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U-shaped association between dietary calcium density intake during adolescence and hypertension in adulthood: a 20-year longitudinal nationwide study in China

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 July 2021

Xiaomin Sun
Affiliation:
Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Zumin Shi
Affiliation:
Human Nutrition Department, College of Health Sciences, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
Yixuan Li
Affiliation:
Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Bao Xin
Affiliation:
Department of Food Hygiene and Nutrition, School of Public Health, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Xi Li
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Youfa Wang*
Affiliation:
Global Health Institute, School of Public Health, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Fisher Institute of Health and Well-being, Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, College of Health, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Email youfawang@gmail.com

Abstract

We assessed longitudinal association between calcium intake during adolescence and hypertension in adulthood. Longitudinal study data of 1611 participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey during 1991–2011 were used. On average they were followed for 11·4 years. Dietary calcium intake during adolescence was assessed based on three 24-hour dietary recalls collected in each visit/survey between 1991 and 2009 (seven waves). The intake was recoded into quartiles. Cumulative mean±SD calcium intake was 199·9±144·8 mg/1000 kcal/day during adolescence. In total 102 participants had hypertension in adulthood (97 men and 5 women). There was a clear U-shaped association between adolescence calcium intake quartiles and adulthood hypertension: across the quartiles, hypertension prevalence was 6·7%, 4·0%, 5·2% and 9·5%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders including weight status and dietary pattern, odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) for hypertension were 2·32 (95% CI 1·07–5·00) for lowest quartile, 1·00 (reference), 1·34 (95% CI 0·61–2·97), and 3·10 (95% CI 1·49–6·46) across the quartiles. Lower or higher calcium intake during adolescence was associated with hypertension in adulthood independent of weight status and dietary pattern.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Footnotes

These authors contributed equally to this work.

These authors co-supervised this study.

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