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Grape antioxidant dietary fibre (GADF) is a grape product rich in dietary fibre and natural antioxidants. We reported previously that GADF intake reduced apoptosis and induced a pro-reducing shift in the glutathione (GSH) redox status of the rat proximal colonic mucosa. The aim of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-apoptotic effect of GADF and their association with the oxidative environment of the distal colonic mucosa. The ability of GADF to modify colonic crypt cell proliferation was also investigated. Male Wistar rats (n 20) were fed with diets containing either cellulose (control group) or GADF (GADF group) as fibre for 4 weeks. GADF did not modify cell proliferation but induced a significant reduction of colonic apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma-2) and Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma extra large) were up-regulated in the mitochondria and down-regulated in the cytosol of the GADF mucosa, whereas the opposite was found for the pro-apoptotic protein Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein), leading to an anti-apoptotic shift in the pattern of expression of the Bcl-2 family. Cytosolic cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 levels and caspase-3 activity were reduced by GADF. The modulation of the antioxidant enzyme system and the increase of the cytosolic GSH:glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio elicited by GADF helped to reduce oxidative damage. The cytosolic GSH:GSSG ratio was negatively related to apoptosis. These results indicate that GADF acts on the expression of the pro- and anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins, attenuating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in the distal colonic mucosa. This effect appears to be associated with the antioxidant properties of GADF.
The present study investigated the effects of 3′-(4′-hydroxyl-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HDMPPA), the active principle compound of kimchi, on vascular damage in the experimental atherosclerotic animal. HDMPPA was administrated by an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg per d for 8 weeks to apoE knockout (KO) mice with an atherogenic diet containing 1 % cholesterol, and its effects were compared with vehicle-treated control mice. HDMPPA increased NO content in the aorta, accompanied by a decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. Furthermore, in the HDMPPA-treated group, aortic endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression was up-regulated compared with the control group. These results suggested that HDMPPA could maintain NO bioavailability through an increasing eNOS expression and preventing NO degradation by ROS. Furthermore, HDMPPA treatment in apoE KO mice inhibited eNOS uncoupling through an increase in vascular tetrahydrobiopterin content and a decrease in serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Moreover, HDMPPA ameliorates inflammatory-related protein expression in the aorta of apoE KO mice. Therefore, the present study suggests that HDMPPA, the active compound of kimchi, a Korean functional food, may exert its vascular protective effect through the preservation of NO bioavailability and suppression of the inflammatory response.
Naturally occurring sulforaphane (SF) has been extensively studied for cancer prevention. However, little is known as to which organs may be most affected by this agent, which impedes its further development. In the present study, SF was administered to rats orally either in a single dose or once daily for 7 d. Tissue distribution of SF was measured by a HPLC-based method. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), two well-known cytoprotective phase 2 enzymes, were measured using biochemical assays to assess tissue response to SF. SF was delivered to different organs in vastly different concentrations. Tissue uptake of SF was the greatest in the stomach, declining rapidly in the descending gastro-intestinal tract. SF was rapidly eliminated through urinary excretion, and urinary concentrations of SF equivalents were 2–4 orders of magnitude higher than those of plasma. Indeed, tissue uptake level of SF in the bladder was second only to that in the stomach. Tissue levels of SF in the colon, prostate and several other organs were very low, compared to those in the bladder and stomach. Moreover, induction levels of GST and NQO1 varied by 3- to 6-fold among the organs of SF-treated rats, though not strictly correlated with tissue exposure to SF. Thus, there is profound organ specificity in tissue exposure and response to dietary SF, suggesting that the potential chemopreventive benefit of dietary SF may differ significantly among organs. These findings may provide a basis for prioritising organs for further chemopreventive study of SF.
The present study aimed to explore the role(s) of the soya isoflavone genistein (GEN) in preventing the development of colon pre-neoplasia, using Wingless/int (WNT)/β-catenin as a molecular marker of colon abnormality. Specifically, the effects on the WNT/β-catenin signalling pathway from GEN were examined by using an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer model. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a control (CTL), a soya protein isolate (SPI) or a GEN diet from gestation to 13 weeks of age. The first sampling was conducted at 7 weeks of age for pre-AOM analysis. The remaining rats were injected with AOM at 7 weeks of age. The descending colon was collected 6 weeks later for the evaluation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), gene expression and nuclear protein accumulation. AOM injection induced aberrant nuclear accumulation of β-catenin in the CTL group but not in the SPI or GEN group. Moreover, the WNT target genes Cyclin D1 and c-Myc were repressed by SPI and GEN. Meanwhile, SPI and GEN suppressed the expression of WNT signalling genes including Wnt5a, Sfrp1, Sfrp2 and Sfrp5 to the similar level to that of the pre-AOM period. Rats fed SPI and GEN had a decreased number of total aberrant crypts. GEN feeding also resulted in a reduced number of ACF with N = 3 per foci. The reduction of WNT/β-catenin signalling was correlated with the decrease in total aberrant crypts. By testing WNT/β-catenin signalling as a biomarker of colon carcinogenic potential, we showed the novel role of GEN as a suppressor of carcinogen-induced WNT/β-catenin signalling in preventing the development of early colon neoplasia.
Obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation and the elevated circulating and tissue levels of inflammatory markers, including inflammation-related adipokines, released from white adipose tissue. The expression and release of these adipokines generally rises as the adipose tissue expands and hypoxic conditions start to develop within the tissue. Here, the effect of betaine, a trimethylglycine having a biological role as an osmolyte and a methyl donor, on the expression of inflammation-related markers was tested in human adipocytes under hypoxia. Differentiated adipocytes were cultivated under low (1 %) oxygen tension for 8–20 h. The expression of different adipokines, including IL-6, leptin, PPARγ, TNF-α and adiponectin, was measured by quantitative PCR by determining the relative mRNA level from the adipocytes. Hypoxia, in general, led to a decrease in the expression of PPARγ mRNA in human adipocytes, whereas the expression levels of leptin and IL-6 mRNA were substantially increased by hypoxia. The cultivation of adipocytes under hypoxia also led to a reduction in the expression of TNF-α mRNA. The results showed that hypoxia increased the relative quantification of leptin gene transcription, and that betaine (250 μmol/l) reduced this effect, caused by low oxygen conditions. Under hypoxia, betaine also reduced the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory markers IL-6 and TNF-α. These results demonstrate that the extensive changes in the expression of inflammation-related adipokines in human adipocytes caused by hypoxia can be diminished by the presence of physiologically relevant concentrations of betaine.
Proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in depression-like behaviour and apoptosis in the limbic system after myocardial infarction (MI). A PUFA n-3 diet or the combination of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 probiotics, when given before the ischaemic period, reduce circulating proinflammatory cytokines as well as apoptosis in the limbic system. The present study was designed to determine if the same nutritional interventions maintain their beneficial effects when started after the onset of the reperfusion period and attenuate depression-like behaviour observed after MI. MI was induced by the occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 40 min in rats. After the onset of reperfusion, animals were fed with a high- or low-PUFA n-3 diet, combined or not with one billion live bacteria of L. helveticus and B. longum. At 3 d post-MI, caspase-3 enzymatic activities and terminal 2′-deoxyuridine, 5′-triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end labelling (TUNEL)-positive cells were decreased in the CA1, dentate gyrus (DG) and amygdala with the high-PUFA n-3 diet, as compared to the three other diets. Probiotics attenuated caspase-3 activity and TUNEL-positive cells in the DG and the medial amygdala. At 2 weeks post-MI, depression-like behaviour was observed in the low-PUFA n-3 diet without probiotics-group, and this behaviour was attenuated with the high-PUFA n-3 diet or/and probiotics. These results indicate that a high-PUFA n-3 diet or the administration of probiotics, starting after the onset of reperfusion, are beneficial to attenuate apoptosis in the limbic system and post-MI depression in the rat.
Dietary oils containing large amounts of conjugated linolenic acids (CLnA) may be regarded as a source of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), which have been suspected to bear health-promoting properties. Indeed, CLnA can be converted into CLA in mammals. The objective of the present study was to investigate the uptake of CLnA and their metabolism into CLA in Caco-2 cells, as a validated in vitro model of the intestinal barrier. Caco-2 cells were incubated for 24 h in the presence of either α-eleostearic, β-eleostearic, catalpic or punicic acid. We first observed that Caco-2 cells take these CLnA up at different rates and then convert them but with varying efficiency depending on the structure of the Δ13 double bond. Finally, the distribution of CLnA between neutral lipids (NL) and phospholipids appeared to be linked to their number of trans double bonds: the higher the number, the higher the accumulation in the NL fraction.
