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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2020

John Pearce
Department of Classics, King's College
Sally Worrell
Portable Antiquities Scheme, Institute of Archaeology, University College


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Roman Britain in 2019
Copyright © The Authors, 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies

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1 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2006 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 38 (2007), 303Google Scholar.

2 This also takes account of the reduction in working hours of one of the authors (Worrell).

3 For example, the highest numbers of records were recorded in the following counties: Suffolk 2,224; Norfolk 1,652; Lincs. 1,298; Wilts. 1,153; Hants. 1,046; Oxon. 916.

4 For example, the total number of Roman period objects recorded in the following counties is as follows: Cumbria 99; Cornwall 49; Shropshire 87; Carmarthenshire 4.

5 Robbins, K., ‘Balancing the scales: exploring the variable effects of collection bias on data collected by the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Landscapes 14 (2013), 5472CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

6 Moorhead, S. and Walton, P., ‘Coins recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: a summary’, Britannia 42 (2011), 432–7Google Scholar; Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2018 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 50 (2019), 465Google Scholar. Hoards continue to be published through the Coin Hoards of Roman Britain series, as well as the individual coins being reported on the PAS database. PAS hoard data are used for the ongoing ‘Oxford Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire’ project ( The collaborative project between the British Museum and University of Leicester on coin-hoard contexts is now published: R. Bland, A. Chadwick, E. Ghey, C. Haselgrove and D.J. Mattingly, Iron Age and Roman Coin Hoards in Britain (2020).

7 Pearce and Worrell, ibid., 466.

8 A selection of the most important coins is published annually in the British Numismatic Journal by S. Moorhead.

9 The following totals illustrate this diversity: Suffolk 234; Lincs. 147; Norfolk 147; Wilts. 119; Cornwall 11; Cumbria 8; Flintshire 1.

10 Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (n. 6), 466. Shropshire, brooch records 39, coin records 33; Herefordshire, brooch records 47, coin records 53; Staffordshire, brooch records 22, coin records 45.

11 We note here the completion of a doctoral project making large-scale use of PAS data on structured deposits: R. Wilkinson, Iron Age Metalwork Object Hoards of Britain, 800 BC – AD 100 (2019), unpub. PhD thesis, University of Leicester.

12 The object descriptions present substantially revised versions of PAS database entries by the authors of this report. Further discussion of the form and significance of individual objects has been added throughout. Where objects are referred to with the prefix ‘Artefacts’, plus a reference number, we refer to Artefacts: Online Collaborative Encyclopaedia of Archaeological Small Finds (

13 Our very great debt to Martin Henig will again be clear from the footnotes, and we thank him for his generosity in discussing many of the artefacts published here. With his permission we have also quoted his comments on the Much Hadham intaglio (no. 20). We also record our gratitude to Alessandra Esposito, Justine Bayley, Rita Chinelli, Michel Feugère, Richard Hobbs, Tony King and Daphne Nash Briggs for commenting on objects published here and making references available, especially in a period when restricted library access due to the corona virus has limited our ability sometimes to put finds in a wider context or identify comparanda. Likewise, we also express our thanks to the editor, Hella Eckardt, for her comments on a draft. Any errors are of course our own responsibility.

14 Found by R. Dodds. Identified and recorded by L. Prosser and S. Worrell.

15 S. Boucher, Recherches sur les bronzes figurés de Gaule pre-romaine et romaine (1976), 70–2, pls 26, 27; Durham, E., ‘Depicting the gods: metal figurines in Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 31 (2012)Google Scholar,, 3.13.

16 Durham, ibid., 3.11.

17 Found by I. Critchley. Identified and recorded by A. Downes and S. Worrell.

18 E.M. Jope, Early Celtic Art in the British Isles (2000), vol. 1 109–10, vol. 2 pls 182–3, for ox-head bucket mounts of Iron Age and Roman date.

19 CIL XIII 1751.

20 Found by G. Hope. Identified and recorded by R. Griffiths and R. Ellis.

21 The object record also notes their similarity to ‘plastic-style’ decoration on Iron Age objects.

22 Two unprovenanced examples from Norfolk: I. Leins and J. Farley, ‘A changing world: c 150 BC to AD 50’, in J. Farley and F. Hunter (eds), Celts: Art and Identity (2015), 116–17, fig. 101; R. Jackson, Cosmetic Sets of Late Iron Age and Roman Britain, British Museum Research Publication 181 (2010), 162, no. 366.

