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Dietary patterns and associations with BMI in low-income, ethnic minority youth in the USA according to baseline data from four randomised controlled trials

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 September 2020

Madison N. LeCroy*
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA Department of Epidemiology & Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
Holly L. Nicastro
Affiliation:
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Kimberly P. Truesdale
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
Donna M. Matheson
Affiliation:
Department of General Pediatrics, Stanford University Medical School, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Carolyn E. Ievers-Landis
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Charlotte A. Pratt
Affiliation:
Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
Sarah Jones
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition Sciences, Borra College of Health Sciences, Dominican University, River Forest, IL 60305, USA
Nancy E. Sherwood
Affiliation:
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454, USA
Laura E. Burgess
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37212, USA
Thomas N. Robinson
Affiliation:
Stanford Solutions Science Lab, Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Song Yang
Affiliation:
Office of Biostatistics Research, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
June Stevens
Affiliation:
Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Madison N. LeCroy, email mlecroy@live.unc.edu

Abstract

Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the USA. This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (534 2–4-year-olds), GROW (610 3–5-year-olds), GOALS (241 7–11-year-olds) and IMPACT (360 10–13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed three 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from twenty-four food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savoury snacks and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy- and sugar-sweetened beverage-based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese and miscellaneous) compared with Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI (β = 0·99 (95 % CI 0·01, 1·97)) and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile (β = 4·17 (95 % CI 0·11, 8·24)). Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.

Type
Full Papers
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Dietary patterns and associations with BMI in low-income, ethnic minority youth in the USA according to baseline data from four randomised controlled trials
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