The digestive function of low birth weight (LBW) pigs post-weaning has been poorly studied. Therefore, newborns from eleven hyperprolific sows were weighed, weaned at 27·2 d and fed a starter diet until sampling. Sampling was done between 18 and 28 d post-weaning. An LBW piglet (n 19) was defined as a piglet having a birth weight less than 1 kg and less than the lower quartile of litter birth weights. Normal birth weight (NBW) piglets (n 13) were having a birth weight close to the mean litter birth weight. For each piglet, eighty-eight variables were determined. Data were analysed with linear models with type of piglet and litter as predictors. A principal component analysis was performed to determine the most important discriminating variables. In the LBW pig, the development of the digestive tract post-weaning was delayed: lower small-intestinal weight:length ratio due to a thinner tela submucosa and tunica muscularis and a higher secretory capacity, both in the distal jejunum. These observations might be a consequence of lower circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations (126 (se 10·0) v. 158 (se 12·0) ng/ml for LBW and NBW, respectively) and a lower density of IGF-1 receptors in the proximal small intestine. Additionally, the plasma antioxidant capacity was lower for the LBW pig. Taken together, in the LBW piglet, the normal gut maturation post-weaning was retarded and this did not seem to be related to the weaning transition as such.
The effects of a compound including the secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulphinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulphinate oxide (PTSO), on the in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound comprised of PTSO (67 %) and PTS (33 %) dose-dependently killed invasive E. acervulina sporozoites and stimulated higher spleen cell proliferation. Broiler chickens continuously fed from hatch with PTSO/PTS compound-supplemented diet and orally challenged with live E. acervulina oocysts had increased body weight gain, decreased faecal oocyst excretion and greater E. acervulina profilin antibody responses, compared with chickens fed a non-supplemented diet. Differential gene expression by microarray hybridisation identified 1227 transcripts whose levels were significantly altered in the intestinal lymphocytes of PTSO/PTS-fed birds compared with non-supplemented controls (552 up-regulated, 675 down-regulated). Biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories ‘Disease and Disorder’ and ‘Physiological System Development and Function’. In the former category, the most significant function identified was ‘Inflammatory Response’, while the most significant function in the latter category was ‘Cardiovascular System Development and Function’. This new information documents the immunologic and genomic changes that occur in chickens following PTSO/PTS dietary supplementation, which are relevant to protective immunity during avian coccidiosis.
Growing evidence suggests that n-3 PUFA and their specific lipid mediators can reduce the activity of inflammatory processes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral n-3 PUFA supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis during methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal damage in the rat. A total of thirty-two male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (CONTR) rats; CONTR-n-3 PUFA rats treated with oral administration of n-3 PUFA at a dose of 300 μg/kg once per d 72 h before and 72 h following vehicle injection; MTX rats treated with a single dose of MTX; MTX-n-3 PUFA rats treated with oral n-3 PUFA following the injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis determined 72 h following MTX injection. Real-time PCR was used to determine B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl2 mRNA expression. Western blotting was used to determine phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase, β-catenin, Bax and Bcl2 protein levels. MTX-n-3 PUFA rats demonstrated a greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in the jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in the ileum, compared with MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-n-3 PUFA rats (v. MTX) was accompanied by decreased Bax mRNA and protein expression and increased Bcl2 mRNA levels. Thus, the treatment with oral n-3 PUFA prevented mucosal injury and improved intestinal recovery following MTX-injury in rats.
The aim of the present research was to study the prevalence and severity of vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic foot infection. Patients were enrolled in two groups: diabetic patients with foot infection (n 125) as cases and diabetic patients without the infection as controls (n 164). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by RIA. Data were presented as means and standard deviations unless otherwise indicated and were analysed by SPSS. Results revealed that 25(OH)D (nmol/l) was significantly lower (40·25 (sd 38·35) v. 50·75 (sd 33·00); P < 0·001) in cases than in controls. Vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D < 75 nmol/l) was equally common in cases and controls (OR 1·45, 95 % CI 0·8, 3·0; P = 0·32), but cases had a greater risk of vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l) than controls (OR 1·8, 95 % CI 1·1, 3·0; P = 0·02). Risk of severe vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 25 nmol/l) was significantly higher in cases than in controls (OR 4·0, 95 % CI 2·4, 6·9; P < 0·0001). Age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were significantly higher in cases than in controls and therefore adjusted to nullify the effect of these variables, if any, on study outcome. The study concluded that vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent and severe in patients with diabetic foot infection. This study opens up the issue of recognising severe vitamin D deficiency ( < 25 nmol/l) as a possible risk factor for diabetic foot infections and the need for vitamin D supplementation in such patients for a better clinical outcome. This could be substantiated by similar data from future studies.