23 Adams, K., Boughton, D., Byard, A., Griffiths, R., Phelps, M., Williams, D., Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘From figurines to fob-danglers: finds from PAS’, Lucerna 49 (2015), 25–9Google Scholar; D.W. Harding, The Archaeology of Celtic Art (2007), 20–1. A further example of late Iron Age or early Roman bird imagery from Fen Ditton, Cambs., is discussed below (no. 12).

24 Found by D. Parker. Identified and recorded by A. Downes and J. Farley. A doctoral thesis on military objects of Roman dates from rural contexts, including those documented by the PAS, is currently in progress: E. Wood, Roman Military Finds from Non-Military Contexts and the Role of the Roman Army in Romano-British Society, King's College London.

25 The 15 other examples on short swords and daggers from Britain are listed under the PAS database entry for the Belton hilt, including the South Yorks. hilt (DENO-B364C6). I. Stead, British Iron Age Swords and Scabbards (2005), 71–3, 196–7, fig. 104.

26 Clarke, R.R. and Hawkes, C.F.C., ‘An Iron Age anthropoid sword from Shouldham, Norfolk with related continental and British weapons’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 21 (1956), 213–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Fitzpatrick, A.P., ‘Night and day: the symbolism of astral signs on later Iron Age anthropomorphic short swords’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 62 (1996), 373–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar, noting the existence of c. 60–70 swords of this type across Europe.

27 e.g. Arnesby, Leics. (LEIC-C69CAB), Ruishton, Somerset (SOM-088DFF) and possibly Chaddleworth, West Berks. (CAM-E1D55E), Fitzhead, Somerset (DEV-5965A6) and Moulsford, Surrey (SUR-204E7E).

28 Found by A. Jones. Identified and recorded by S. White and M. Henig.

29 For an example from Trudoxhill, Somerset, likely representing Diana, see Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (n. 6), 491–2, no. 23 (SOM-762B9F), with references to other examples; for mounts found during fieldwalking at Littlecote (Antinous?, a satyr), see, with further references, Walters, B. and Henig, M., ‘Two busts from Littlecote’, Britannia 19 (1988), 407–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar; for examples in the form of Antinous documented by the PAS, see Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2007 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 39 (2008), 363–4, no. 13Google Scholar, Capel St Mary, Suffolk (ESS-B39770); Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2011 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 43 (2012), 366–7, no. 9Google Scholar, Market Rasen, Lincs. (LIN-B8FA27).

30 For the Tarrant Hinton mount, see M. Henig, The Art of Roman Britain (1995), 70–1, fig. 40.

31 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 425–7, no. 21Google Scholar.

32 Walters and Henig, op. cit. (n. 29).

33 Found by L. Wood. Identified and recorded by S. White and R. Hobbs.

34 R. Kotansky, Greek Magical Amulets: The Inscribed Gold, Silver, Copper, and Bronze Lamellae. Part I: Published Texts of Known Provenance (1994), xv–vi, 16–17, no. 4, for an example from the cemetery at Krefeld-Gellep where the spell survived within its case, buried in a third-century grave.

35 C. Johns and T. Potter, The Thetford Treasure: Roman Jewellery and Silver (1983), cat. 30 (BM 1981,0201.30). For Eaton Constantine (HESH-21275B), see Johns, C., ‘A gold amulet-pendant from Eaton Constantine, Shropshire’, Lucerna 23 (2002), 910Google Scholar.

36 Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘Special delivery: a Graeco-Roman gold amulet for healthy childbirth’, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 167 (2008), 219–24Google Scholar. See also others from North Yorks. (SWYOR-8F0C84) and Billingford, Norfolk (NMS-7BEED8).

37 Found by M. Forrester. Identified and recorded by K. Leahy. We are grateful to Alessandra Esposito for her observations on this object.

