Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-rq46b Total loading time: 0.314 Render date: 2022-12-01T08:10:59.795Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": false, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

The validation of contemporary body composition methods in various races and ethnicities

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 February 2022

Malia N. M. Blue*
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Katie R. Hirsch
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatrics, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Gabrielle J. Brewer
Affiliation:
Korey Stringer Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Hannah E. Cabre
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Lacey M. Gould
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Grant M. Tinsley
Affiliation:
Department of Kinesiology & Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA
Bennett K. Ng
Affiliation:
Emerging Growth and Incubation Group, Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, CA, USA
Eric D. Ryan
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Darin Padua
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Abbie E. Smith-Ryan
Affiliation:
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Department of Nutrition, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Dr M. N. M. Blue, email mblue@unc.edu

Abstract

Few investigations have evaluated the validity of current body composition technology among racially and ethnically diverse populations. This study assessed the validity of common body composition methods in a multi-ethnic sample stratified by race and ethnicity. One hundred and ten individuals (55 % female, age: 26·5 (sd 6·9) years) identifying as Asian, African American/Black, Caucasian/White, Hispanic, Multi-racial and Native American were enrolled. Seven body composition models (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), two bioelectrical impedance devices (BIS, IB) and three multi-compartment models) were evaluated against a four-compartment criterion model by assessing total error (TE) and standard error of the estimate. For the total sample, measures of % fat and fat-free mass (FFM) from multi-compartment models were all excellent to ideal (% fat: TE = 0·94–2·37 %; FFM: TE = 0·72–1·78 kg) compared with the criterion. % fat measures were very good to excellent for DXA, ADP and IB (TE = 2·52–2·89 %) and fairly good for BIS (TE = 4·12 %). For FFM, single device estimates were good (BIS; TE = 3·12 kg) to ideal (DXA, ADP, IB; TE = 1·21–2·15 kg). Results did not vary meaningfully between each race and ethnicity, except BIS was not valid for African American/Black, Caucasian/White and Multi-racial participants for % fat (TE = 4·3–4·9 %). The multi-compartment models evaluated can be utilised in a multi-ethnic sample and in each individual race and ethnicity to obtain highly valid results for % fat and FFM. Estimates from DXA, ADP and IB were also valid. The BIS may demonstrate greater TE for all racial and ethnic cohorts and results should be interpreted cautiously.