Fe deficiency is still common in infancy, even in affluent societies, and has prompted Fe fortification of food products and use of Fe supplements in many populations. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Fe status among 9-month-old infants following the Danish Fe supplementation recommendation (>400 ml Fe-fortified formula or 8 mg Fe/d) is associated with more favourable levels of Fe status indicators compared to those not following the recommendation. A random sample of 9-month-old infants living in Copenhagen was established and 312 healthy term infants were examined at 9·1 (sd 0·3) months of age. Blood samples were available from 278 infants. Overall, twenty infants (7·8 %) had Fe deficiency (serum ferritin < 12 μg/l) and < 1 % had Fe deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin < 12 μg/l and Hb < 100 g/l). Serum ferritin was positively associated with birth weight (P < 0·001), intake of fortified formula and follow-on formula (P = 0·001), and female sex (P < 0·001). Cow's milk intake and length of exclusive breast-feeding were negatively associated with Hb levels (P = 0·013 and P < 0·001). Serum ferritin levels were significantly higher (P < 0·0001) and transferrin receptor (TfR) was significantly lower (P = 0·003) among infants (n 188) meeting the Fe supplementation recommendation compared to those (n 67) not meeting the recommendation. No significant difference between these two groups was found for Hb. In conclusion, this study confirmed that Fe status of infants following the Danish Fe supplementation recommendation was significantly associated with increased serum ferritin and decreased levels of TfR indicating more favourable Fe status, compared to infants not following the recommendation.
Assessment of body fat (BF) in pregnant women is important when investigating the relationship between maternal nutrition and offspring health. Convenient and accurate body composition methods applicable during pregnancy are therefore needed. Air displacement plethysmography, as applied in Bod Pod, represents such a method since it can assess body volume (BV) which, in combination with body weight, can be used to calculate body density and body composition. However, BV must be corrected for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) of the subject. In non-pregnant women, TGV may be predicted using equations, based on height and age. It is unknown, however, whether these equations are valid during pregnancy. Thus, we measured the TGV of women in gestational week 32 (n 27) by means of plethysmography and predicted their TGV using equations established for non-pregnant women. Body weight and BV of the women was measured using Bod Pod. Predicted TGV was significantly (P = 0·033) higher than measured TGV by 6 % on average. Calculations in hypothetical women showed that this overestimation tended to be more pronounced in women with small TGV than in women with large TGV. The overestimation of TGV resulted in a small but significant (P = 0·043) overestimation of BF, equivalent to only 0·5 % BF, on average. A Bland–Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement were narrow (from − 1·9 to 2·9 % BF). Thus, although predicted TGV was biased and too high, the effect on BF was marginal and probably unimportant in many situations.
Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. However, there are few data on dietary factors related to thyroid cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between raw vegetables and fruits intake and thyroid cancer in a case–control study. We included 111 histologically confirmed malignant thyroid cancer cases and 115 benign cases. Controls who did not have nodules in thyroid ultrasonography were matched to cases by age ( ± 2 years). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a quantitative FFQ with 121 items. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The intake of total vegetables was not associated with malignant thyroid cancer, but inversely associated with benign cases. High raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk both in malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·01 in both malignant and benign cases). Among fruits, persimmon intake had an inverse association with thyroid cancer risk in both malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·06 in malignant cases; P for trend = 0·01 in benign cases) and tangerine intake had an inverse association in malignant cases (P for trend = 0·03). The frequency of consumption of raw vegetables and persimmon also had a consistent inverse association in both malignant and benign cases. These results suggest that high consumption of raw vegetables, persimmons and tangerines may decrease thyroid cancer risk and help prevent early-stage thyroid cancer.
Alkylresorcinols (AR) have been established as short/medium-term biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake; and AR metabolites, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, have been suggested as complementary biomarkers to AR. The present study examined the medium-term reproducibility and relative validity of urinary AR metabolites as biomarkers for WG and cereal fibre intake. A total of sixty-six free-living Swedes completed 3 d weighed food records and provided single 24 h urine collections and morning urine spot samples on two occasions, 2–3 months apart. The medium-term reproducibility of urinary AR metabolites was moderate when assessed in 24 h collections and lower in creatinine (CR)-adjusted morning urine. Mean AR metabolite 24 h excretions correlated well with total WG (rs 0·31–0·52, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·46–0·58, P < 0·001) intake on both occasions. As expected, correlations with WG (rs 0·28–0·38, P < 0·05) and cereal fibre (rs 0·35–0·42, P < 0·01) were weaker for mean CR-adjusted AR metabolite concentrations in spot samples of morning urine, although the adjusted concentrations correlated well with 24 h urinary excretion (rs 0·69–0·73, P < 0·001). Adjustment for intra-individual variations substantially improved the correlations between intake and excretion. These findings suggest that urinary AR metabolites can successfully reflect the medium-term intake of WG and cereal fibre when adjusted for intra-individual variation in this population, where rye was the major contributor to high WG intake. The performance of urinary AR metabolites as medium-term biomarkers appears to be comparable to that of fasting plasma AR concentration in this population.
