To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) is a potent regulator of TAG metabolism, but knowledge of the mechanisms underlying ANGPTL4 transcription in response to fatty acids is still limited in teleost. In the current study, we explored the molecular characterisation of ANGPTL4 and regulatory mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in response to fatty acids in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Here, croaker angptl4 contained a 1416 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 471 amino acids with highly conserved 12-amino acid consensus motif. Angptl4 was widely expressed in croaker, with the highest expression in the liver. In vitro, oleic and palmitic acids (OA and PA) treatments strongly increased angptl4 mRNA expression in croaker hepatocytes. Moreover, angptl4 expression was positively regulated by PPAR family (PPAR-α, β and γ), and expression of PPARγ was also significantly increased in response to OA and PA. Moreover, inhibition of PPARγ abrogated OA- or PA-induced angptl4 mRNA expression. Beyond that, PA might increase angptl4 expression partly via the insulin signalling. Overall, the expression of ANGPTL4 is strongly upregulated by OA and PA via PPARγ in the liver of croaker, which contributes to improve the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of ANGPTL4 in fish.
Paediatric fatty liver disease (FLD) can develop into steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in adulthood. We assessed if early life physical exercise reduced the effects of high-fat (HF) diet-induced steatosis. Male HF-fed rats with access to a running wheel from weaning until day (D)60 (early exercise) or from D67 to D120 (late exercise) were compared with control HF- or chow-fed groups with no wheel. At D63 and D120, liver histopathology (Kleiner score), type I collagen and plasma enzymes were assessed. At D63, early life activity significantly reduced histopathology scores (total, portal inflammation, steatosis, ballooning, but not lobular inflammation or fibrosis) and the number of rats affected. At D120, HF control scores were higher than in chow-fed controls, but the effect of activity was selective: early exercise reduced portal inflammation, steatosis, ballooning and fibrosis, but late activity affected only portal inflammation and ballooning. The chow-fed portal inflammation score was significantly less than all HF groups, but lobular inflammation was lower in the HF control group only. The fibrosis score in the HF early exercise and control chow group were lower than in the late exercise and sedentary HF groups, indicating that early life exercise was more effective than when activity was introduced later in life. Plasma biomarkers showed minor between-group differences. The retained effect on liver histopathology rat at D120 after only early life exposure activity suggests that timing of introduction of exercise is critical in reducing FLD scores and prevalence in children, young adults and possibly into adulthood.
Over the last several decades, there has been an increase in chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative, inflammatory, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. Two eating patterns, a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and fasting, have been researched independently over this period and found to be beneficial in reducing many of these chronic diseases’ detrimental effects. However, there have been limited studies about the synergy of these eating patterns. This current scoping review aims to explore the evidence of the health outcomes of using a LCD in conjunction with fasting. Four databases were searched, and fifteen articles were found that fit the inclusion criteria. The articles reported positive effects of combining the two eating patterns for type 2 diabetes, CVD, inflammatory conditions and weight reduction and maintenance. LCD and fasting together provide synergy in decreasing metabolic syndrome (as the key causes of chronic illnesses), such as insulin levels, fasting glucose, blood pressure, TAG and regulating lipid profile. Due to the paucity of research, further high-quality studies are needed to substantiate this evidence.
To evaluate the effects of pistachio consumption on the glucoregulatory status in individuals with a high risk of CVD, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) were conducted. Online databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until June 2019. Human trials that reported data for fasting blood sugar (FBS), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were included. Data were pooled using the random effect models and expressed as weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95 % CI. Eight RCTs were included in the analyses. Pistachio consumption, exchanged isocalorically for other foods, decreased FBS (WMD: −5·32 mg/dl, 95 % CI (−7·80, −2·64), P < 0·001) and insulin (WMD: −1·86 µIU/ml, 95 % CI (−3·13, −0·59), P < 0·01) concentrations in individuals with a high risk of CVD. However, no changes were observed in the levels of HOMA-IR between the groups (WMD: −0·66, 95 % CI (−1·89, 0·58), P = 0·30). Pistachio consumption may improve glucoregulatory status in individuals at risk for CVD, as evidenced by reduced FBS and insulin concentrations. However, due to the limited availability of studies with diabetic cases and relatively small sample sizes of available studies, well-designed trials with adequate sample sizes aimed at diabetic populations are recommended.
