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Validation and calibration of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) for children, used in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised controlled trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 August 2020

Amy L. Lovell
Affiliation:
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand
Peter S. W. Davies
Affiliation:
Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, UQ Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4101, Australia
Rebecca J. Hill
Affiliation:
Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, UQ Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4101, Australia
Tania Milne
Affiliation:
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand
Misa Matsuyama
Affiliation:
Children’s Nutrition Research Centre, UQ Child Health Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4101, Australia
Yannan Jiang
Affiliation:
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand
Rachel X. Chen
Affiliation:
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1010, New Zealand
Anne-Louise M. Heath
Affiliation:
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, 9016, New Zealand
Cameron C. Grant
Affiliation:
Department of Paediatrics: Child and Youth Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand School of Population Health, Centre for Longitudinal Research He Ara ki Mua, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand Department of General Paediatrics, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand
Clare R. Wall
Affiliation:
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, 1023, New Zealand
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.

Type
Full Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Validation and calibration of the Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) for children, used in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised controlled trial
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