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Members of the Perinatal Lipid Intake Working Group
Gioia Alvino, Juliana von Berlepsch, Hans Konrad Biesalski, Tom Clandinin, Hildegard Debertina, Tamás Decsi, Hans Demmelmaira, Gernot Desoyebc, Veronika Dietz, Peter Dodds, Pauline Emmett, Fabio Facchinettid, Matthew W. Gillman, Joachim Heinrich, Emilio Herrerab, Irene Hoesli, William C. Heird, Matthew Hyde, Kirsi Laitinen, John Laws, Elvira Larqué Daza, Iliana Lopez-Soldado, Maria Makrides, Kim Fleischer Michaelsene, Sjurdur Olsen, Henar Ortega, Guy Putet, Imogen Rogers, Paola Roggero, Lubos Sobotkaf, Hania Szajewskag, Hope Weiler.
(Representing: aChild Health Foundation, bDPSG, cIFPA, dEAPM, eISSFAL, fESPEN, gESPGHAN.)
Dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation affects pregnancy outcomes and child growth, development and health. The European Commission charged the research project PERILIP, jointly with the Early Nutrition Programming Project, to develop recommendations on dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation. Literature reviews were performed and a consensus conference held with international experts in the field, including representatives of international scientific associations. The adopted conclusions include: dietary fat intake in pregnancy and lactation (energy%) should be as recommended for the general population; pregnant and lactating women should aim to achieve an average dietary intake of at least 200 mg DHA/d; intakes of up to 1 g/d DHA or 2·7 g/d n-3 long-chain PUFA have been used in randomized clinical trials without significant adverse effects; women of childbearing age should aim to consume one to two portions of sea fish per week, including oily fish; intake of the DHA precursor, α-linolenic acid, is far less effective with regard to DHA deposition in fetal brain than preformed DHA; intake of fish or other sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids results in a slightly longer pregnancy duration; dietary inadequacies should be screened for during pregnancy and individual counselling be offered if needed.
This study investigated the associations among vitamin D receptor (VDR) BsmI polymorphism, calcium intake and bone strength as indicated by the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) measured by calcaneal quantitative ultrasound at the left calcaneus in community-dwelling subjects with a low calcium intake. The VDR BsmI polymorphism was analysed in 335 women older than 65 years residing in rural Asan, Korea. Calcium intake was assessed with a 2 d, 24 h recall method. The distribution of genotypes was similar to that reported in other Asian populations (92 % bb, 7 % Bb and 1 % BB). The calcaneal BUA was significantly higher (P = 0·013) in the bb genotype than in the Bb or BB genotype (Bb and BB genotypes were combined due to the small number of BB subjects) in a multiple regression model after adjusting for age, body weight, height, physical activity and nutritional factors. BUA was not significantly affected by the calcium intake regardless of the genotype, cross-sectionally. The energy-adjusted average calcium intake of this population was 439·6 mg/d (432·5 mg/d for bb and 522·3 mg/d for Bb or BB), and 96 % of the subjects had dietary intakes that were less than the recommended Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans (which for calcium is 800 mg/d for women older than 65 years). In summary, the BUA in older Korean women with a low calcium intake was significantly influenced by the VDR genotype but not by the calcium intake, cross-sectionally.
It has been shown that treatment of rats with clofibrate, a synthetic agonist of PPARα, increases mRNA concentration of organic cation transporters (OCTN)-1 and -2 and concentration of carnitine in the liver. Since oxidised fats have been demonstrated in rats to activate hepatic PPARα, we tested the hypothesis that they also up regulate OCTN. Eighteen rats were orally administered either sunflower-seed oil (control group) or an oxidised fat prepared by heating sunflower-seed oil, for 6 d. Rats administered the oxidised fat had higher mRNA concentrations of typical PPARα target genes such as acyl-CoA oxidase, cytochrome P450 4A1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferases-1A and -2 in liver and small intestine than control rats (P < 0·05). Furthermore, rats treated with oxidised fat had higher hepatic mRNA concentrations of OCTN1 (1·5-fold) and OCTN2 (3·1-fold), a higher carnitine concentration in the liver and lower carnitine concentrations in plasma, gastrocnemius and heart muscle than control rats (P < 0·05). Moreover, rats administered oxidised fat had a higher mRNA concentration of OCTN2 in small intestine (2·4-fold; P < 0·05) than control rats. In conclusion, the present study shows that an oxidised fat causes an up regulation of OCTN in the liver and small intestine. An increased hepatic carnitine concentration in rats treated with the oxidised fat is probably at least in part due to an increased uptake of carnitine into the liver which in turn leads to reduced plasma and muscle carnitine concentrations. The present study supports the hypothesis that nutrients acting as PPARα agonists influence whole-body carnitine homeostasis.