Recent meta-analytic work indicated that guar gum supplementation might improve lipid profile markers in different populations. However, critical methodological limitations such as the use of some unreliable data and the lack of inclusion of several relevant studies, and the scarcity in assessments of regression and dose-specific effects make it difficult to draw meaningful conclusions from the meta-analysis. Therefore, current evidence regarding the effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile remains unclear. The present systematic review, meta-regression and dose–response meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile (total cholesterol (TC), LDL, TAG and HDL) in adults. Relevant studies were obtained by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase and Web of Science databases (from inception to September 2021). Weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95 % CI were estimated via a random-effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were reported using standard methods. Pooled analysis of nineteen randomised controlled trials (RCT) revealed that guar gum supplementation led to significant reductions in TC (WMD: −19·34 mg/dl, 95 % CI −26·18, −12·49, P < 0·001) and LDL (WMD: −16·19 mg/dl, 95 % CI −25·54, −6·83, P = 0·001). However, there was no effect on TAG and HDL among adults in comparison with control group. Our outcomes suggest that guar gum supplementation lowers TC and LDL in adults. Future large RCT on various populations are needed to show further beneficial effects of guar gum supplementation on lipid profile and establish guidelines for clinical practice.
In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the relationship between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of prostate cancer. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases for relevant articles and identified a total of thirty-three cohort studies between 1989 and 2020. The qualities of included studies were assessed using Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Pooled adjusted relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI were calculated. We performed subgroup analyses stratified by dairy type, prostate cancer type, follow-up years, treatment era, collection times, adjustment for confounders and geographic location. In the subgroup analysis stratified by prostate cancer type, the pooled RR were 0·98 (95 % CI 0·94, 1·03) in the advanced group, 1·10 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·24) in the non-advanced group and 0·92 (95 % CI 0·84, 1·00) in the fatal group. In the dose–response analysis, a positive association for the risk of prostate cancer was observed for total dairy products 400 g/d (RR: 1·02; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03), total milk 200 g/d (RR: 1·02; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·03), cheese 40 g/d (RR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) and butter 50 g/d (RR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·05). A decreased risk was observed for the intake of whole milk 100 g/d (RR: 0·97; 95 % CI 0·96, 0·99). Our meta-analysis suggests that high intakes of dairy products may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer; however, since many of the studies were affected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening bias, additional studies with an adjustment of PSA screening are needed.
Vitamin D (VD) deficiency (serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of < 20 ng/ml), in endemic proportions, demands a supplementation strategy with optimal dosing regimens. A randomised parallel-group, active-controlled trial was conducted among apparently healthy, VD-deficient subjects, aged 18–60 years who received 600 μg/d (Group A), 1000 μg/d (Group B), 2000 μg/d (Group C) and 60 000 μg/month (Group D) of oral cholecalciferol. The intervention was carried in two phases (I and II) of 12 weeks each, with same dose, separated by a washout phase of 12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormones (iPTH), Ca, phosphorous (PO4), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and spot urine Ca/Cr were measured at baseline, 12, 24 and 36 weeks following the intervention, and adverse events were recorded at each occurrence and at 12, 24 and 36 weeks. A statistically significant time–group interaction was found in serum 25(OH)D concentration (P < 0·05). Serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly from baseline to 12 weeks (P < 0·05) in all the groups with no change at 24 weeks but further increase at 36 weeks (P < 0·05). At the end of the study, Group C had maximum increment in serum 25(OH)D concentration, while as Groups C and D (95 %, and 90 %) had higher proportion of subjects VD sufficient than Groups A and B (65 % and 78 %) (P < 0·05). No significant time–dose interactions were observed in serum iPTH, Ca, PO4 and ALP or urine Ca/Cr ratio. Three subjects (two in Group C and one in Group D) developed transient hypercalciuria. Supplementation with daily 2000 μg or monthly 60 000 μg of oral cholecalciferol among adults seems optimal and safe.
