Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-55597f9d44-zdfhw Total loading time: 0.43 Render date: 2022-08-12T15:25:01.714Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Larvae ecology and adult activity of Aedes mariae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a touristic rock-pool area of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 December 2021

Mikel Bengoa
Anticimex, Department of Research, Innovation and Development, Barcelona, Spain
Andreu Rotger
Animal Demography and Ecology Unit, GEDA – IMEDEA (CSIC/UIB), Esporles, Spain
Raúl Luzón
Vectobal, Department of Development and Science, Palma, Spain
Carlos Barceló*
Applied Zoology and Animal Conservation Group, UIB, Palma, Spain
Author for correspondence: Carlos Barceló, Email:


Mosquitoes are vectors of several diseases of medical concern such as malaria or dengue and can also negatively affect tourism and the life-quality of the neighbourhood. The species Aedes mariae (Sergent and Sergent, 1903) is a poorly studied mosquito that breeds in rock-pools of the Mediterranean coast. General Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) were used to determine drivers affecting the presence and abundance of this species. Abiotic and biotic factors were recorded in rock-pools with the presence of Ae. mariae sub-adults across a supralittoral area of Majorca Island (Balearic Islands, Spain) from July 2018 to June 2019. We tested how abiotic factors affected the presence of larvae, while the biotic factors were used to check their effect on larvae abundance. human landing collection was also conducted to assess the adult activity of this species. Valuable data were recorded to improve our knowledge about the bioecology of Ae. mariae in a touristic area of the island of Majorca. Salinity and pH were the most explanatory variables for the presence of Ae. mariae larvae. The presence of Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile 1813 leaves negatively affected the abundance of Ae. mariae larvae while the presence of other fauna enhanced it. Adult females of Ae. mariae were active for 26 min after sunset in June and its host-seeking activity decreased during autumn months. Control methods against this species should be focussed on rock-pools and planning treatments according to tides, waves and precipitation.

