Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-rkxrd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-23T09:47:36.608Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Phoridae (Diptera) as pests of cultivated oyster mushrooms (Agaricales: Pleurotaceae) in India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2009

Kuldip Johal*
Botany Department, Punjab University, Chandigarh, India
R. H. L. Disney
Field Studies Council Research Fellow, University Department of Zoology, Cambridge, UK.
c/o Dr M.S. Johal, Department of Zoology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India.


In India the cultivated oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer is attacked by the larvae of two species of Phoridae, Megaselia pleurota Disney sp. n. and M. scalaris (Loew). The new species is described. Biological data and damage symptoms are reported for both species. Serious economic damage is also caused by a bacterium associated with M. scalaris. The identities of the two Megaselia species, previously reported attacking this fungus, are called into question.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1994

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Becker, T. (1908) Dipteren der Kanarischen Inseln. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum Berlin 4, 1180.Google Scholar
Benner, D.B. & Ostermeyer, E.C. (1980) Some observations on the life history of the fly Megaselia scalaris Loew (Phoridae) with special reference to the eclosion pattern. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Sciences 55, 103105.Google Scholar
Beyer, E. (1959) Neue Phoridengattungen und-Arten aus Angola (Phoridae, Diptera) Publicacoes Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola (Museu do Dundo Estudos Diversos xvii) 45, 5376.Google Scholar
Beyer, E.M. (1965) Phoridae (Diptera Brachycera) Exploration du Parc National Albert Mission G.F. de Wittee (1933–1935) 99, 1211.Google Scholar
Beyer, E.M. (1967) Diptera Phoridae. Insects of Micronesia 13, 329–36.Google Scholar
Borgmeier, T. (1961) Weitere Beitrage zur Kenntnis der neotropischen Phoriden, nebst Beschreibung einiger Dohrniphora-Arten aus der indo-australischen Region (Diptera. Phoridae). Studia Entomologica, Petropólis 4, 1112.Google Scholar
Borgmeier, T. (1967) Studies on Indo-Australian phorid flies, based mainly on material of the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the United States National Museum Part II. Studia Entomologica, Petropólis 10, 81276.Google Scholar
Brown, B.V. & Marshall, S.A. (1984) Phorid flies (Diptera. Phoridae) associated with mushrooms in southern Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 115, 77–8.Google Scholar
Brues, C.T. (1909) Some new Phoridae from the Philippines. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 17, 56.Google Scholar
Brunetti, E. (1912) VII Description of Aphiochaeta ferruginea, a hitherto undescribed species of Phoridae that causes myiasis in man. Record of the Indian Museum, Calcutta 7, 8386.Google Scholar
Buxton, P.A. (1961) British Diptera associated with fungi. III. Flies of all families reared from about 150 species of fungi. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 96, 6194.Google Scholar
Chandler, P. (1978) Associations with plants, fungi. In Stubbs, A. & Chandler, P.(Eds) A dipterist's handbook. Amateur Entomologist 15, 199211.Google Scholar
Chang, S.T. (1991) Recent trends in world production of cultivated edible mushrooms. Mushroom Journal 503, 1518.Google Scholar
Clift, A.D. (1979) The identity, economic importance and control of insect pests of mushrooms in New South Wales, Australia. Mushroom Science 10, 367383.Google Scholar
Clift, A.D. & Larsson, S.F. (1987) Phoretic dispersal of Brennandia lambi (Kcrzal) (Acari: Tarsonemida. Pygmephoridae) by mushroom flies (Diptera Sciaridae and Phoridae) in New South Wales, Australia. Experimental & Applied Acarology 3, 1120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colyer, C.N. (1954) A new species of Megaselia (Dipt., Phoridae) from Britain; notes on fungicolous Phoridae. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 89, 108112.Google Scholar
Dias Maciera, O.J., Chaud-Netto, J. & Zanon, A.M. (1983) Oviposition rate and relative viability of descendants from couples of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera. Phoridae) reared in different experimental conditions. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 43, 223228.Google Scholar
Disney, R.H.L. (1989) Two new species of Megaselia (Dipt, Phoridae) reared from termite-mound fungus in Nigeria. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 125, 4548.Google Scholar
Disney, R.H.L. (1991) The aquatic Phoridae (Diptera). Entomologica Scandinavica 22, 171191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Disney, R.H.L. (1993) The identities of phorid species infesting cultivated mushrooms. Mushroom Journal 525, 24.Google Scholar
Disney, R.H.L. (1994) A new species and new records of Phoridae (Diptera) from New Zealand Giornale Italiano di Entomologia 6.Google Scholar
Disney, R.H.L. & Evans, R.E. (1979) Further records of Phoridae (Dipt.) reared from fungi. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 114 (1978), 166.Google Scholar