38 Esposito, A., Performing the Sacra: Priestly Roles and their Organisation in Roman Britain, Archaeopress Roman Archaeology 53 (2019), 44–7Google Scholar. For the West Stow (Bury St Edmunds) deposit, see Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 31), 422–5.

39 Alessandra Esposito draws our attention to unprovenanced Roman objects on which a bird sits between bull horns:; (accessed May 2020).

40 M.J. Aldhouse Green, ‘Animal iconographies: metaphor, meaning and identity (or why Chinese dragons don't have wings)’, in G. Davies, A. Gardner and K. Lockyear (eds), Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference, London 2000 (2001), 80–93; M.J. Green, Archaeology of Images: Iconology and Cosmology in Iron Age and Roman Europe (2004), 121–2.

41 Harding, op. cit. (n. 23), 196, for Janus images as markers of the ‘omnipercipience’ of the subject. For a teasing Janus-character on another portable object, see N. Crummy and M. Lodwick, ‘Keep watch: a key handle from Font-y-Gary, Vale of Glamorgan’, in R. Collins and F. McIntosh (eds), Life in the Limes: Studies of the People and Objects of the Roman Frontiers (2017), 121–9.

42 Found by T. Camm. Identified and recorded by L. Brundle. We are very grateful to Justine Bayley for her comments on this brooch.

43 Justine Bayley (pers. comm.) suggests that traces of ‘pea-soup’-coloured enamel are visible at the base of the field over the catchplate, suggesting that both crescentic fields were most likely originally full of red enamel.

44 For example, Justine Bayley (pers. comm.) notes parallels to the perforations and other elements on some plate brooches in Hull's unpublished corpus, for example Colchester, pl. 756, 0575 and 0576; Castor, pl. 757, 4099; Silchester, pl. 782, 4940; Wall, pl. 810, 6809.

45 As flagged again by Justine Bayley: for the West Lothian pan, see F. Hunter, ‘Frontier finds, frontier art: views of enamelled vessels’, in D. Breeze (ed.), The First Souvenirs: Enamelled Vessels from Hadrian's Wall (2012), 86–8, fig. 9.1–2; for the Castleford moulds, Bayley, J. and Budd, P., ‘The clay moulds’, in Cool, H.E.M. and Philo, C., Roman Castleford Excavations 1974–85 I: The Small Finds, Yorkshire Archaeology 4 (1998), 213, fig. 86Google Scholar.

46 Found by T. Camm. Identified and recorded by A. Valee.

47 In two cases documented by the PAS these have survived: Little Hadham, Cambs. (BH-1DB7F2) and Fincham, Norfolk (NMS-4FE992): Worrell, S.Roman Britain in 2004. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 35 (2005), 326–7, no. 9Google Scholar.

48 ‘Fibule-châtelaine’, Artefacts FIB-41149; H. Eckardt and N. Crummy, Styling the Body in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain: A Contextual Approach to Toilet Instruments (2008), 171–3; see also D. Mackreth, Brooches in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain (2001), 1.166; J. Bayley and S. Butcher, Roman Brooches in Britain: A Technological and Typological Study Based on the Richborough Collection (2004), 172–3, fig. 148.

49 The dataset for the elaborately decorated plates from which some other sets of toilet instruments were suspended has similarly increased, with more than 25 examples having been documented by the PAS (cf. Eckardt and Crummy, ibid., 169–71). This new dataset of these decorated suspension elements merits reassessment in its own right. An unusual zoomorphic example in chicken form is documented at Fangfoss, East Yorks. (SWYOR-C74924); Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2014 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 46 (2015), 361–2, no. 3Google Scholar.

50 Eckardt and Crummy, ibid., 171–2, fig. 111, no. 1162.

51 Found by A. Mugglestone. Identified and recorded by W. Scott and S. Worrell.

52 Durham, op. cit. (n. 15), 3.20; Henig, M., ‘Statuettes and figurines in Roman Britain’, Ara Bulletin 18 (2007), 1213Google Scholar.