Research Paper
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) (2020) Valores climatológicos normales en Palma de Mallorca. Retrieved from AEMET website*?w=0&k=bal&l=B278&datos=det&x=B278&m=13&v=todos2 (Accessed 29 December 2020).Google Scholar
Bates, D, Mächler, M, Bolker, B and Walker, S (2015) Fitting linear mixed-effects models using lme4. Journal of Statistical Software 67, 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Becker, N, Petric, D, Zgomba, M, Boase, C, Madon, MB, Dahl, C and Kaiser, AA (2010) Mosquitoes and Their Control, 2nd Edn, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brooks, ME, Kristensen, K, van Benthem, KJ, Magnusson, A, Berg, CW, Nielsen, A, Skaug, HJ, Maechler, M and Bolker, BM (2017) glmmTMB Balances speed and flexibility among packages for Zero-inflated Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling. The R Journal 9(2), 378400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bueno-Marí, R and Jiménez-Peydró, R (2011) First confirmed record of Ochlerotatus mariae (Sergent & Sergent, 1903) in the Balearic Islands (Spain) and its significance in local mosquito control programmes. European Mosquito Bulletin 29, 8287.Google Scholar
Bueno-Marí, R and Serna-Mompeán, JP (2015) Primera cita de Ochlerotatus mariae (Sergent & Sergent, 1903) (Diptera, Culicidae) en la Comunidad Valenciana: implicaciones en el control de esta especie singular. Revista gaditana de Entomología 6, 6366.Google Scholar
Burnham, KP and Anderson, DR (2004) Multimodel inference understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methods & Research 33, 261304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burroni, N, Loetti, V, Freire, G, Jensen, O and Schweigmann, N (2007) New record and larval habitats of Culex eduardoi (Diptera: Culicidae) in an irrigated area of Patagonia. Argentina. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 102(2), 237240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burroni, NE, Loetti, MV, Marinone, MC, Freire, MG and Schweigmann, NJ (2013) Larval habitat of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the southern edge of the Americas, Tierra del Fuego Island. Open Journal of Animal Sciences 3, 510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Camara, TNDL (2010) Activity patterns of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) under natural and artificial conditions. Oecologia Australis 14, 737744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campbell-Lendrum, D, Manga, L, Bagayoko, M and Sommerfeld, J (2015) Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cardo, MV, Vezzani, D and Carbajo, AE (2013) The role of the landscape in structuring immature mosquito assemblages in wetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 21, 5570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2016) What you need to know about filling tree holes. Retrieved from CDC website (Accessed 21 December 2020).Google Scholar
Clements, AN (1992) The Biology of Mosquitoes Volume 1: Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. London: Chapman and Hall.Google Scholar
Clements, AN (1999) The Biology of Mosquitoes. Volume 2: Sensory Reception and Behaviour. Wallingford: CABI publishing.Google Scholar
Coluzzi, M and Sabatini, A (1968) Morphological divergences and sterility barriers in the complex of A. mariae. Rivista di Parassitologia 29, 4970.Google Scholar
Coluzzi, M, Sabatini, A, Bullini, L and Ramsdale, C (1974) Further data on the distribution of the species of the mariae complex of the genus Aedes. Rivista di Parassitologia 35, 321330.Google Scholar
Coluzzi, M, Di Deco, M and Gironi, A (1975) Effect of the photoperiod of the site of oviposition of Aedes mariae (Diptera, Culicidae). Parassitologia 17, 121.Google Scholar
Costanzo, KS, Schelble, S, Jerz, K and Keenan, M (2015) The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Vector Ecology 40, 164171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coumou, D and Rahmstorf, S (2012) A decade of weather extremes. Nature Climate Change 2, 491496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Delgado-Serra, S, Viader, M, Ruiz-Arrondo, I, Miranda, MA, Barceló, C, Bueno-Marí, R, Hernández-Triana, LM, Miquel, M, Lester, K, Jurado, JA and Paredes-Esquivel, C (2021) Molecular characterization of mosquito diversity in the Balearic Islands. Journal of Medical Entomology 58, 608615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dodge, Y (2008) The Concise Encyclopedia of Statistics. University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Springer & Bussines media.Google Scholar
Estallo, EL, Sangermano, F, Grech, M, Ludueña-Almeida, F, Frías-Cespedes, M, Ainete, M, Almirón, W and Livdahl, T (2018) Modelling the distribution of the vector Aedes aegypti in a central Argentine city. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 32, 451461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Federación Empresarial Hotelera de Mallorca (FEHM) (2019) Colònia de Sant Jordi. Retrieved from FEHM website (Accessed 29 December 2020).Google Scholar
Gardner, AM, Anderson, TK, Hamer, GL, Johnson, DE, Varela, KE, Walker, ED and Ruiz, MO (2013) Terrestrial vegetation and aquatic chemistry influence larval mosquito abundance in catch basins, Chicago, USA. Parasites & Vectors 6, 111.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grech, MG, Manzo, LM, Epele, LB, Laurito, M, Claverie, , Ludueña-Almeida, FF, Miserendino, ML and Almirón, WR (2019) Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) larval ecology in natural habitats in the cold temperate Patagonia region of Argentina. Parasites and vectors 12(1), 114.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Institut d'Estadística de les Illes Balears (IBESTAT) (2020) Flujo de turistas (FRONTUR). Retrieved from IBESTAT website (Accessed 29 December 2020).Google Scholar
Juliano, SA (2009) Species interactions among larval mosquitoes: context dependence across habitat gradients. Annual Review of Entomology 54, 3756.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolasa, J and Romanuk, TN (2005) Assembly of unequals in the unequal world of a rock pool metacommunity. In Holyoak, M, Leibold, MA and Holt, RD (eds), Metacommunities: Spatial Dynamics and Ecological Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 212232.Google Scholar
