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II. Finds Reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 September 2015

Sally Worrell
Portable Antiquities Scheme, Institute of Archaeology, University College
John Pearce
Department of Classics, King's College


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Roman Britain in 2014
Copyright © The Author(s) 2015. Published by The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 

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1 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2006. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 38 (2007), 303CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 This replaces the reporting scheme used between 2004 and 2011 in these summaries where data were presented according to the major functional categories typically used for the publication of Roman period small finds. Readers wishing to explore regional variability among non-brooch finds in more detail are referred to these earlier summaries.

3 A selection of the most important coins is published annually in the British Numismatic Journal by S. Moorhead.

4 Moorhead, S. and Walton, P., ‘Coins recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: a summary’, Britannia 42 (2011), 432–7Google Scholar; Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2013. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 45 (2014), 398Google Scholar.

5 These include: Seaton Down, Devon (PAS-D7EA4C/2013 T763); Ely, Cambs. (CAM-E70314); Riddlesden, W Yorks. (SWYOR-810366); Forest of Dean (GLO-24A5E0); East Boldre, New Forest (HAMP-8C0F33); Hamering, Lincs. (DENO-6F8801/2014 T629); Ecclesfield, Sheffield (SWYOR-9E9660); Pewsey, Wilts. (BERK-637CB6).

6 Hoards continue to be published in full through the Coin Hoards of Roman Britain series, as well as the individual coins being reported on the PAS database. A collaborative project on hoarding between the British Museum and the University of Leicester continues; Bland, R., ‘Hoarding in Britain: an overview’, British Numismatic Journal 83 (2013), 214–38Google Scholar; idem, Hoarding in Iron Age and Roman Britain 2: the puzzle of the late Roman period’, British Numismatic Journal 84 (2014), 938Google Scholar.

7 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 4, 2014), 399.

8 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 4, 2014), 399–400, with references to earlier reports.

9 A Leverhulme-funded project on the distribution of PAS findspots and the factors determining them continues: Portable Antiquities Scheme database as a tool for archaeological research.

10 Fitzpatrick-Matthews, K. and Watters, J., ‘A grave at Kelshall: recreating the glory of a wealthy Roman citizen’, British Archaeology 142 (2015), 1421Google Scholar.

11 Pitts, M., ‘Altar scene on Buckinghamshire Roman jug’, British Archaeology 142 (2015), 6Google Scholar.

12 J. Pearce, Contextual Archaeology of Burial Practice: Case Studies from Roman Britain, BAR British Series 588 (2013), 111–29.

13 e.g. BM-4AD3CB. For previous work on the Piercebridge assemblage see P. Walton, ‘The finds from the river’, in H.E.M. Cool and D. Mason (eds), Roman Piercebridge. Excavations by D.W. Harding and Peter Scott 1969–81 (2008), 286–93.

14 Manning, W.H., ‘Ironwork hoards in Iron Age and Roman Britain’, Britannia 3 (1972), 224–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

15 The object descriptions present revised versions by the authors of this report of the database entries made by PAS staff and others. For almost all objects further discussion concerning their form and significance is also added here.

16 Throughout the year staff in the British Museum, in particular Ralph Jackson and Richard Hobbs, have provided invaluable advice in the identification of individual objects. As ever we are especially grateful to Martin Henig for comments on many objects. We also wish to record the help of Don Mackreth in identifying the Birdlip-type brooch. Janina Parol (British Museum) prepared images for publication. We thank too Barry Burnham for reading and commenting on a draft text.

17 The geographical sequence in which objects are reported follows that set out in the ‘Roman Britain in 20XX. I. Sites Explored.’ section of Britannia.

18 Found by W. Marshall. Recorded by R. Collins and J. Pearce.

19 M. Feugère (ed.), Artefacts. Encyclopédie en ligne des petits objets archéologiques, FIB-4282.

20 Feugère, op. cit. (note 19), FIB-4182; C. Johns, The Jewellery of Roman Britain: Celtic and Classical Traditions (1996), 177, fig. 7.16.

21 Bassus: CIL XIII. 8308; H. Galsterer, Die römischen Steininschriften aus Köln (2nd edn, 2010), no. 362, Ubi Erat Lupa 20697; Insus: RIB III.3185.

22 Worrell, op. cit. (note 1, 2007), 328–30, no. 26.

23 Found by B. Middlemass and R. Mitchinson. Recorded by P. Walton.

24 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 4, 2014), 412–14, no. 14, Dodderhill, Worcs. for figural examples; the handle from Hursley, Hants. (HAMP-7A27F3) provides a more typical example of decoration dividing the handle surface into zones.