This study aimed to determine whether higher intakes of Na, added sugars and saturated fat are prospectively associated with all-cause mortality and CVD incidence and mortality in a diverse population. The nationally representative Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition 2004 was linked with the Canadian Vital Statistics – Death Database and the Discharge Abstract Database (2004–2011). Outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD incidence and mortality. There were 1722 mortality cases within 115 566 person-years of follow-up (median (interquartile range) of 7·48 (7·22–7·70) years). There was no statistically significant association between Na density or energy from saturated fat and all-cause mortality or CVD events for all models investigated. The association of usual percentage of energy from added sugars and all-cause mortality was significant in the base model with participants consuming 11·47 % of energy from added sugars having 1·34 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·77) times higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with those consuming 4·17 % of energy from added sugars. Overall, our results did not find statistically significant associations between the three nutrients and risk of all-cause mortality or CVD events at the population level in Canada. Large-scale linked national nutrition datasets may not have the discrimination to identify prospective impacts of nutrients on health measures.
Technology-enabled approaches to conducting 24-h dietary recalls (24HR) may reduce dietary assessment bottlenecks in low-resource settings. However, few studies have assessed their performance relative to conventional pen-and-paper interview (PAPI) approaches and none have validated performance against a benchmark (e.g. weighed food record (WFR)) in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). This study assessed relative accuracy and cost-effectiveness of INDDEX24, a technology-enabled approach to conducting 24HR, compared with a PAPI approach and against an observer WFR. Women aged 18–49 years from northern Viet Nam (n 234) were randomly assigned to be interviewed using INDDEX24 or PAPI 24HR following a WFR. The two one-sided t test approach assessed the equivalence of each recall modality to the benchmark. Difference-in-differences analysis compared the recall-benchmark results across modalities. Cost per percentage point of accuracy for INDDEX24 and PAPI was derived from accuracy results and the cost to conduct the 24HR. The PAPI and INDDEX24 24HR were statistically equivalent to the WFR for all nutrients except vitamin A. INDDEX24 diverged significantly less than PAPI from the WFR for Fe (0·9 v. −1·3 mg) and PAPI diverged less for protein (–3·7 v. 7·9 g). At the individual level, 26 % of PAPI and 32 % of INDDEX24 respondents had energy intakes within +/– 10 % of the WFR. INDDEX24 cost $111 004 and the PAPI cost $120 483 (USD 2019), making INDDEX24 more cost-effective across most indicators. INDDEX24 was an accurate and cost-effective method for assessing dietary intake in the study context and represents a preferred alternative to PAPI 24HR in Viet Nam and other LMIC.
Vitamin A is an essential micronutrient, especially during pregnancy. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in Brazilian women of childbearing age. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies that assessed vitamin A deficiency in women of childbearing age following the registered protocol (CRD42020171856). Independent peer researchers selected the studies retrieved from MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and other sources. Data from the eligible studies were extracted in pairs and assessed for methodological quality. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (< 0·70 µmol/l or <0·20 µg/dl) and 95 % CI was combined by meta-analysis, and heterogeneity was estimated by I2. Out of 3610 screened records, thirty-two studies were included, which assessed 12 577 women from 1965 to 2017, mostly in maternity hospitals. Main limitations of the studies were in sample frame (30/32) and sampling method (29/32). Deficiency occurred in 13 % (95 % CI 9·4, 17·2 %; I² = 97 %) of all women and was higher in pregnant women (16·1 %; 95 % CI 5·6, 30·6 %; I² = 98 %) than non-pregnant women (12·3 %; 95 % CI 8·4, 16·8 %; I² = 96 %). The prevalence increased according to the decade, from 9·5 % (95 % CI 1·9–21·6 %; I² = 98 %) up to 1990, 10·8 % (95 % CI 7·9, 14·2 %; I² = 86 %) in the 2000s and 17·8 % (95 % CI 8·7, 29·0 %; I² = 98 %) in the 2010s. Over 10 % of Brazilian women in childbearing age were deficient in vitamin A. Higher prevalence was observed in pregnant women, and deficiency seemed to be increasing over the decades. Low representativeness of the studies, mainly based on convenience sampling that included pregnant, postpartum, lactating and non-pregnant women, as well as high heterogeneity, limits the findings.
