. 1951; Peace, “Pastoral Counseling Program.”

58 Peace, “Pastoral Counseling Program.”

59 F. K. Smith, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 61; Frank H. Heinze, “A Survey of the Industry Chaplaincy Program in the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company,” 1956, box 68, HPP; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 53, 62.

60 Ray C. Newman, response to Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials, box 53, NAE; Felton, “Religious Activities in Industry,” 274; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 63; Thielo, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 36.

61 Thielo, “The Industrial Chaplain,” 42; “Industrial Chaplains: A New Help to Labor Relations,” Time, 31 Oct. 1955, 84; Burke, “Ordained Christian Minister,” 63–64; Sparks, “Counselor Service Program.”

62 Victor Reuther, “Labor Looks at the Church's Ministry to Industry,” in proceedings of the Conference on Methodism's Ministry to Industry, 37; “Company Chaplains? They're Company Men!” Occupational Hazards, Oct. 1962, 34; O. A. Knight to John G. Ramsay, 28 Jan. 1955, box 1572, folder 197, JRP; Paul R. Christopher to John G. Ramsay, 13 Apr. 1954, box 1572, folder 196, JRP; Winston-Salem Journal quoted in Korstad, Civil Rights Unionism, 391.

63 O. A. Knight to John Ramsay, 17 Jan. 1955, box 1572, folder 197, JRP.

64 George D. Heaton, speech to Burlington Mills Corporation, Mid-Pines, N.C., 16 Oct. 1954, box 6, folder 20, GHC; George D. Heaton, “A Study in Unionism, Organization and Supervision, Thomasville Chair Company, Thomasville, N.C.,” 19 Apr. 1956, box 2, folder 41, GHC.

65 James E. Greenwood to Roger, 14 July 1954, box 5, folder 28, Publicity Department Records, International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers Records, Rutgers University Library, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N.J.; “Rev. Heaton at Magnavox” (leaflet), n.d., box 6 folder 1, Publicity Department Records; Ed F. Lingo to William Snoots, 27 July 1954, box 1668, folder 60, JRP. See also E. Fones-Wolf and K. Fones-Wolf, “Religion, Human, Relations, and Union Avoidance.”

66 Marshal L. Scott, “The Industrial Chaplain,” The City Church, Mar.–Apr. 1954, 3–4.

67 Clair M. Cook, “The Industrial Chaplain,” Christian Century, 31 Aug. 1953, 993; “On Industrial Chaplains,” Religion and Labor, Feb. 1957, 8.

68 James Broyhill to Neil Winegarden, 12 Nov. 1957, and Donald H. Gill to George Ford, 28 Dec. 1959, both box 53, NAE.

69 Chaplain Raymond A. Brooks and Rev. Tom Roth, responses to Industrial Chaplain Counselor Questionnaires for Survey Materials sent by Chaplain Charlie Martin, 2 Dec. 1957, box 53, NAE.

70 Report of the Conference on Industrial Chaplaincies, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 19 and 20 June 1959, and Donald H. Gill to Charlie Martin, 8 Apr. 1960, both box 53, NAE.

71 “Consultation on the Church and Labor-Management Relations, Report of Group III, Haverford, Pennsylvania, 16–19 June 1955” (typescript), box 1926, folder 11, AFL-CIO Papers, Southern Labor Archives, Georgia State University, Atlanta; “Consultation on the Ministry of the Churches to Labor and Management, Columbus, Ohio, 23–26 Apr. 1958, Department of Church and Economic Life, National Council of Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.” (typescript), box 1572, folder 197, JRP.

72 “Oxnam Deplores Plant Chaplains,” New York Times, 17 Dec. 1957; “Industry-Paid Clergymen Taboo,” New Era, 16 Jan. 1958; Leon Hickman, “Management Looks at the Church's Ministry to Industry,” in proceedings of the Conference on Methodism's Ministry to Industry, 48; Leon E. Hickman, “The Ministry to Industry,” Zion's Herald, Jan. 1958, 27.

73 On the growth of Christian-oriented businesses over the past two decades and of corporate chaplaincy, see Miller, David W., God at Work: The History and Promise of the Faith at Work Movement (New York, 2007), 105–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Sodeman, Lowell F., Industrial Chaplaincy (Atlanta, 1982)Google Scholar; Eades, Robert E., “The National Institute of Business and Industrial Chaplains,” Journal of Pastoral Care 42 (Fall 1988): 245–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar; “Ministers Who Work among Their Flock,” New York Times, 3 Oct. 1996; Kerry Hall, “In a Time of Change, Tyson Turns to Faith,” Charlotte Observer, 8 Jan. 2006; Sue Shellenbarger, “Praying with the Office Chaplain,” Wall Street Journal, 23 June 2010.

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