Linthicum, KJ, Davies, FG and Kamau, J (1985) Predation on emerging adult mosquitoes by Brachydeutera munroi (Diptera: Ephydridae). Proceedings of the New Jersey Mosquito Control Association annual meeting, USA.Google Scholar
Margalef, R (1949) Sobre la ecología de las larvas del mosquito Aedes mariae. Publicaciones del Instituto de Biología Aplicada 6, 83102.Google Scholar
Mastrantonio, V, Porretta, D, Bellini, R, Nascetti, G and Urbanelli, S (2015) Molecular systematics and origin of the Mediterranean Sea rock-pool mosquitoes of the Aedes mariae (Diptera: Culicidae) complex. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 108, 593599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muñoz, J, Eritja, R, Alcaide, M, Montalvo, T, Soriguer, SC and Figuerola, J (2011) Host-feeding patterns of native Culex pipiens and invasive Aedes albopictus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in urban zones from Barcelona, Spain. Journal of Medical Entomology 48, 956960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naeem, S (1988) Predator-prey interactions and community structure: chironomids, mosquitoes and copepods in Heliconia imbricata (Musaceae). Oecologia 77, 202209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ozer, T, Gertman, I, Kress, N, Silverman, J and Herut, B (2016) Inter-annual thermohaline and nutrient dynamics (2002–2014) in the Levantine surface and intermediate water masses. Rapport Communication Internationale Mer Méditerranée 41, 131.Google Scholar
Porretta, D, Canestrelli, D, Bellini, R, Celli, G and Urbanelli, S (2007) Improving insect pest management through population genetic data: a case study of the mosquito Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas). Journal of Applied Ecology 44, 682691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
R Development Core Team (2017) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, AT: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Retrieved from R website Scholar
Ribeiro, H, Ramos, HC, Pires, CA and Capela, RA (1988) An annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of continental Portugal (Diptera: Culicidae). In III Congreso Ibérico de Entomología: actas. Granada, Universidad de Granada, pp. 233253.Google Scholar
Ringle, CM, Wende, S and Becker, JM (2015) SmartPLS 3. Bönningstedt: SmartPLS. Retrieved from SmartPLS website Scholar
Rioux, JA (1958) Les culicides du midi Mediterraneen. Etude systematique et ecologique. Encyclopédie Entomologique 35, 303.Google Scholar
Rioux, JA, Croset, H, Corre, JJ, Simonneau, P and Gras, G (1968) Phyto-ecological basis of mosquito control: cartography of larval biotopes. Mosquito News 28, 572582.Google Scholar
Robert, V, Günay, F, Le Goff, G, Boussès, P, Sulesco, T, Khalin, A, Medlock, JM, Kampen, H, Petrić, D and Schaffner, F (2019) Distribution chart for Euro-Mediterranean mosquitoes (western Palaearctic region). Journal of European Mosquito Control Association 37, 128.Google Scholar
Rosenfeld, S, Porretta, D, Rahav, E, Mastrantonio, V, Duchet, C and Blaustein, L (2018) Molecular identification of Aedes phoeniciae (Diptera: Culicidae) in rock-pools along the northern Israeli coast. Journal of Vector Ecology 43, 344346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenfeld, S, Blaustein, L, Kneitel, J, Duchet, C, Horwitz, R, Rybak, O, Polevikov, A and Rahav, E (2019) The abundance and larval performance of Aedes phoeniciae in supralittoral rock-pools. Hydrobiologia 846, 181192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanz-Aguilar, A, Rosselló, R, Bengoa, M, Ruiz-Pérez, M, González-Calleja, M, Barceló, C, Borràs, D, Paredes-Esquivel, C, Miranda, MA and Tavecchia, G (2018) Water associated with residential areas and tourist resorts is the key predictor of Asian tiger mosquito presence on a Mediterranean island. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 32, 443450.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schaffner, F, Angel, G, Geoffroy, B, Hervy, JP, Rhaiem, A and Brunhes, J (2001) The Mosquitoes of Europe: An Identification and Training Programme. Montpellier: IRD editors.Google Scholar
Silver, JB (2008) Mosquito Ecology: Field Sampling Methods, 3rd Edn. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2017) A Socio-economic Impact Assessment of the Zika Virus in Latin America and the Caribbean: With a Focus on Brazil, Colombia and Suriname (UNDP Synthesis report), Apr 3. New York, USA: United Nations Development Programme.Google Scholar
Urbanelli, S, Porretta, D, Mastrantonio, V, Bellini, R, Pieraccini, G, Romoli, R, Crasta, G and Nascetti, G (2014) Hybridization, natural selection, and evolution of reproductive isolation: a 25-years survey of an artificial sympatric area between two mosquito sibling species of the Aedes mariae complex. Evolution 68, 30303038.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
World Health Organization (WHO) (2013) Malaria Entomology and Vector Control. WHO Guide for Participants. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.Google Scholar
Yee, DA, Kneitel, JM and Juliano, SA (2010) Environmental correlates of abundances of mosquito species and stages in discarded vehicle tires. Journal of Medical Entomology 47, 5362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Bengoa et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S2 and Figures S1-S3

Download Bengoa et al. supplementary material(File)
File 339 KB

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Larvae ecology and adult activity of Aedes mariae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a touristic rock-pool area of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)
Available formats

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Larvae ecology and adult activity of Aedes mariae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a touristic rock-pool area of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)
Available formats

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Larvae ecology and adult activity of Aedes mariae (Diptera: Culicidae) in a touristic rock-pool area of the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean)
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *