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Consumption and portion sizes of tree nuts, peanuts and seeds in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 April 2007

Mazda Jenab*
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France
Joan Sabaté
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA
Nadia Slimani
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France
Pietro Ferrari
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France
Mathieu Mazuir
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France
Corinne Casagrande
Affiliation:
Nutrition and Hormones Group, IARC-WHO, Lyon, France
Genevieve Deharveng
Affiliation:
Vieux Boisseuil, Boisseuil, France
Anne Tjønneland
Affiliation:
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
Anja Olsen
Affiliation:
Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
Kim Overvad
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark
Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault
Affiliation:
INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Françoise Clavel-Chapelon
Affiliation:
INSERM, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
Heiner Boeing
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbcke, Germany
Cornelia Weikert
Affiliation:
German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbcke, Germany
Jakob Linseisen
Affiliation:
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
Sabine Rohrmann
Affiliation:
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany
Antonia Trichopoulou
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Greece
Androniki Naska
Affiliation:
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Greece
Domenico Palli
Affiliation:
Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, CSPO-Scientific Institute of Tuscany, Italy
Carlotta Sacerdote
Affiliation:
University of Turin and CPO-Piemonte, Turin, Italy
Rosario Tumino
Affiliation:
Cancer Registry, Azienda Ospedaliera ‘Civile M.P. Arezzo’, Ragusa, Italy
Amalia Mattiello
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Federico II University, Naples, Italy
Valeria Pala
Affiliation:
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Institute, Milan, Italy
H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita
Affiliation:
Centre for Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Marga C. Ocké
Affiliation:
Centre for Nutrition and Health, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands
Petra H. Peeters
Affiliation:
Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Dagrun Engeset
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Norway
Gurie Skeie
Affiliation:
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Norway
Paula Jakszyn
Affiliation:
Unit of Nutrition, Environment and Cancer, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Registry, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain
Eva Ardanaz
Affiliation:
Public Health Institute of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain
J. Ramón Quirós
Affiliation:
Public Health and Health Planning Directorate, Asturias, Spain
Maria Dolores Chirlaque
Affiliation:
Epidemiology Department, Murcia Health Council, Spain
Carmen Martinez
Affiliation:
Andalusian School of Public Health, Granada, Spain
Pilar Amiano
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health of Guipuzkoa, San Sebastian, Spain
Goran Berglund
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden
Richard Palmqvist
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Bethany van Guelpen
Affiliation:
Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Sheila Bingham
Affiliation:
Centre for Nutrition and Cancer Prevention and Survival, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Timothy Key
Affiliation:
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Elio Riboli
Affiliation:
Imperial College, London, UK
*
*Corresponding author: M. Jenab, Nutrition and Hormones Group, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France. Telephone: (33) 4.72.73.80.82, fax (33) 4.72.73.83.61, email Jenab@iarc.fr
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Abstract

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Tree nuts, peanuts and seeds are nutrient dense foods whose intake has been shown to be associated with reduced risk of some chronic diseases. They are regularly consumed in European diets either as whole, in spreads or from hidden sources (e.g. commercial products). However, little is known about their intake profiles or differences in consumption between European countries or geographic regions. The objective of this study was to analyse the population mean intake and average portion sizes in subjects reporting intake of nuts and seeds consumed as whole, derived from hidden sources or from spreads. Data was obtained from standardised 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 36 994 subjects in 10 different countries that are part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Overall, for nuts and seeds consumed as whole, the percentage of subjects reporting intake on the day of the recall was: tree nuts = 4·4%, peanuts = 2·3% and seeds = 1·3%. The data show a clear northern (Sweden: mean intake = 0·15 g/d, average portion size = 15·1 g/d) to southern (Spain: mean intake = 2·99 g/d, average portion size = 34·7 g/d) European gradient of whole tree nut intake. The three most popular tree nuts were walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts, respectively. In general, tree nuts were more widely consumed than peanuts or seeds. In subjects reporting intake, men consumed a significantly higher average portion size of tree nuts (28·5 v. 23·1 g/d, P<0·01) and peanuts (46·1 v. 35·1 g/d, P<0·01) per day than women. These data may be useful in devising research initiatives and health policy strategies based on the intake of this food group.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2006

References

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Consumption and portion sizes of tree nuts, peanuts and seeds in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohorts from 10 European countries
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