Published online by Cambridge University Press: 24 December 2009
Khums was, like zakāt, a ritual duty incumbent on individuals, a farīḍa 'alā l-'ayn. Distinguished from the other 'ibādāt by being as to immediate aim human rights and not divine ones (ḥaqq li'l-ādamiyyīn not ḥaqq li'llāh) the final aim of both khums and zakāt was none the less divine reward and more certain salvation. The qur'ānic basis for khums was found in the verse (8: 41):
Know that whatever you acquire as material gain a fifth belongs to God and to the Prophet and to those related and the orphans and the poor and the wayfarers.
2 Ṭūsī, Mabsūṭ, jihād, 9; all works of Imāmī figh mentioned in this study are cited with details in Calder, op. cit., loc. cit.
3 cf. Lambton, A. K. S., ‘A nineteenth century view of jihād’, SI, XXXII, 1970Google Scholar; and E. Kohlberg, ‘The development of the Imāmī Shi'ī doctrine of Jihād’, ZDMG, 1976.
4 Ṭūsī, Mabsūṭ, zakāt, 20–1.
5 Ibn Idrīs, Sarā'ir, 114–15; 'Allāma, Qawā'id, 24; Taḥrīr, 75.
6 For waṣiyya and wadī'a, see Schacht, , Introduction to Islamic law, Oxford, 1964, 119–20, 157.Google Scholar
7 Ṭūsī, Nihāya, 200–1.
8 Ibn Idris, Sarā'ir, 114–15.
10 cf. e.g. 'Qazwini, Abd al-Jalil, Kitāb al-Naqd, ed. Muhaddith, , Tehran, 1331/1952, 164.Google Scholar
11 For the relationship between sayyids and ‘ulamā’, admittedly in a later period, see Lambton, A. K. S., ‘The Persian ‘ulama’ and constitutional reform’, in Le Shi'isme imamite, Colloque de Strasbourg, Paris, 1970, 164.Google Scholar
14 idem, Mukhtasar, 64.
15 idem, Shara'i', I, 184.
16 'Allāma, Taḥrīr, 74–5.
17 idem, Qawā'id, 44.
18 For the ex ante delegation see Calder, N., ‘Judicial authority in Imāmī Shi'ī jurisprudence’ BRISMES Bulletin, VI, 1979.Google Scholar
19 'Allāma, Taḥrīr, 74–5.
20 Shahīd I, in Rawda, 53.
21 Shahīd II, Masālik, II, 68, lines 20 ff.
22 idem, Rawḍa, 53.
23 See further. Calder, ‘Judicial authority’.
24 See Calder, ‘Zakat’.
25 See further, Calder, ‘Zakāt’, ad note 9.
26 Qazwīnī, op. cit., 47–8, 164. 53–4, 71.
27 As witness the letters of Ṭūsī and Murtaḍā to Aleppo, Tripoli, Tyre, Sidon, Damascus, etc.; Khwānsārī, , Rawḍāt al-Jannāt, Tehran 1306, 385, 582.Google Scholar
28 See e.g. Qazwīnī, op. cit., 229 ff.
30 cf. Qazwīnī, op. cit., 53–4, 71.
31 See Khwānsārī, op. cit., 288–99, for the biography of Shahīd II; Shirbīnī's Mughnī al Muḥtāj fī sharḥ al-Minhāj is a Sunnī example of a commentary which incorporates and integrates the original text.