Type
Full Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Kurian, AK & Cardarelli, KM (2007) Racial and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review. Ethn Dis 17, 143152.Google ScholarPubMed
Ong, KL, Cheung, BMY, Man, YB, et al. (2007) Hypertension among United States Adults 1999–2004. Hypertension 49, 6975.10.1161/01.HYP.0000252676.46043.18CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sundquist, J & Winkleby, MA (1998) Cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican American adults : a transcultural analysis of NHANES III, 1988–1994. Am J Public Health 1825, 19881994.Google Scholar
Müller, MJ, Lagerpusch, M, Enderle, J, et al. (2012) Beyond the body mass index: tracking body composition in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Obes Rev 13, Suppl. 2, 613.10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01033.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barreira, TV, Staiano, AE, Harrington, DM, et al. (2012) Anthropometric correlates of total body fat, abdominal adiposity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a biracial sample of men and women. Mayo Clin Proc 87, 452460.10.1016/j.mayocp.2011.12.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, ZM, Deurenberg, P, Guo, SS, et al. (1998) Six-compartment body composition model: inter-method comparisons of total body fat measurement. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 329337.10.1038/sj.ijo.0800590CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyward, VH & Wagner, DR (2004) Use of regression analysis in body composition. In Applied Body Composition Assessment, pp. 3–20 [Loarn D Robertson, Elaine H Mustain and Joyce SextonI, editors]. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
Fosbøl, MO & Zerahn, B (2015) Contemporary methods of body composition measurement. Clin Physiol Funct Imag 35, 8197.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heyward, VH & Wagner, DR (2004) Applied Body Composition Assessment, 2nd ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
Wagner, DR & Heyward, VH (2000) Measures of body composition in blacks and whites : a comparative review. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1392–402.10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1392CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tinsley, GM, Smith-Ryan, AE, Kim, Y, et al. (2020) Fat-free mass characteristics vary based on sex, race, and weight status in US adults. Nutr Res 81, 5870.10.1016/j.nutres.2020.07.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinton, BJ, Fan, B, Ng, BK, et al. (2017) Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition reference values of limbs and trunk from NHANES 1999–2004 with additional visualization methods. PLOS ONE 12, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Visser, M, Gallaoher, D, Deurenberg, P, et al. (1997) Density of fat-free body mass: relationship with race, age, and level of body fatness. Am J Physiol 272, 781787.Google ScholarPubMed
Bosy-Westphal, A, Schautz, B, Later, W, et al. (2013) What makes a BIA equation unique? Validity of eight-electrode multifrequency BIA to estimate body composition in a healthy adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, S14S21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deurenberg, P, Deurenberg-Yap, M & Schouten, FJM (2002) Validity of total and segmental impedance measurements for prediction of body composition across ethnic population groups. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 214.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gibson, AL, Holmes, JC, Desautels, RL, et al. (2008) Ability of new octapolar bioimpedance spectroscopy analyzers to predict 4-component – model percentage body fat in Hispanic, black and white adults. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 332338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stout, JR, Eckerson, JM, Housh, TJ, et al. (1994) Validity of methods for estimating percent body fat in black males. J Strength Cond Res 8, 243246.Google Scholar
Vasudevan, S, Mohan, A, Mohan, D, et al. (2004) Validation of body fat measurement by skinfolds and two bioelectric impedance methods with DEXA – the Chennai Urban rural epidemiology study (CURES-3). J Assoc Physicians India 52, 877881.Google Scholar
Wu, CS, Chen, YY, Chuang, CL, et al. (2015) Predicting body composition using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis in healthy Asian individuals. Nutr J 14, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hicks, VL, Heyward, VH, Baumgartner, RN, et al. (1993) Body composition of native-American women estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry. Basic Life Sci 100, 8990.Google Scholar
Bi, X, Loo, YT & Henry, CJ (2018) Body fat measurements in Singaporean adults using four methods. Nutrients 10, 111.10.3390/nu10030303CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alemán-Mateo, H, Huerta, RH, Esparza-Romero, J, et al. (2007) Body composition by the four-compartment model: validity of the BOD POD for assessing body fat in Mexican elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 830836.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prior, BM, Cureton, KJ, Modlesky, CM, et al. (1997) In vivo validation of whole body composition estimates from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. J Appl Physiol 83, 623630.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Z, Pi-Sunyer, FX, Kotler, DP, et al. (2002) Multicomponent methods : evaluation of new and traditional soft tissue mineral models by in vivo neutron activation analysis 1–3. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 968974.10.1093/ajcn/76.5.968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heymsfield, SB, Lichtman, S, Baumgartner, RN, et al. (1990) Body composition of humans: comparison of two improved four-compartment models that differ in expense, technical complexity, and radiation exposure. Am J Clin Nutr 52, 5258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Davidsson, L & International Atomic Energy Agency (2009) Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans Using Stable Isotope Techniques. Vienna, Austria: International Atomic Energy Agency.Google Scholar
Schoeller, DA, Van, SE, Peterson, D, et al. (1980) Total body water measurement in humans with 18O and 2H labeled water. Am J Clin Nutr 33, 26862693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Demerath, EW, Guo, SS, Chumlea, WC, et al. (2002) Comparison of percent body fat estimates using air displacement plethysmography and hydrodensitomery in adults and children. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26, 389397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCrory, MA, Mole, PA, Gomez, TD, et al. (1998) By using predicted and measured thoracic gas volumes. J Appl Physiol 84, 14751479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, Sparling, PB, et al. (1999) Evaluation of the BOD POD for assessing body fat in collegiate football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31, 13501356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alemán-Mateo, H, Romero, JE, Morales, NM, et al. (2004) Body composition by three-compartment model and relative validity of some methods to assess percentage body fat in Mexican healthy elderly subjects. Gerontology 50, 366372.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sasai, H, Nakata, Y, Nemoto, M, et al. (2010) Air displacement plethysmography for estimating body composition changes with weight loss in middle-aged Japanese men. Obes Facts 3, 357362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kupper, J, Bartz, M, Schultink, J, et al. (1998) Measurements of body fat in Indonesian adults: comparison between a three-compartment model and widely used methods. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 7, 4954.Google ScholarPubMed
Forrester, JE, Sheehan, HMB & Joffe, TH (2008) A validation study of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative Hispanic men and women. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 534538.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, DR, Heyward, VH & Gibson, AL (2000) Validation of air displacement plethysmography for assessing body composition. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 13391344.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schubert, MM, Seay, RF, Spain, KK, et al. (2019) Reliability and validity of various laboratory methods of body composition assessment in young adults. Clin Physiol Funct Imag 39, 150159.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tylavsky, F, Lohman, T, Blunt, BA, et al. (2003) QDR 4500A DXA overestimates fat-free mass compared with criterion methods. J Appl Physiol 94, 959965.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, DR & Heyward, VH (2001) Validity of two-component models for estimating body fat of black men. J Appl Physiol 90, 649656.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, Evans, EM, et al. (2004) Effect of race and musculoskeletal development on the accuracy of air plethysmography. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36, 10701077.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deurenberg-Yap, M, Schmidt, G, van Staveren, WA, et al. (2001) Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians: a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different two-compartment models. Br J Nutr 85, 491.10.1079/BJN2000276CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fields, DA, Wilson, GD, Gladden, LB, et al. (2001) Comparison of the BOD POD with the four-compartment model in adult females. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33, 16051610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wingfield, HL, Smith-Ryan, AE, Woessner, MN, et al. (2014) Body composition assessment in overweight women : validation of air displacement plethysmography. Clin Physiol Funct Imag 34, 7276.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lowry, DW & Tomiyama, AJ (2015) Air displacement plethysmography versus dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese individuals. PLOS ONE 10, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chen, W, Jiang, H, Yang, JX, et al. (2017) Body composition analysis by using bioelectrical impedance in a young healthy Chinese population: methodological considerations. Food Nutr Bull 38, 172181.10.1177/0379572117697534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aglago, KE, El, MI, El, KK, et al. (2013) Development and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis equations for predicting total body water and fat-free mass in North-African adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 10811086.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deurenberg, P & Deurenberg-Yap, M (2002) Validation of skinfold thickness and hand-held impedance measurements for estimation of body fat percentage among Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian subjects. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 11, 17.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stolarczyk, LM, Heyward, VH, Goodman, JA, et al. (1995) Predictive accuracy of bioimpedance equations in estimating fat-free mas of Hispanic Women. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27, 14501456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, CR, Shin, JH, Hwang, JH, et al. (2018) Monitoring volume status using bioelectrical impedance analysis in chronic hemodialysis patients. ASAIO J 64, 245252.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lim, SM, Han, Y, Il, KS, et al. (2019) Utilization of bioelectrical impedance analysis for detection of lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: a prospective cross sectional study. BMC Cancer 19, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lohman, T (1992) Current issues in exercise science series. In Advances in Body Composition Assessment, pp. 34. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The validation of contemporary body composition methods in various races and ethnicities
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The validation of contemporary body composition methods in various races and ethnicities
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The validation of contemporary body composition methods in various races and ethnicities
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *