Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-vsgnj Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-20T23:19:25.888Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Observations on sampling pre-imaginal populations of blackflies (Dipt., Simu liidae) in West Cameroon

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2009

R. H. L. Disney
Affiliation:
Overseas Staff, Medical Research Council, Helminthiasis Research Unit, Kumba, Cameroon

Extract

The use of standardised artificial substratum units (SASUs) for sampling preimaginal populations of Simulium is reviewed and the results then given of experiments with SASUs in rivers and artificial streams in West Cameroon in 1968–70. The increase of downstream drift of larvae by night is attributed to the increased activity of associated fauna at night. The numbers of larvae settling on SASUs is partly afunction of how long the latter have been set and partly due to the pattern of fluctuation in river depth. Any particular SASU appears to be selective in relation to the different species of Simulium available for settlement. A new index of uniformity is proposed for comparing the diversity of Simulium faunas occurring on different substrata.

Type
Research Paper
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1972

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Carlsson, G. (1962). Studies on Scandinavian blackflies (Fam. Simuliidae Latr.).—Opusc. ent. Suppl. 21, 1280.Google Scholar
Carlsson, G. (1967). Environmental factors influencing blackfly populations.—Bull. Wid Hith Org. 37, 139150.Google ScholarPubMed
Chutter, F. M. (1968). On the ecology of the fauna of stones in the current in a South African river supporting a very large Simulium (Diptera) population.—J. app. Ecol. 5, 531561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Orisp, G. (1956). Sirnulium and onchocerciasis in the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast.—171 pp. London, H. K. Lewis.Google Scholar
Crosskey, R. W. (1969). A re-classification of the Simuhidae (Diptera) of Africa and its islands.—Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist. (Ent.). Suppl 14, 195 pp.Google Scholar
Curtis, L. C. (1968). A method for accurate counting of blackfly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae).—Mosquito News 28, 238239.Google Scholar
Disney, R. H. L. (1969). The timing of adult eclosion in blackifies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in West Cameroon.—Bull. ent. Res. 59, 485503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Disney, R. H. L. (1970). The timing of the first blood meal in Simulium damnosum Theobald.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 64, 123128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Disney, R. H. L. (1971). Notes on Simulium ovazzae Grenier and Mouchet (Diptera: Simuliidae) and river crabs (Malacostraca: Potamidae) and their association.—J. nat. Hist. 5, 677689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doby, J. M., Rault, B. & Beaucournu-Saguez, F. (1967). Utilisation de rubans de plastique pour la rdcolte des oeufs et des stades larvaires et nymphaux de Simulies (Diptéres Paranématocéres) et pour l'étude biologique de ceux-ci.—Annls Parasit. hum, comp. 42, 651657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dorier, A. & Vaillant, F. (1954). Observations et expériences relatives à la résistance au courant de divers invertébrés aquatiques.—Trav. Lab. Hydrobiol. Pisic. Univ. Grenoble 45–46, 931.Google Scholar
Elliott, J. M. (1965). Daily fluctuations of drift invertebrates in a Dartmoor stream.—Nature, Lond. 205, 11271129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elliott, J. M. (1967). Invertebrate drift in a Dartmoor stream.—Arch. Hydrobiol. 63, 202237.Google Scholar
Elliott, J. M. & Minshall, G. W. (1968). The invertebrate drift in the River Duddon, English Lake District.—Oikos 19, 3952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garms, R. & Post, A. (1967). Die Simulien der Republik Guinea, Westafrika.—Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 52, 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hynes, H. B. N. (1970). The ecology of stream insects.—A. Rev, Ent. 15, 2542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kureck, A. (1969). Tagesrhythmen lappländischer Simuliiden (Diptera).—Oecologia 2, 385410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MacAn, T. T. (1963). Freshwater ecology.—338 pp. London, Longmans.Google Scholar
Maitland, P. S. (1964). Quantitative studies on the invertebrate fauna of sandy and stony substrates in the River Endrick, Scotland.—Proc. R. Soc. Edinb. B 68, 277301.Google Scholar
Maitland, P. S. & Penney, M. M. (1967). The ecology of the Simuliidae in a Scottish River.—J. Anim. Ecol. 36, 179206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miall, L. C. (1895). The natural history of aquatic insects.—395 pp. London, MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minshall, G. W. & Winger, P. V. (1968). The effect of reduction in streamfiow on invertebrate drift.—Ecology 49, 580582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Müller, K. (1963). Diurnal rhythm in “organic drift” of Gammarus pulex.—Nature, Lond. 198, 806807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillipson, J. (1956). A study of factors determining the distribution of the larvae of the blackfly, Simulium ornatum Mg.—Bull. ent. Res. 47, 227238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smart, J. (1934). On the biology of the black fly Simulium ornatum Mg. (Diptera, Simuliidae).—Proc. R. phys. Soc. Edinb. 22, 217238.Google Scholar
Southwood, T. R. E. (1966). Ecological methods with particular reference to the study of insect populations.—391 pp. London, Methuen.Google Scholar
Tarsiss, I. B. (1968). Use of fabrics in streams to collect black fly larvae.—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 61, 960961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tarshis, I. B. & Neil, W. (1970). Mass movement of black fly larvae on silken threads (Diptera: Simuliidae).—Ann. ent. Soc. Am. 63, 607610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wanson, M. & Henrard, C. (1945). Habitat et comportement larvaire du Simulium damnosum Theobald.—Recl. Tray. Sci. méd. Congo beige 4, 113121.Google Scholar
W.H.O. Expert Committee on Onchocerciasis (1966). Second report.—Tech. Rep. Ser. Wid Hith Org. no. 335, 196.Google Scholar
Williams, C. B. (1947). The logarithmic series and the comparison of island floras.—Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 158, 104108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, T. R. & Obeng, L. (1962). A comparison of two methods of estimating changes in Simulium larval populations, with a description of a new method.—Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 56, 359361.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wolfe, L. S. & Peterson, D. G. (1958). A new method to estimate levels of infestations of black-fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae).—Can. J. Zool. 36, 863867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wolfe, L. S. & Pethrson, D. G. (1959). Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the forests of Quebec.—Can. I. Zool. 37, 137159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahar, A. R. (1951). The ecology and distribution of blackflies (Simuliidae) in south-east Scotland.—J. Anim. Ecol. 20, 3362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar