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Rapid advances in ‘omics’ technologies have paved the way forward to an era where more ‘precise’ approaches – ‘precision’ nutrition – which leverage data on genetic variability alongside the traditional indices, have been put forth as the state-of-the-art solution to redress the effects of malnutrition across the life course. We purport that this inference is premature and that it is imperative to first review and critique the existing evidence from large-scale epidemiological findings. We set out to provide a critical evaluation of findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in the roadmap to precision nutrition, focusing on GWAS of micronutrient disposition. We found that a large number of loci associated with biomarkers of micronutrient status have been identified. Mean estimates of heritability of micronutrient status ranged between 20 and 35 % for minerals, 56–59 % for water-soluble and 30–70 % for fat-soluble vitamins. With some exceptions, the majority of the identified genetic variants explained little of the overall variance in status for each micronutrient, ranging between 1·3 and 8 % (minerals), <0·1–12 % (water-soluble) and 1·7–2·3 % for (fat-soluble) vitamins. However, GWAS have provided some novel insight into mechanisms that underpin variability in micronutrient status. Our findings highlight obvious gaps that need to be addressed if the full scope of precision nutrition is ever to be realised, including research aimed at (i) dissecting the genetic basis of micronutrient deficiencies or ‘response’ to intake/supplementation (ii) identifying trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific effects (iii) identifying gene–nutrient interactions for the purpose of unravelling molecular ‘behaviour’ in a range of environmental contexts.
The gut microbiota has a profound impact on human health. Emerging data show that dietary patterns are associated with different communities of bacterial species within the gut. Prevotella species have been correlated with plant-rich diets, abundant in carbohydrates and fibres. Dysbiosis within the gut ecosystem has been associated with the development of non-communicable diseases such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, type 1 diabetes, allergies and other diseases. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to evaluate the available data on the impact of diet on the Prevotella genus, as a dietary fibre fermenter in the gut as well as its implications as a potential biomarker for homeostasis or disease state through its metabolite signature. Studies were identified by conducting PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection and Google Scholar electronic searches. We found eighty-five publications reporting the impact of dietary patterns on gut microbial communities, including Prevotella or Prevotella/Bacteroides ratio in particular. Moreover, the role of Prevotella species on health status was also evaluated. Prevotella possess a high genetic diversity, representing one of the important groups found in the oral cavity and large intestine of man. The gut commensal Prevotella bacteria contribute to polysaccharide breakdown, being dominant colonisers of agrarian societies. However, studies also suggested a potential role of Prevotella species as intestinal pathobionts. Further metagenomic studies are needed in order to reveal health- or disease-modulating properties of Prevotella species in the gut.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
The contribution of milk and dairy products to daily iodine intake is high but variable in many industrialised countries. Factors that affect iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products are only poorly understood. Our aim was to: (1) assess the effect of feed iodine concentration on milk iodine by supplementing five groups of five cows each with one of five dosages from 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM; (2) quantify iodine losses during manufacturing of cheese and yogurt from milk with varying iodine concentrations and assess the effect of cellar-ripening; and (3) systematically measure iodine partitioning during heat treatment and skimming of milk. Milk iodine reached a near-steady state after 3 weeks of feeding. Median milk iodine (17–302 μg/l for 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM) increased linearly with feed iodine (R2 0·96; P < 0·001). At curd separation, 75–84 % of iodine was lost in whey. Dairy iodine increased linearly with milk iodine (semi-hard cheese: R2 0·95; P < 0·001; fresh cheese and yogurt: R2 1·00; P < 0·001), and cellar-ripening had no effect. Heat treatment had no significant effect, whereas skimming increased (P < 0·001) milk iodine concentration by only 1–2 μg/l. Mean daily intake of dairy products by Swiss adults is estimated at 213 g, which would contribute 13–52 % of the adults’ RDA for iodine if cow feed is supplemented with 0·5–2 mg iodine/kg DM. Thus, modulation of feed iodine levels can help achieve desirable iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products, and thereby optimise their contribution to human iodine nutrition to avoid both deficiency and excess.
The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the predictive INTERSALT equation using spot urine samples to estimate 24-h urinary Na (24-hUNa) excretion and daily Na intake among the French adult population. Among 193 French adults (‘validation sample’), we assessed the validity by comparing predicted 24-hUNa excretion from spot urine and measured 24-hUNa excretion from 24-h urine collections. Spearman correlation coefficients and Bland–Altman plots were used and we calculated calibration coefficients. In a nationally representative sample of 1720 French adults (‘application sample’), the calibrated predictive equation was then applied to the spot urine Na values to estimate 24-hUNa excretion and daily Na intake. In that sample, predicted Na intake was compared with that estimated from 24-h dietary recalls. Results were adjusted and corrected using calibration coefficients. In the validation sample, the measured 24-hUNa excretion was on average 14 % higher than the predicted 24-hUNa (+13 % for men and +16 % for women). Correlation between measured and predicted 24-hUNa excretion was moderate (Spearman r 0·42), and the Bland–Altman plots showed underestimation at lower excretion level and overestimation at higher level. In the application study, estimated daily salt intake was 8·0 g/d using dietary recalls, 8·1 g/d using predicted INTERSALT equation and 9·3 g/d after applying calibration coefficients calculated in the validation study. Despite overall underestimation of 24-hUNa excretion by spot urinary Na, the use of predictive INTERSALT equation remains an acceptable alternative in monitoring global Na intake/excreted in the French population but its use is not advised at the individual level.
High overall nutritional quality (NQ) is an important component of ideal cardiovascular health, a concept introduced in 2010 by the American Heart Association. However, data on the independent contribution of overall NQ to the variation in the cardiometabolic risk (CMR) profile are limited. This observational study aimed to investigate the association between overall NQ and the CMR profile in 4785 participants (65⋅4 % of men, age 43⋅3 (sd 10⋅8) years) who underwent a cardiometabolic health evaluation, including lifestyle habits, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, lipid profile and HbA1c concentrations. In addition, a submaximal exercise test was conducted to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Using a standardised NQ questionnaire (twenty-five items food-based questionnaire), participants were classified into three subgroups: (1) low, (2) moderate or (3) high NQ and variance and multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Results showed that less than 15 % of participants presented a high NQ. A high NQ was associated with a healthier lifestyle habits and a more favourable CMR profile (lower values of waist circumference and cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, lower concentrations of non-HDL-cholesterol, TAG and HbA1c). Some of these associations were independent of age, physical activity level (PAL) and CRF. A better NQ was also associated with a lower proportion of participants presenting the hypertriacylglycerolaemic waist phenotype independently of both PAL and CRF. The present study suggests that overall NQ can be assessed with a short food-based questionnaire and should be considered in clinical practice as a new ‘vital sign’ associated with other health behaviours and cardiometabolic health.
Individuals may perceive personalised dietary advice as more relevant and motivational than national guidelines. Personal preference and food cost are factors that can affect consumer decisions. The objective of this study was to present a method for modelling and analysing the trade-off between deviation from preference and food cost for optimised personalised dietary recommendations. Quadratic programming was applied to minimise deviation from fish preference and cost simultaneously with different weights on the cost for 3016 Danish adults (whose dietary intake and body weight were recorded in a national dietary survey). Model constraints included recommendations for EPA, DHA and vitamin D and tolerable levels for methyl mercury, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. When only minimising deviation from preference, 50 % of the study population should be recommended to increase fish intake, 48 % should be suggested to maintain current consumption and 2 % should be suggested to decrease fish consumption. When only minimising cost, the vast majority (99 %) should be recommended to only consume herring, which is the least-expensive fish species. By minimising deviation from preference and cost simultaneously with different weights on the cost, personalised optimal trade-off curves between deviation from fish intake preference and fish cost could be generated for each individual in our study population, except for twenty-two individuals (0·7 %) whose contaminant background exposure was too high. In the future, the method of this paper could be applied in the personal communication of healthy and safe food recommendations that fit the preferences of individual consumers.
Childhood is considered an important period for the development of healthy eating behaviours. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics, including early diet quality, on diet quality at 7 years. The sample includes 5013 children evaluated at the ages of 4 and 7 years from the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI with complete information on FFQ. A healthy eating index was developed at both ages to assess adherence to the WHO’s dietary recommendations, including eight food groups. Consumption quartiles were obtained for each group at 4 years and assigned a score between 1 and 4. A higher score represents a higher adherence to a better diet (range: 8 to 32). The associations between early life factors and sociodemographic characteristics and the score of the healthy eating index at 7 years were evaluated through linear regression models. The healthy eating index had an average score of 21⋅4 ± 3⋅53 (range: 12 to 32) at 4 years and 20⋅3 ± 3⋅36 (range: 11 to 31) at 7 years. After adjustment for confounders, a positive association was found between the healthy eating index at 4 and 7 years (β = 0⋅384, 95 % CI 0⋅356, 0⋅441). Maternal years of education (β = 0⋅094, 95 % CI 0⋅071, 0⋅116) and dietary score (β = 0⋅182, 95 % CI 0⋅155, 0⋅209) were positively associated with increasing dietary quality from 4 to 7 years. A healthier diet at preschool age, higher maternal education and a healthier diet increase the likelihood of maintaining a high healthy eating index score at school age.
The number of people avoiding gluten is growing in many Western countries. However, little information is available on their sociodemographic and dietary profiles. We aimed to describe sociodemographic, behavioural and dietary profiles of participants avoiding gluten in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort – excluding coeliac patients – who completed a questionnaire about food exclusions, with complete data on sociodemographic characteristics and dietary intake were included (n 20 456). Food group consumptions and nutrient intakes according to self-reported avoidance of gluten were estimated using ANCOVA adjusted for age, sex and daily energy intake. Based on principal component analysis, three dietary patterns (DP) were identified. Association between DP and avoidance of gluten was investigated using multivariate logistic regression. All data were weighted on the French census. A total of 10·31 (95 % CI 9·90, 10·73) % of the participants declared avoiding gluten, of which 1·65 % totally. They were more likely to be women, older persons, non-smokers, to have a lower educational level and declared more food intolerances. They had higher consumption of fruit, vegetables and lower consumption of dairy products, salty/sweet and fatty foods and alcohol. After adjustments on confounders, a healthy dietary pattern was positively associated with total gluten avoidance (ORQuintile5vsQuintile1 = 14·44, 95 % CI 8·62, 24·19). Our study highlighted that, in this population, individuals who avoid gluten from their diet tend to have a diet more favourable to health. These results can serve as a basis for future studies investigating the potential consequences of a gluten-free diet in non-coeliac population.