El-Miniawi, S.F. & Moustafa, M.A. (1965) On the biology of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique d'Egypte 49, 8191.Google Scholar
Enderlein, G. (1929) Entomologica Canaria iv. Wiener entomologische Zeitung 46, 95109.Google Scholar
Furukawa, E. & Kaneko, K. (1981) Studies of phorid flies (Phoridae, Diptera) in Japan. Part IV. Scanning electron microscopic observations of eggs of two Megaselia. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 32, 7881.Google Scholar
Greenberg, B. (1991) Flies as forensic indicators. Journal of Medical Entomology 28, 565577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hussey, N.W. (1961) Identification of Phoridae (Diptera) attacking cultivated mushrooms in Britain. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (13) 3, 599603.Google Scholar
Hussey, N.W., Read, W.H. & Hesling, J.J. (1969) The pests of protected cultivation: biology and control of glasshouse and mushroom pests. 404 pp London, Arnold.Google Scholar
Johal, K. & Kaushal, S.C. (1991) A new report of cecid (Cecidomylidae: Lestremiinae) as a pest of Pleurotus spp. pp. 233234in Nair, M.C. (Ed.) Proceedings of the National Symposium on Mushrooms Kerala Agricultural University, IndiaGoogle Scholar
Johal, K. & Kaushal, S.C. (in press) New report of Alphitobius laevigatus (Fabricius) as a pest of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Mushroom Research.Google Scholar
Johal, K.K., Kaushal, S.C. & Mann, J.J. (1992) A new species of Cyllodes (Coleoptera. Cucujoidea: Nitidulidae) infesting Pleurotus sajor-caju in India. Mushroom Research 1, 9598.Google Scholar
Kaneko, K., Furukawa, E. & Kusui, Y. (1978) Studies on phorid flies (Phoridae, Diptera) in Japan. Part III. New record of Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866), collected from Japan. Journal of the Aichi Medical University Association 6, 261265.Google Scholar
Kneidel, K.A. (1985) Patchiness, aggregation, and the coexistence of competitors for ephemeral resources. Ecological Entomology 10, 441448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lever, R.J.A.W. (1944) Maggots in imported boot polish. Agricultural Journal, Department of Agriculture, Fiji 15, 15.Google Scholar
Liu, D. & Greenberg, B. (1989) Immature stages of some flies of forensic importance Annals of the Entomological Society of America 82, 8093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loew, H. (1866) Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigena. Centuria septima. Berliner entomolgische Zeitschrift 10, 154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Malloch, J.R. (1912) The insects of the dipterous family Phoridae in the United States National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 43, 411529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCrae, A.W.R. (1967) Infestation of emulsion paint by the fly Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Dipt, Phoridae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 102. 241243.Google Scholar
Meijere, J.C.H. de (1911) Studien ueber suedostasiatische Diptera. vi. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 54, 258432.Google Scholar
Prawirodisastro, M. & Benjamin, D.M. (1979) Laboratory study of the biology and ecology of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera, Phoridae). Journal of Medical Entomology 16, 317320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robinson, W.H. (1975) Megaselia (M.) scalaris (Diptera: Phondae) associated with laboratory cockroach colonies Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 77, 384390.Google Scholar
Sandhu, G.S. & Bhattal, D.S. (1989) Chemical control of phorid fly Megaselia sandhui Disney and its effect on the yield of white button mushroom. Mushroom Journal for the Tropics 9, 115120.Google Scholar
Schmitz, H. (1915) Drei neue Phonden aus Afrika. Jaarboek Natuurhistorisch Genootschap in Limburg (1914), 105111.Google Scholar
Schmitz, H. (1929) Revision der Phoriden. 211 pp. Berlin, F. Duemmlers.Google Scholar
Semenza, L. (1953) Aphiochaeta xanthina Speiser. Contributo alla conoscenza morfologia e del ciclo biologica. Rendiconti dell'Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere 86, 320330.Google Scholar
Somchoudhury, A.K., Das, T.K., Sarkar, R.K. & Mukherjee, A.B. (1988) Life history of three Dipteran flies infesting edible mushroo Pleurotus sajor-caju. Environment & Ecology 6, 463464.Google Scholar
Speiser, P. (1908) Dipteren aus Deutschlands afrikanischen Kolonien. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift 52 (1907), 127149.Google Scholar
Trumble, J.T. & Pienkowski, R.L. (1979) Development and survival of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) at selected temperatures and photoperiods. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 81, 207210.Google Scholar
Tumrasvin, W.S., Sucharit, S. & Vutikes, S. (1977) Studies on the life history of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 8, 7476.Google ScholarPubMed
Yakovlev, E.B. (1986) Nasekomye-mitsebionty yuzhoi Karelii (ekologofaunisticheskii spisok) Mycetobiontic Insects of South Karelia (the ecological faunistic list). pp 83123in Yakovlev, E.B. & Uzenbaev, S.D.(Eds) Fauna i ekologiya Chlenistonogikh Karelu. Fauna and Ecology of the Arthropods of Karelia. Petrozavodsk, Karelbskii Fihal AN SSSR.Google Scholar