Determinants of a child's diet shortly after weaning and lactation have been relatively understudied. The aim of the present study was hence to identify common dietary patterns in toddlers and to explore parental and child indicators of these dietary patterns. The study was a population-based, prospective birth-cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption data of 2420 children aged 14 months were used. A ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern characterised by pasta, fruits, vegetables, oils, legumes and fish, and a ‘Western-like’ dietary pattern characterised by snacks, animal fats, confectionery and sugar-containing beverages were extracted using principal component analysis. Low paternal education, low household income, parental smoking, multiparity, maternal BMI, maternal carbohydrate intake and television-watching of child were determinants of a ‘Western-like’ diet, whereas parental age, dietary fibre intake during pregnancy, introduction of solids after 6 months and female sex were inversely associated with a ‘Western-like’ diet of the child. Maternal co-morbidity, alcohol consumption during pregnancy and female sex were inversely associated with a ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern of the child, while single parenthood, folic acid use and dietary fibre intake during pregnancy were positively associated. All aforementioned associations were statistically significant. In conclusion, both ‘Western-like’ and ‘Health conscious’ diets can already be identified in toddlers. Particularly, adherence to a ‘Western-like’ diet is associated with unfavourable lifestyle factors of the parents and child, and low socio-economic background. These findings can form a basis for future epidemiological studies regarding dietary patterns and health outcomes in young children.
Oxidative stress may be affected by lead exposure as well as antioxidants, yet little is known about the interaction between dietary antioxidants and blood lead levels (BLL) on oxidative stress level. We investigated the interaction between dietary antioxidants and BLL on oxidative stress level. As part of the Biomarker Monitoring for Environmental Health conducted in Seoul and Incheon, Korea, between April and December 2005, we analysed data from 683 adults (female = 47·4 %, mean age 51·4 (sd 8·4) years) who had complete measures on BLL, dietary intakes and oxidative stress marker (urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)). Dietary intakes were assessed by a validated semi-quantitative FFQ, BLL was measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 8-OHdG by ELISA. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the influence of BLL on the association between dietary antioxidants and 8-OHdG. Geometric means of BLL and 8-OHdG concentrations were 4·1 (sd 1·5) μg/dl and 5·4 (sd 1·9) μg/g creatinine, respectively. Increases of vitamins C and E were significantly associated with the decrease of log10 8-OHdG in the adults from the lowest quartile of the BLL group ( ≤ 3·18 μg/dl, geometric mean = 2·36 μg/dl) than those of the highest quartile BLL group (>5·36 μg/dl, geometric mean = 6·78 μg/dl). Regarding antioxidant-related foods, vegetables excluding kimchi showed a higher inverse relationship with 8-OHdG in the lowest quartile BLL group than the highest group. These findings suggest a rationale for lowering the BLL and increasing the intake of dietary antioxidants in the urban population in Korea.
The grey matter of the brain contains high levels of the essential nutrient DHA. Although the role of DHA in the developing brain and in dementia has attracted attention, its influence on the brain of the healthy adult has been little considered. A total of 285 young adult females took 400 mg of DHA, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, for 50 d. After 50 d, recently acquired information was more likely to be forgotten by those who had consumed DHA. No significant differences in mood, reaction times, vigilance or visual acuity were found.
Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are traditionally used to add bitterness and flavour to beer. Although the isomerised hop extracts produced by the brewing process have been thought to ameliorate lipid and glucose metabolism, the influence of untreated hop extracts on high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is unclear. The present study examined the anti-obesity effects of a hop extract in male C57BL/6J mice fed a HF diet, or HF diet plus 2 or 5 % hop extract for 20 weeks. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed at week 19. Furthermore, water excretion was evaluated in water-loaded Balb/c male mice. The effects of the extract on lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined. The hop extract inhibited the increase in body and adipose tissue weight, adipose cell diameter and liver lipids induced by the HF diet. Furthermore, it improved glucose intolerance. The extract enhanced water excretion in water-loaded mice. Various fractions of the hop extract inhibited lipid accumulation and PPARγ expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Hop extracts might be useful for preventing obesity and glucose intolerance caused by a HF diet.