Foods containing plant sterol or stanol esters can be beneficial in lowering LDL-cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CVD. The present study examined whether high dietary intake of rapeseed oil (RSO) derived plant sterol and stanol esters is associated with increased levels of these components in brain tissue of homozygous and heterozygous Watanabe rabbits, an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia. Homozygous animals received either a standard diet, RSO stanol or RSO sterol ester while heterozygous animals were additionally fed with 2 g cholesterol/kg to the respective diet form for 120 d (n 9 for each group). Concentrations of cholesterol, its precursor lathosterol, plant sterols and stanols in brain and additionally in liver and plasma were determined by highly sensitive GC–MS. High-dose intake of RSO derived plant sterols and stanols resulted in increased levels of these components in plasma and liver. In brain a limited uptake of plant sterols and stanols was proven, indicating that these compounds passed the blood–brain barrier and may be retained in the brain tissue of Watanabe rabbits. Plant stanol ester feeding lowered plant sterol levels in brain, liver, and plasma. Cholesterol synthesis in brain, indicated by lathosterol, a local surrogate cholesterol synthesis marker, does not seem to be affected by plant sterol or stanol ester feeding. We conclude that high dose intake of plant sterol and stanol esters in Watanabe rabbits results in elevated concentrations of these components not only in the periphery but also in the central nervous system.
An inverse relationship between Ca intake and BMI has been found in several studies. It has been suggested that Ca affects adipocyte metabolism via suppressing 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2-D3) and decreases fat absorption. We studied the effect of Ca and milk proteins (whey and casein) on body weight in C57Bl/6J mice. Male mice, age 9 weeks, were divided into three groups (ten mice per group) receiving modified high-fat (60 % of energy) diets. Two groups received a high-Ca diet (1·8 % calcium carbonate (CaCO3)), with casein or whey protein (18 % of energy), and one group received a low-Ca diet (0·4 % CaCO3) with casein for 21 weeks. Food intake was measured daily and body weight twice per week. Body fat content (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) of all mice and faecal Ca and fat excretion of seven mice/group were measured twice during the study. Final body weight (44·1 (sem 1·1) g) and body fat content (41·6 (sem 0·6) %) were significantly lower (P < 0·05) in the high-Ca whey group than in the low-Ca casein group (48·1 (sem 0·8) g and 44·9 (sem 0·8) %). Body weight and body fat content of the high-Ca casein group did not differ significantly from the low-Ca casein group even though serum 1,25(OH)2-D3 levels were significantly lower (P < 0·001) in both high-Ca groups than in the low-Ca casein group. Thus changes in serum 1,25(OH)2-D3 do not seem to affect body weight in this animal model. There was a significant difference in fat excretion between the high-Ca whey and low-Ca casein groups (3·9 (sem 0·9) % in the high-Ca whey v. 1·4 (sem 0·2) % in the low-Ca casein group; P < 0·05), which may partly explain the effect on body weight.
In food databases, the specific contents of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in food have been implemented in the last 10 years. No consensus has yet been established on the relative activity between the components. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relative activity of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 compared to vitamin D3. The design was a parallel study in pigs (n 24), which from an age of 12 weeks until slaughter 11 weeks later were fed approximately 55 μg vitamin D/d, as vitamin D3, in a mixture of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The end-points measured were plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and in the liver and loin the content of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the feed did not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the plasma, liver or loin differently, while a significant effect was shown on vitamin D3 in the liver and loin (P < 0·001). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in the plasma, liver and loin significantly correlates with the sum of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the feed (P < 0·05). Therefore, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 should be regarded as having the same activity as vitamin D3 in food databases. Sole use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as a vitamin D source in pig feed will produce liver and meat with a negligible content of vitamin D3, while an increased content of vitamin D3 in the feed will produce liver and meat with increased content of both vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.
We examined the antioxidant effects of polyphenol/anthocyanin-rich potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Shadow-Queen) flakes in male rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The rats were served either a high-cholesterol (0·5 % cholesterol plus 0·125 % sodium cholate) diet, or a high-cholesterol diet containing a mixture of 243 g α-maize starch/kg supplemented with one of the following (per kg diet): 300 g medium purple potato (Shadow-Queen), 300 g white potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Toyoshiro) or 300 g dark purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Ayamurasaki) flakes for 28 d. We analysed thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels in the serum and liver, and antioxidant enzyme activities in the liver. At this dosage, TBARS levels in the serum and liver of the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly lower than those in the control and Toyoshiro groups. The serum urate levels in all the flake groups were significantly lower than that in the control group. The hepatic glutathione levels in the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly higher than in the control and Toyoshiro groups. The activities of hepatic glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase in the Shadow-Queen and Ayamurasaki groups were significantly greater than those in the control group. These results show that modulation of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative status in the serum and liver by the purple potato flake diet (Shadow-Queen) containing polyphenols/anthocyanins may play an important role in the protection against adverse effects related to oxidative damage in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
Previously we have reported that maternal malnutrition during lactation programmes body weight and thyroid function in the adult offspring. In the present study we evaluated the effect of maternal protein restriction during lactation upon body composition and hormones related to glucose homeostasis in adult rats. During lactation, Wistar lactating rats and their pups were divided into two experimental groups: control (fed a normal diet; 23 % protein) and protein-restricted (PR; fed a diet containing 8 % protein). At weaning, offspring received a normal diet until they were 180 d old. Body weight (BW) and food intake were monitored. Serum, adrenal glands, visceral fat mass (VFM) and carcasses were collected. PR rats showed lower BW ( − 13 %; P < 0·05), VFM ( − 33 %; P < 0·05), total body fat ( − 33 %; P < 0·05), serum glucose ( − 7 %; P < 0·05), serum insulin ( − 26 %, P < 0·05), homeostasis model assessment index ( − 20 %), but higher total adrenal catecholamine content (+90 %; P < 0·05) and serum corticosterone concentration (+51 %; P < 0·05). No change was observed in food intake, protein mass or total body water. The lower BW of PR rats is due to a reduction of white fat tissue, probably caused by an increase in lipolysis or impairment of lipogenesis; both effects could be related to higher catecholaminergic status, as well as to hypoinsulinaemia. To conclude, changes in key hormones which control intermediary metabolism are programmed by maternal protein restriction during lactation, resulting in BW alterations in adult rats.
Subjects with obesity and elevated fasting blood glucose are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes which may be reduced by a dietary intervention leading to an improvement of insulin resistance. We investigated the potential of a whole-grain based dietary product (WG) with reduced starch content derived from double-fermented wheat during a hypo-energetic diet to positively influence body weight, fasting blood glucose, insulin resistance and lipids in comparison to a nutrient-dense meal replacement product (MR) in a randomized two-way cross-over study with two 4-week treatment periods separated by a 2-week wash-out. Subjects replaced at least two daily meals with WG and MR, respectively, targeting for a consumption of 200 g of either product per day. Total daily energy intake was limited to 7120 kJ. Thirty-one subjects (BMI 33·9 (sd 2·7) kg/m2, fasting blood glucose 6·3 (sd 0·8) mmol/l) completed the study. In both treatment groups body weight ( − 2·5 (sd 2·0) v. − 3·2 (sd 1·6) kg for WG v. MR), fasting blood glucose ( − 0·4 (sd 0·3) v. − 0·5 (sd 0·5) mmol/l), total cholesterol ( − 0·5 (sd 0·5) v. − 0·6 (sd 0·5) mmol/l), TAG ( − 0·3 (sd 0·9) v. − 0·3 (sd 1·2) mmol/l) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance score ( − 0·7 (sd 0·8) v. − 1·1 (sd 1·7) μU/ml × mmol/l) improved (P < 0·05) with no significant differences between the treatments. After statistical adjustment for the amount of body weight lost, however, the comparison between both groups revealed that fasting serum insulin (P = 0·031) and HOMA insulin resistance score (P = 0·049) improved better with WG than with MR. We conclude that WG favourably influences metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes independent from the amount of body weight lost during a hypo-energetic diet.
