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Acute feeding has minimal effect on the validity of body composition and metabolic measures: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a multi-compartment model

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 August 2021

Abbie E. Smith-Ryan*
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Gabrielle Brewer
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Lacey M. Gould
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Malia N.M. Blue
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Katie R. Hirsch
Affiliation:
Department of Geriatrics, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA
Casey E. Greenwalt
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Courtney Harrison
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Hannah E. Cabre
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Eric D. Ryan
Affiliation:
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Human Movement Science Curriculum, Department of Allied Health Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
*
*Corresponding author: Abbie E. Smith-Ryan, email abbsmith@email.unc.edu

Abstract

Understanding the effects of acute feeding on body composition and metabolic measures is essential to the translational component and practical application of measurement and clinical use. To investigate the influence of acute feeding on the validity of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a four-compartment model (4C) and indirect calorimetry metabolic outcomes, thirty-nine healthy young adults (n 19 females; age: 21·8 (sd 3·1) years, weight; 71·5 (sd 10·0) kg) participated in a randomised cross-over study. Subjects were provided one of four randomised meals on separate occasions (high carbohydrate, high protein, ad libitum or fasted baseline) prior to body composition and metabolic assessments. Regardless of macronutrient content, acute feeding increased DXA percent body fat (%fat) for the total sample and females (average constant error (CE):–0·30 %; total error (TE): 2·34 %), although not significant (P = 0·062); the error in males was minimal (CE: 0·11 %; TE: 0·86 %). DXA fat mass (CE: 0·26 kg; TE: 0·75 kg) and lean mass (LM) (CE: 0·83 kg; TE: 1·23 kg) were not altered beyond measurement error for the total sample. 4C %fat was significantly impacted from all acute feedings (avg CE: 0·46 %; TE: 3·7 %). 4C fat mass (CE: 0·71 kg; TE: 3·38 kg) and fat-free mass (CE: 0·55 kg; TE: 3·05 kg) exceeded measurement error for the total sample. RMR was increased for each feeding condition (TE: 1666·9 kJ/d; 398 kcal/d). Standard pre-testing fasting guidelines may be important when evaluating DXA and 4C %fat, whereas additional DXA variables (fat mass and LM) may not be significantly impacted by an acute meal. Measuring body composition via DXA under less stringent pre-testing guidelines may be valid and increase feasibility of testing in clinical settings.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Nutrition Society

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Acute feeding has minimal effect on the validity of body composition and metabolic measures: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a multi-compartment model
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