53 Durham, op. cit. (n. 15), 3.34.

54 Found by S. Earl. Identified and recorded by M. Fittock and R. Webley.

55 Northmoor, Oxon. (SUR-CB7641); Poslingford, Suffolk (SF-BE06B3); Stiffkey, Norfolk (NMS-E0FC97); North Kesteven, Lincs. (LIN-9FC476); Milton Keynes (BH-E44A46); Cold Brayfield, Milton Keynes (BUC-E964E1); Misterton, Notts. (SWYOR-B449E3); Saxilby, Lincs. (LIN-C83398).

56 For example, on opposed horse heads on buckles, see A. Appels and S. Laycock, Roman Buckles and Military Fittings (2007), 206–14; Hawkes, S.C. and Dunning, G.C., ‘Soldiers and settlers in Britain, fourth to fifth century: with a catalogue of animal-ornamented buckles and related belt-fittings’, Medieval Archaeology 5 (1961), 46, fig. 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

57 Found by J. Baxter. Identified and recorded by A. Brown.

58 Leins and Farley, op. cit. (n. 22), 116, fig. 103.

59 Harding, op. cit. (n. 23), passim; F. Hunter and J. Joy, ‘A conquered Europe’, in J. Farley and F. Hunter (eds), Celts: Art and Identity (2015), 53–79; Leins and Farley, op. cit. (n. 22), 116–17. See also the discussion of the object from Thwing, East Yorks. (YORYM-C37EB7), discussed above (no. 3).

60 D.N. Briggs, ‘An emphatic statement: the Undley-A gold bracteate and its message in fifth-century East Anglia’, in N. Sekunda (ed.), Wonders Lost and Found: A Celebration of the Archaeological Work of Professor Michael Vickers (2020), 165. We are grateful to Daphne Nash Briggs for kindly providing a copy of her article, drawn to our attention by Martin Henig.

61 Found by Mr Jemmett. Identified and recorded by A. Bliss.

62 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2013 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 45 (2014), 405–7, nos 5–6Google Scholar, noting further examples from PAS.

63 J. Pearce and S. Worrell, Fifty Roman Finds from the Portable Antiquities Scheme (2020), 41–4; J. Plouviez, ‘Whose good luck? Roman phallic ornaments from Suffolk’, in N. Crummy (ed.), Image, Craft and the Classical World: Essays in Honour of Donald Bailey and Catherine Johns (2005), 157–64.

64 Found by D. Fitness. Identified and recorded by A. Booth.

65 A doctoral thesis on toilet knives with figural decoration, including those documented by the PAS, is currently in progress: N. Hurt, Roman Folding Knives in the North-West Provinces, King's College London.

66 Pearce, J. and Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2016 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 48 (2017), 452–3, no. 22 (DOR-CA6972)Google Scholar.

67 N. Hurt in a preliminary survey notes the documentation of over 100 examples to 2020 by the PAS. For other examples documented by the PAS, see Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 62), 413–15, no. 14.

68 J. Pearce, ‘On a knife-edge: an image of sex and spectacle from Roman north-west Europe’, in R. Collins and T. Ivleva (eds), Un-Roman Sex: Gender, Sexuality, and Lovemaking in the Roman Provinces and Frontiers (2020), 25–53.

69 Found by S. Smith. Identified and recorded by S. Flynn and J. Pearce.

70 Pearce and Worrell, op. cit. (n. 66), 445–8, no. 16 (NMS-DB2ED6).

71 S. Boube Picot, Les bronzes antiques du Maroc II: les chars et l'attelage (1980), 213, no. 342 from Banasa and Appendix II for other instances, including many from central Europe.

72 Found by D. Blethell. Identified and recorded by A. Wood and M. Henig.

73 Durham, op. cit. (n. 15), 3.33. A further example from Gloucester drawn to our attention by Martin Henig is more likely to derive from a Victory figure than from an eagle: Henig, M. and Adcock, K., ‘New finds from Gloucester (Colonia Nerviana Glevensium)’, ARA News 36 (2016), 3940Google Scholar.

74 e.g. R. Fleischer, Die römischen Bronzen aus Österreich (1967), no. 120, Kals. no. 124, Bregenz.

75 Found by M. Hodges. Identified and recorded by A. Byard and M. Henig. We are grateful to Martin Henig for his extensive comments on the figure and the reference to the Alcock paper (n. 76). He suggests a possible second-century date.