The aim of the present study was to verify whether the oral administration of cyanidin 3-O-β-d-glucoside (C3G) might counteract damage induced by chronic exposure (28 d) to ochratoxin A (OTA) in rats and if its effect may be mediated by haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Forty male Sprague–Dawley rats, individually caged, were divided into four groups of ten animals. A control group received a commercial diet, group C3G received the control diet supplemented with C3G (1 g/kg feed), group OTA received the control diet supplemented with 200 parts per billion of OTA, and group OTA+C3G received the OTA group diet supplemented with C3G (1 g/kg feed). After 4 weeks of treatment animals were killed and the liver, kidneys and brain of each rat were collected and homogenised to evaluate non-proteic thiol groups (RSH), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) levels, HO-1 expression and DNA fragmentation. Rats of the OTA group showed a significant (P < 0·001) decrease in RSH content of kidney and liver and a significant (P < 0·001) increase of LOOH in all the examined tissues compared with the control group. In the OTA+C3G group both RSH content and LOOH levels were similar to those observed in the control group, demonstrating that C3G was able to counteract the effects of OTA. A significant (P < 0·001) induction of HO-1 was evident in kidney and liver of both OTA and C3G groups. DNA damage occurred in all the examined tissues of the OTA group, whereas C3G was able to prevent it. The present study confirmed that the effects of OTA are mediated by oxidative stress and demonstrated that C3G efficiently counteracted deleterious effects of OTA because of its antioxidant and HO-1-inducing properties.
Undernutrition is common in surgical patients, is frequently unrecognised and is strongly associated with adverse outcomes such as high rates of complications and mortality, worsening functional status and prolonged hospitalisation. Owing to the associated infection and symptoms such as repeated vomiting, a high prevalence of undernutrition is expected in hydrocephalus patients, which may contribute to their poor surgical outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preoperative nutritional status on the outcome of Indian patients with hydrocephalus undergoing neurosurgical shunt surgery. One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients undergoing scheduled hydrocephalus shunt surgery were studied prospectively. All patients underwent nutritional screening according to different parameters prior to surgery. The patients were classified into normally nourished and undernourished groups. The undernourished group was further subdivided into moderately and severely undernourished. The surgical outcome was compared between these groups. A high prevalence (53 %) of undernutrition was observed in these patients. Postoperative complications such as shunt infection (P = 0·0023), shunt revision (P = 0·0074) and mortality (P = 0·0003) were significantly more common in undernourished patients compared with normally nourished patients. Serum albumin emerged as the most significant independent predictor of postoperative mortality. The present study demonstrated a high prevalence of undernutrition in hydrocephalus patients in India and its adverse influence on the outcome of shunt surgery. Early preoperative nutritional status screening and its optimisation may decrease the morbidity and mortality of shunt surgery for hydrocephalus.
Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60 %), moderate (25 %) and strong (15 %) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivoO-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products.
The importance of the one-carbon metabolites, choline and homocysteine, to brain function is well known. However, the associations between the one-carbon metabolites choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine with cognition in elderly are unclear. We therefore examined the associations of these metabolites with cognition in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Individuals (n 195) were randomized to receive daily oral capsules with either 1000 μg cobalamin (vitamin B12), or 1000 μg cobalamin plus 400 μg folic acid, or placebo for 24 weeks. Concentrations of homocysteine, methionine, choline, betaine and dimethylglycine were assessed before and after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. Cognitive function, including domains of attention, construction, sensomotor speed, memory and executive function, was assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment. At baseline, elevated plasma homocysteine was associated with lower performance of attention, construction, sensomotor speed and executive function. In addition, betaine was positively associated with better performance of construction, sensomotor speed and executive function, whereas elevated concentrations of methionine were positively associated with sensomotor speed. Daily combined supplementation with cobalamin plus folic acid decreased total homocysteine concentrations by 36 %, and increased betaine concentrations by 38 %. Participants with the largest increases in betaine concentrations showed a borderline significant (P = 0·07) higher memory performance compared to those without it. Although this trial observed associations of homocysteine and betaine with cognitive domains prior to supplementation, decreased concentrations of homocysteine were not related to improved cognitive performance. There was a tendency of participants with the largest increases in betaine concentrations to show the greatest improvement in memory function.
Probiotics have potential to improve host immunity; however, there is less evidence showing their efficacy against infections and nutritional status in the elderly. We conducted a double-blinded feeding trial in the elderly to elucidate the effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (LC1®) on infections and nutritional status. Twenty-four completely enterally fed elderly in-patients aged over 70 years were randomly assigned into two groups. All subjects were administered 3768 kJ (900 kcal)/d of total enteral nutrition (EN) through tube feeding for 12 weeks. Subjects in the LC1 group were administered 373 kJ (89 kcal)/d of LC1 fermented milk after feeding of 3395 kJ (811 kcal)/d of EN for 12 weeks. In the control group, 373 kJ/d of the same EN was replaced from the fermented milk. In the LC1 group, the percentage of days with infections during the run-in observation period was 15·4 (sd 17·3) %, which significantly decreased to 5·7 (sd 8·1) % during the intervention period (P = 0·018), and the reduction was larger than that of the control group (P = 0·047). Blood Hb increased (P < 0·05), and there was a tendency towards an increase in serum albumin and a decrease in TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) in the LC1 group. There was a trend towards an increase in blood phagocytic activity (a natural immunity marker) in the subjects whose initial level was low in the LC1 group. There were no changes in those parameters in the control group. Administration of fermented milk containing the probiotic L. johnsonii La1 may contribute to suppressing infections by improving nutritional and immunological status in the elderly.
The cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterols in a format suitable for use in China have not previously been investigated. We conducted the study to quantify in adult Chinese the effects on blood lipid concentrations of a plant sterol-enriched milk tea powder. The study was a double-blind, randomised trial in which 309 participants were randomised to receive daily 2·3 or 1·5 g plant sterol supplementation or placebo for 5 weeks. The milk tea was consumed with the two fattiest meals of the day with half the assigned daily dose taken on each occasion. Fasting venous blood samples were collected before commencement and upon completion of randomised treatment. The mean age of study participants was 44 years, 62 % were female and 62 % had a history of hypercholesterolaemia. Baseline mean total cholesterol was 5·5 mmol/l and LDL-cholesterol was 3·2 mmol/l. Compared with placebo, the 2·3 g/d plant sterol dose reduced total cholesterol by 0·25 (95 % CI 0·07, 0·43) mmol/l (P = 0·01) and the 1·5 g/d dose by 0·23 (95 % CI 0·06, 0·41) mmol/l (P = 0·01). For LDL-cholesterol the corresponding reductions were 0·17 (95 % CI 0·00, 0·35) mmol/l (P = 0·06) and 0·15 (95 % CI − 0·02, 0·32) mmol/l (P = 0·08). For neither outcome was there evidence of differences between the effects of the two doses (both P values >0·4). In conclusion, the consumption of plant sterol-enriched milk tea decreased cholesterol concentrations although to a lesser extent than was anticipated. The reason for reduced efficacy is unclear but may be attributable to the novel food format used or the Chinese population studied.
Ramadan fasting is a unique model of fasting in which Muslims the world over abstain from food and water from dawn to sunset for 1 month. We hypothesized that this model of prolonged intermittent fasting would result in specific adaptive alterations in rat kidney to keep a positive balance of metabolites and inorganic phosphate (Pi). The effect of Ramadan-type fasting was studied on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane (BBM) and BBM uptake of 32Pi in different renal tissue zones in the rat model. Rats were fasted (12 h) and then re-fed (12 h) daily for 30 d similar to human Ramadan fasting. Ramadan-type fasting resulted in increased serum Pi and phospholipids, whereas Pi clearance decreased. Serum creatinine and its clearance were not affected. Fasting caused a significant decrease in the activities of lactate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, both in the renal cortex and medulla. However, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase profoundly increased but that of malic enzyme decreased. The activities of alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in BBM decreased, whereas transport of 32Pi significantly increased. The decrease in enzyme activities and increase in 32Pi transport were due to alterations of both maximal velocities and relative affinities. The results indicate that Ramadan-type fasting caused specific metabolic alterations with enhanced Pi conservation in different kidney tissues in a rat model used for Ramadan fasting in man.
Lactic acid-fermented foods have been shown to increase Fe absorption in human subjects, possibly by lowering pH, activation of phytases, production of organic acids, or by the viable lactic acid bacteria. In this study the effect of a heat-inactivated lactic acid-fermented oat gruel with and without added viable, lyophilized Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on non-haem Fe absorption was investigated. Furthermore, Fe absorption in the distal intestine was determined. In a randomized, double-blinded crossover trial eighteen healthy young women aged 22 (sd 3) years with low Fe status (serum ferritin < 30 μg/l) were served the two test gruels, extrinsically labelled with 59Fe and served with two enterocoated capsules (containing 55Fe(II) and 55Fe(III), respectively) designed to disintegrate in the ileum. The meals were consumed on two consecutive days, e.g. in the order AA followed by BB in a second period. Non-haem Fe absorption was determined from 59Fe whole-body retention and isotope activities in blood samples. The concentrations of Fe, lactate, phytate, and polyphenols, and the pH were similar in the heat-inactivated lactic acid-fermented oat gruels with and without added L. plantarum 299v, and no difference in Fe absorption was observed between the test gruels (1·4 and 1·3 %, respectively). Furthermore, no absorption of Fe in the distal intestine was observed. In conclusion, addition of viable, lyophilized lactobacillus to a heat-inactivated lactic acid-fermented oat gruel does not affect Fe absorption, and no absorption seems to occur in the distal part of the intestine from low Fe bioavailability meals in these women.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether children experience a higher systemic exposure to isoflavonoids when consuming a body weight-adjusted dose of soya compared with adults. Forty study participants were recruited from a local Waldorf school, including twenty-one children and nineteen adults. Participants collected a baseline urine sample and ate immediately thereafter a body weight-adjusted dose of soya nuts (15 g/54·4 kg equivalent to 0·615 (sd 0·036) mg total isoflavones/kg) followed by a 12 h urine collection. Nineteen children and eighteen adults completed the protocol correctly (fourteen child–parent pairs). Children, compared with adults, showed a statistically significant (P < 0·05 by unpaired t test) higher urinary isoflavone excretion rate for daidzein (+39 %), genistein (+44 %), all non-metabolites (daidzein + genistein + glycitein; +41 %) and total isoflavonoids (+32 %). Isoflavones are more bioavailable in children v. adults. Urine is an excellent medium to determine systemic isoflavone exposure in children due to its non-invasiveness and high compliance, in particular when collected overnight; it also allows evaluation of completeness of specimen collection.
Dietary patterns, which reflect the complexity of food preference, lifestyle and socio-economic status, may play a major role in health and longevity. Understanding dietary patterns and their correlates is important to the research of diet and health relationships. In the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) a total of 61 582 men aged 40–74 were recruited between 2002 and 2006. Their food intake over the previous year was collected using a validated FFQ. Study participants (75·6 %) reported little or no change in meat and vegetable intake in the 5 years prior to recruitment. Using the baseline data of the SMHS, we assessed dietary patterns, as well as their relationship with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and with prevalence of some chronic diseases. Three major dietary patterns, fruit-, vegetable- and meat-based diets, were identified in our population. Consumption of the fruit diet appeared to be more common among men who were older and more physically active, had higher income, and lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), while this diet was less common among manual labourers. The meat- or vegetable-based diets were less common among elderly men and more common among men with higher WHR. Dietary patterns appeared to be associated with the presence of health conditions. In general, subjects with a chronic disease were more likely to have the vegetable-based diet and less likely to have the fruit- or meat-based diets. Future studies of diet and health in this population will need to carefully take into account these potential confounders.
Folate is required for 1-carbon metabolism and deficiency in folate leads to megaloblastic anemia. Low levels of folate have been associated with increased risk of vascular disease. To investigate whether RDA of folate are met, habitual folate intake needs to be assessed reliably. We developed a FFQ to specifically measure folate intake over the previous 3 months in elderly people in the Netherlands. Major sources of folate intake, i.e. foods contributing to at least 80 % of the average folate intake, were identified through an analysis of the second Dutch Food Consumption Survey for the sub-population of men and women aged 50–70. In 2000 and 2001, folate intake was estimated with this questionnaire in 1286 individuals aged 50–75 years. Concentrations of serum and erythrocyte folate served as biomarkers with which relative validity of the questionnaire was assessed. The same FFQ was repeated after 3 years in 803 subjects in order to assess long-term reproducibility. Mean folate intake was estimated to be 196 (sd 69) μg/d. Spearman correlation coefficients between folate intake and serum and erythrocyte concentrations were 0·14 (P < 0·01) and 0·05 (P = 0·06) respectively. Spearman correlations between folate intakes measured at baseline and after 3 years were 0·58 (P < 0·01). 47 % of the participants were classified in the same quartiles on the two occasions. Our FFQ showed a weak correlation between folate intake and blood folate concentrations and reproducibility was acceptable. This FFQ is able to rank subjects according to their folate intake.