Evidence on the association between children’s food insecurity (FI) and dietary patterns (DPs) is scarce. This study assessed the association between children’s FI and a priori and a posteriori-defined DPs in a Portuguese population-based sample of children. A cross-sectional study including 2800 children from the 10-year-old follow-up of the Generation XXI birth cohort was performed. Data on food security status, assessed by the Self-administered Food Security Survey Module for children (SAFSSMC), dietary intake and socio-demographics were collected. A previously developed Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was adapted for this study. Using the HEI score and its food groups, linear and logistic regression models were performed. Using latent class analysis, five a posteriori-defined DPs were identified. The DPs names considered an overall picture of the DP. Food security status as a categorical (food security/FI) and continuous variable (SAFSSMC raw score: higher scores representing higher FI) was used. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to assess the association between food security status and DPs. Children’s FI (9·4 %) was inversely associated with the HEI score (β=–0·695;95%CI:–1·154,–0·235), representing worse diet quality. A higher SAFSSMC raw score was associated with low fruit and vegetables (OR=1·089;95%CI:1·023,1·159) and seafood and eggs consumption (OR=1·073;95%CI:1·009,1·142) and high consumption of meat and meat products (OR=1·091;95%CI:1·026,1·160), salty snacks (OR=1·067;95%CI:1·003,1·136) and soft drinks (OR=1·097;95%CI:1·031,1·168). The SAFSSMC raw score was positively associated with ‘Low consumption’ (OR=1·119;95%CI:1·016,1·232), ‘Energy-dense foods’ (OR=1·155;95%CI:1·028,1·298) and ‘Snacking’ (OR=1·119;95%CI:1·006,1·245) DPs. FI was associated with worse dietary choices. Intervention strategies targeting food insecure children should be developed to promote healthy dietary habits.
As a frequent and serious problem in elderly people, malnutrition is a complex health issue. It requires comprehensive care through interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) engaging five health professionals in primary care consisting of a physician, dentist, nurse, dietitian and pharmacist. In Indonesia, the usual care involves monthly health screening in community programmes named Posyandu. The current study aimed to explore perceptions of elderly people with malnutrition and their families’ experiences with interprofessional teams compared with usual care in primary care. This qualitative study used the phenomenological approach based on Creswell. Interviews were conducted with fourteen elderly people and their families in the intervention group and fourteen elderly people with their families in the control group. Data were analysed using the four steps of descriptive qualitative analysis described by Giorgi, including comparing the experiences of both groups. Elderly people with malnutrition in the intervention group had more valued experiences regarding two-way communication with the IPCP team and felt it involved more comprehensive care for malnutrition management. Participants in the control group experienced communication between the health care providers and elderly people; however, it was not clear enough. There were overlapping roles among health care providers in the usual care. However, both groups shared the experience that family members are partners in nutritional management. Elderly people and their families in the intervention group have more valuable experiences related to two-way communication and comprehensive care. Family as partners was experienced in both the intervention and control groups.
Some evidence suggests that breast-feeding may modify food preferences in the later years of life. The present study aimed to provide a systematic review of observational studies investigating the association between exposure to breast milk and its duration with data-driven or hypothesis-driven (or diet quality scores) dietary patterns over 1 year of age. The databases of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for observational studies published from January 2010 until July 2021, which led to the identification of twenty-two eligible articles. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies in terms of assessment of exposure and outcome. Of the eleven studies that assessed data-driven dietary patterns, ten reported a significant association for at least one identified dietary pattern. Overall, being breast-fed and a longer duration of any/exclusive breast-feeding were associated with higher scores on healthy dietary patterns characterised mainly by high loadings of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. In comparison, a negative association was found for unhealthy dietary patterns rich in foods with high content of added sugar, salt and saturated fats. In terms of diet quality scores, nine out of eleven studies reported a significant positive association between the duration of any breast-feeding and adherence to recommended healthy diets or dietary guidelines. In conclusion, the evidence from this review was generally in support of the hypothesis indicating breast-feeding is associated with healthy dietary patterns at later ages. However, due to the methodological limitations in the available studies, further research is warranted to elucidate solid evidence on this topic.
Mechanistic studies have suggested that antioxidants have beneficial effects on age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study aimed to investigate the association between the types and sources of dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes and AMD risk in China. A matched case–control study of 260 AMD cases and 260 matched controls was performed. The participants were interviewed for dietary information and potential confounders, and comprehensive ophthalmic examinations were performed. Conditional logistic models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of specific vitamins and carotenoids and their main sources. When comparing the extreme quartiles, the ORs (95 % CI) were 0·30 (0·10, 0·88) for lutein and 0·28 (0·11, 0·74) for β-cryptoxanthin. The associations for other dietary vitamin and carotenoid intakes were generally weaker and non-significant. Higher intakes of spinach and egg, which are important sources of lutein, were associated with a reduced odds of AMD. ORs (95% CIs) comparing extreme categories were 0·42 (0·20, 0·88) for spinach and 0·52 (95% CI: 0·27, 0·98) for egg. Participants who were in the highest category of both egg intake and spinach intake had a much greater reduced odds of having AMD (OR: 0·23; 95% CI: 0·08, 0·71) than those in the lowest category of egg intake and spinach intake. In conclusion, a higher intake of lutein and lutein-rich foods was associated with a significantly decreased odds of AMD. These findings provide further evidence of the benefits of lutein and lutein-rich foods in the prevention of AMD.
Immunoprophylaxis has not completely eliminated hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to hyporesponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). We explored the impact of folic acid supplementation (FAS) in pregnant women with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) on their infant hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) and the mediation effect of infant interleukin-4 (IL-4). We recruited HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates at baseline. Maternal FAS was obtained via a questionnaire, and neonatal anti-HBs and IL-4 were detected. Follow-up was performed at 11–13 months of age of infants, when anti-HBs and IL-4 were measured. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses. A mediation effect model was performed to explore the mediating role of IL-4. A total of 399 mother–neonate pairs were enrolled and 195 mother–infant pairs were eligible for this analysis. The infant anti-HBs geometric mean concentrations in the maternal FAS group were significnatly higher than those in the no-FAS group (383·8 mIU/ml, 95 % CI: 294·2 mIU/ml to 500·7 mIU/ml v. 217·0 mIU/ml, 95 % CI: 147·0 mIU/ml to 320·4 mIU/ml, z = –3·2, P = 0·001). Infants born to women who took folic acid (FA) within the first trimester were more likely to have high anti-HBs titres (adjusted β-value = 194·1, P = 0·003). The fold change in IL-4 from neonates to infants partially mediated the beneficial influence of maternal FAS on infant anti-HBs (24·7 % mediation effect) after adjusting for confounding factors. FAS during the first trimester to HBsAg-positive mothers could facilitate higher anti-HBs levels in infants aged 11–13 months partly by upregulating IL-4 in infants.
In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) and a comprehensive profile of malnutrition in Iranian haemodialysis (HD) patients. In this cross-sectional study, 291 participants on HD for at least 6 months before enrollment were included. The current dietary intakes of participants were assessed using a 4-d diet diary-assisted recall, including 2 non-dialysis days and 2 dialysis days to calculate E-DII. To determine the malnutrition status of HD patients, BMI, subjective global assessment (SGA), dialysis malnutrition score (DMS) and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS) were used. Overall, 291 HD patients comprised our study population. After controlling for potential confounders, E-DII was associated with a higher risk of malnutrition, as evidenced by SGA (OR = 2·23; 95 % CI: 1·11, 4·49), DMS (OR = 2·31; 95 % CI: 1·16, 4·60) and MIS (OR = 2·50; 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·88). No significant association was detected between E-DII and BMI either before (OR = 1·78; 95 % CI: 0·83, 3·81) or after adjustment for possible confounders (OR = 1·43; 95 % CI: 0·58, 3·54). This study showed that E-DII was significantly associated with reliable malnutrition markers including SGA, DMS and MIS in HD patients. However, further longitudinal studies are warranted to infer a cause-and-effect relationship between DII and malnutrition.
The long-term impact of weight cycling on health status, eating habits, physical activity and the lifestyle of former combat sports athletes is still insufficiently explored. Therefore, a novel questionnaire in English, Portuguese, Spanish and Croatian language was constructed. To determine the reliability and the content/face validity, a total of 110 participants filled the questionnaire on two occasions. With the majority of intra-class correlation coefficient values above 0·75, the questionnaire items were shown to be very stable. Additionally, according to κ values, the questionnaire has fair test–retest reliability, with only one coefficient being labelled as poor (Q40 in ESP). All questionnaire sub-scales showed moderate to very good internal consistency when the overall sample was observed (α ranging from 0·605 to 0·802). Poor α values were found only in Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire for CRO and ESP samples. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed significant differences only in the Mindful Eating Questionnaire sub-scale scores (overall: P = 0·002, effect size = −0·208 [moderate]; CRO: P = 0·005, effect size = 0·303 [moderate]). It can be concluded that the newly developed questionnaire had strong test–retest reliability. Further validity research in a larger sample of former combat sports athletes should be considered.