76 J. Alcock, ‘The concept of Genius in Roman Britain’, in M. Henig and A. King (eds), Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire (1986), 114, 123, figs 2, 3.

77 Durham, op. cit. (n. 15), 3.9, Carrawburgh no. 197. For a typical togate example, see the figurine from Maulden, Notts.: Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 29), 369, no. 12 (BH-B6AF26).

78 A lar from Lakenheath (British Museum) also holds a double cornucopia: Durham, op. cit. (n. 15), 3.9, no. 110.

79 cf. Durham, E., ‘Style and substance: some metal figurines from south-west Britain’, Britannia 45 (2014), 195221CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

80 Found by C. Rudd. Identified and recorded by M. Fittock and M. Henig.

81 Coombe, P., Pearce, J. and Libby, K., ‘A fragment of a monumental bronze statue, LincolnBritannia 50 (2019), 349–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

82 Found by C. Wheeler. Identified and recorded by M. Fittock.

83 L. Allason-Jones and R. Miket, The Catalogue of Small Finds from South Shields Roman Fort (1984), 217–19; Guggenberger, M., ‘The Gallo-Roman dodecahedron’, The Mathematical Intelligencer 35 (2013), 5660CrossRefGoogle Scholar; T. Grull, ‘The enigma of the dodecahedron’, in E. Gradvohl and A. Szabó (eds), From Poleis to Magos: Studia György Németh sexagenario dedicata (2016), 148–56.

84 Guillier, G., Delage, R. and Besombes, P.A., ‘Une fouille en bordure des thermes de Jublains (Mayenne): enfin un dodécaèdre en contexte archéologique’, Revue Archéologique de l'Ouest 25 (2008), 269‒89Google Scholar.

85 Grull, op. cit. (n. 83), 149; Guggenberger, op. cit. (n. 83), 56.

86 Grull, op. cit. (n. 83), 150.

87 Allason-Jones and Miket, op. cit. (n. 83), 218–19.

88 Wetwang, East Yorks. (YORYM-41CD72): Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2008 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 40 (2009), 292, no. 9Google Scholar; Stamford Bridge, East Yorks. (YORYM-E841F9); Odell, Beds. (PUBLIC-959804); Guildford (SUR-729950); Near Devizes, Wilts. (WILT-37C5E1); Stockbridge, Hants. (HAMP-CE1119).

89 P. Coombe and M. Henig, ‘The Gloucester hoard of Roman bronze’, this volume, no. 25 (GLO-BE1187).

90 Found by H. Cross. Documented by M. Fittock and M. Henig.

91 M. Henig, A Corpus of Roman Gemstones from British Sites, BAR 8 (1972), nos 271–3.

92 Vollenweider, M.-L., ‘Un symbole des buts politiques de César’, Genava 18 (1970), 4961Google Scholar; also published in M.-L. Vollenweider, Catalogue raisonné des sceaux, cylindres, intailles et camées II: les portraits, les masques de théâtre, les symboles politiques (Musée d'art et d'histoire de Genève) (1979), 378–9, no. 424, pl. 115.

93 S.H. Middleton, Engraved Gems from Croatia (1991).

94 P. Fossing, The Thorvaldsen Museum: Catalogue of the Antique Engraved Gems and Cameos (1929), 210, no. 1536, pl. XVII.

95 M. Maaskant-Kleibrink, Catalogue of the Engraved Gems in the Royal Coin Cabinet, The Hague: The Greek, Etruscan and Roman Collections (1978), 283, no. 796, plate vol. p. 134.

96 M. Henig and A. MacGregor, Catalogue of the Engraved Gems and Finger-Rings in the Ashmolean Museum II: Roman. BAR International Series 1332 (2004), 98, no. 9.128, also cornelian.

97 H.B. Walters, Catalogue of the Engraved Gems and Cameos, Greek, Etruscan and Roman in the British Museum (1926), 253, no. 2553, pl. xxix, also no. 2561 for a glume flanked by two ants on black jasper.

98 P. Zazoff (ed.), Antike Gemmen in Deutschen Sammlungen IV: Hannover, Kestner Museum (1975), 246, nos 1293–4, Taf. 177.

99 I. Sagiv, Representations of Animals on Greek and Roman Engraved Gems: Meanings and Interpretations (2018), 119–21, especially 120, fig. 49a–b.

100 M. Henig, ‘A nicolo gemstone’, in H. Brooks. Archaeological Excavation at 29–39 Head Street, Colchester, Essex: May–September 2000, Colchester Archaeological Trust Report 268 (2004), 42–3, RF41, (accessed May 2020).

101 Found by M. Presland. Identified and recorded by J. Ahmet and A. Ward.

102 M. Spratling, Southern British Decorated Bronzes of the Late Pre-Roman Iron Age 1 (1972), unpub. PhD thesis, University of London, 56–8.

103 Found by W. Thompson. Identified and recorded by J. Ahmet.

104 Tony King suggests this to us, drawing our attention to these models and noting (pers. comm.) that one of these has a front façade, tower cella behind and two flanking porticos, both of which have double pent roofs. The group has recently been discussed by Brose, K. (‘Ein römisches, steinernes Hausmodell aus dem vicus Bad Kreuznach’, Berichte zur Archäologie in Rheinhessen und Umgebung 8 (2015), 4161Google Scholar) and, in relation to a recent similar find from Britain, by P. Everson and D. Stocker (‘The Romano-British “aedicule” from Sheepwash Grange, Canwick, Lincolnshire’, this volume).

105 Elkins, N.T., Monuments in Miniature: Architecture on Roman Coinage, American Numismatic Society Numismatic Studies 29 (2015), 53118Google Scholar.

106 C. Flügel and J. Obmann, ‘Images from the past: fibulae as evidence for the architectural appearance of Roman fort gates’, in N. Mills (ed.), Presenting the Romans: Interpreting the Frontiers of the Roman Empire World Heritage Site (2013), 41–6; Artefacts FIB-41373 (gateway), FIB-41374 (tower).

107 M. Feugère (pers. comm.) draws this to our attention (Artefacts ACE-4030).

108 Found by A. Wilson. Identified and recorded by J. Ahmet, N. Adams and J. Pearce. We are grateful to Rita Chinelli for kindly providing a copy of her key article on these amulets, the fullest recent treatment: Chinelli, R., ‘Gegen den bösen Blick … – ein Goldamulett aus Wien 1, Am Hof, Fundort Wien’, Berichte zur Archäologie 13 (2010), 76103Google Scholar.

109 The other examples that are discussed here are as follows, being those of which images are accessible at the present time: British Museum (Townley): BM 1814,0704.1172, 1814,0704.1173; British Museum (Hamilton): 1772,0314.84, in F.H. Marshall, Catalogue of the Jewellery, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, in the Departments of Antiquities, British Museum (1911), 343, nos 2887–9, pl. LXVIII; John Hopkins University Archaeological Museum (JHUAM) FIC.07.225: T. Hughes, Archaeology of Daily Life: Gold Amulet Pendant (n.d.), (accessed May 2020); Herculaneum: Comte de Caylus, Recueil d'Antiquités Egyptiennes, Etrusques, Grecques, Romaines et Gauloises V (1764), 160–1, pl. LVII, no. I; ‘envoyé de Sicile’: ibid., 126–7, pl. XXXVIII, no. III; Fuveau, Bouches du Rhône: Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108), 80–1, 101–2; legionary fortress at Vindobona: Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108), 101–2; Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum, unprovenanced: F.T. Elworthy and J. Murray, The Evil Eye (1895), 130 and Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108), 101–2.

110 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 62), 419, no. 20.

111 Examples are discussed by Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108); in relation to other media, Faraone, C.A., ‘The amuletic design of the Mithraic bull-wounding scene’, Journal of Roman Studies 103 (2013), 103–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar. A small number are illustrated on the Artefacts website (AML-4001).

112 Faraone, ibid., 103–7, as manifested, for example, on a British Museum amulet from the Townley collection (BM 1814,0704.1172).

113 Faraone, op. cit. (n. 111); Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108), 89–90.

114 Chinelli, op. cit. (n. 108), 92.

115 Found by R. Garman. Identified and recorded by H. Costas and S. Worrell.

116 e.g. Bletchingdon, Oxon. (BERK-A4E1ED), West Ilsley, West Berks. (SUR-1B8553), Bishops Cannings, Wilts. (LON-880556).

117 A fuller discussion of these is in preparation by the authors.

118 Found by C. Smith. Identified and recorded by C. Hayward Trevarthen.

119 As assessed on 9 April 2020.

120 Allason-Jones and Miket, op. cit. (n. 83), 174, 3.472; Leafield, Oxon. (BERK-F2807A); Cherwell, Oxon. (BERK-6DA102); Langley with Hardey, Norfolk (NMS-083B83).

121 Silenus, Offley, Herts. (BH-E3C922); caricature, Osbournby, Lincs. (LIN-1213A7) (Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 29), 365–6, no. 8); bearded head, Jupiter?, Pirton, Notts. (BH-9A1197) (Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (n. 29), 370, no. 13); Hercules, Much Hadham, Herts. (BH-C53040) (Worrell, op. cit. (n. 1), 317–18, no. 12); female, Diana?, Tingewick, Bucks. (BUC-EE6EF1); male, Mercury, Stamford Bridge, East Yorks. (NCL-CF6F62).

122 Adrian Marsden's record for the object, informed by comments from Ralph Jackson, notes how few other steelyard weights from the province are of similar or greater weight. Martin Henig draws our attention to an ornate example of similar weight from Kingscote in the form of the bust of an empress, weighing 1,010 g and carrying a graffito giving an approximate Roman weight of three librae and one uncia: Henig, M., ‘Bronze steelyard weight from Roman villa, Kingscote, Gloucestershire’, Antiquaries Journal 58 (1978), 370–1Google Scholar.

123 D.R. Evans, ‘Objects of lead’, in E. Evans, The Caerleon Canabae: Excavations in the Civil Settlement 1984–90, Britannia Monograph 16 (2000), 416, summarising weight schemes offered by G.C. Boon, Silchester: The Roman Town of Calleva (1974), 292.

124 Found by T. Pisarek. Identified and recorded by L. Shipley.

125 For examples on late Roman belt fittings, see Appels and Laycock, op. cit. (n. 56), passim; Hawkes and Dunning, op. cit. (n. 56), passim. On nail-cleaners and tweezers, see Eckardt and Crummy, op. cit. (n. 48), 138–9, 156–7.

126 Found by M. Thomas. Identified and documented by A. Tyacke. We are grateful to Anna Tyacke for discussion of this find and to Justine Bayley for comments on the vessel form and parallel motifs. The enamelled fragment was found in association with sherds identified by H. Quinnell as deriving from a cooking pot of Roman type in a gabbroic fabric, dated perhaps to the late first or early second centuy a.d. Further analysis is planned of charcoal also recovered from the findspot (A. Tyacke, pers. comm.). It is hoped that future work will help to establish a fuller context for this vessel, a western outlier in the distribution of objects of this type.

127 For an example of a tall straight-sided beaker, see Hunter, op. cit. (n. 45), 93, fig. 9.5b.

128 Selborne cup: (accessed May 2020); Hunter, op. cit. (n. 45), 93, fig. 9.5c; Pressignac bottle: W.H. Forsyth, ‘Provincial Roman enamels recently acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art’, The Art Bulletin 32.4 (1950), 303–4; Artefacts BTL-4003.

129 The vessel recently excavated from an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Scremby, Lincs. (Hugh Wilmott, pers. comm.) and the sprinkler or ‘wine-thief’ found with third-century coins from Ambleteuse, near Boulogne, now in the British Museum (BM 1843,0623.1), offer further examples.

130 Upper band, see Bayley and Budd, op. cit. (n. 45), 208, fig. 75 (central band); middle band: see Bad Pyrmont, E. Künzl, ‘Enamelled vessels of Roman Britain’, in D. Breeze (ed.), The First Souvenirs: Enamelled Vessels from Hadrian's Wall (2012), 15, fig. 2.6; Hockwold-cum-Wilton, Hunter, op. cit. (n. 45), 105, fig 9.10; lower band: see Bayley and Budd, op. cit. (n. 45), 213, fig. 83.

131 Hunter, op. cit. (n. 45), 105.