25 McIntosh, F., ‘A study into Romano-British enamelling’, The School of Historical Studies Postgraduate Forum E-Journal Edition 7 (2009), 118Google Scholar,; S. Worrell, ‘Enamelled vessels and related objects recorded to the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, in D. Breeze (ed.), First Souvenirs: Enamelled Vessels from Hadrian's Wall (2012), 71–84 (vessels); Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 4, 2014), 410–11, no. 11 (a harness mount from Ludford, Lincs., DENO-FE87A5, with other examples); discussion of the Horton-cum-Peel brooch, Cheshire, (No. 8, below), includes references to other brooches with similar decoration.

26 Found by P. Walsh. Identified and recorded by A. Cooper and J. Coulthard.

27 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2003. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 35 (2004), 26, no. 9Google Scholar; H. Eckardt and N. Crummy, Styling the Body in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain: a Contextual Approach to Toilet Instruments (2008), 167–9.

28 Eckardt and Crummy, op. cit. (note 27), 170–2 for enamelled plate brooches; for zoomorphic chicken brooches see M. Feugère, Les fibules en Gaule méridionale, de la conquête à la fin du Ve siècle ap. J.-C. (1985), 383–8, type 29c; C. Callahan, Cockerels in Romano-British Art, unpub. MA dissertation, University of Reading (2014), 34–9 (we thank Hella Eckardt for drawing our attention to this dissertation).

29 Found by W. Colbeck. Identified and recorded by D. Mackreth, E. Cox and S. Worrell.

30 D. Mackreth† (pers. comm.) suggests that the brooch belongs to the variant he identifies as Form 4.1b. D. Mackreth, Brooches in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain (2011), I.12–13, II.8, pl. 5.

31 Found by M. Tapp. Identified and recorded by V. Oakden and J. Pearce.

32 H. Menzel, Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland III. Bonn (1986), 197–8, nos 541–2, Taf. 173.

33 S. Tassinari, La vaisselle de bronze romaine et provinciale au Musée des Antiquités nationales (1975), 35–6, nos 28–30, planches VIII–IX; J.M.C. Toynbee, Art in Britain under the Romans (1964), 320–1.

34 Found by R. Moore. Identified and recorded by S. Moorhead and V. Oakden.

35 Eleanor Ghey, pers. comm.

36 Found by R. Cove. Identified and recorded by V. Oakden and J. Bayley.

37 J. Bayley and S. Butcher, Roman Brooches in Britain: A Technological and Typological Study Based on the Richborough Collection, Report of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 68 (2004), 130, illus. 31 and pl. 17.

38 See No. 3 above with references.

39 Found by P. Gittings. Identified and recorded by K. Adams.

40 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2008. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 40 (2009), 301–3Google Scholar, no. 18; Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2011. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 43 (2012), 381Google Scholar, no. 27.

41 Found by C. Pearson. Identified and recorded by T. Gilmore.

42 P. Guest, ‘They came, they saw, they conquered. The Roman legionary fortress at Caerleon’, CAA History Magazine 9 (n.d.) 6, fig. 10b, An apparently similar mount is reported from Beaumes de Venise, Haute Provence, H. Rolland, Bronzes antiques de Haute Provence (1965), 151, no. 333.

43 J. Garbsch, Römische Paraderüstungen (1978), 83, R1-4, Taf. 41; Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 406Google Scholar.

44 Found by J. Davis. Identified and recorded by V. Oakden and S. Worrell.

45 Durham, E., ‘Depicting the gods. Metal figurines in Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 31 (2012), 3.29Google Scholar,; Worrell, op. cit. (note 40, 2009), 301, no. 17, (WAW-C54295); Folkestone, Kent (KENT-178176).

46 Found by N. Mortensen. Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by A. Byard.

47 Johns, op. cit. (note 20), 44–7, 109–11.

48 For Mercury figurines in Britain in general see Durham, op. cit. (note 45), 3.15. For examples reported to the PAS see references in the discussion of a figurine from Nettleton, Lincs. (LIN-25CC02), Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2012. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 44 (2013), 55Google Scholar, no. 8.

49 S. Boucher, Recherches sur les bronzes figurés de Gaule pré-romaine et romaine (1976), 104–5, nos 159–68, planches 35–6; A. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz. I. Augst, Forschungen in Augst 26 (1977), 28–9, with an extensive list of occurrences; G. Faider-Feytmans, Les Bronzes romains de Belgique (1979), 60–4, nos 32–42, planches 14–12.

50 Boucher, op. cit. (note 49), no. 370, documents a further example from Mathay, Doubs; Durham, op. cit. (note 45), nos 55 (St Albans) and 284 (Richborough).

51 Durham, E., ‘Style and substance: some metal figurines from south-west Britain’, Britannia 45 (2014), 45–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar; A. Leibundgut, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz. III. Westschweiz, Bern und Wallis (1980), 45–6, no. 41, Taf. 53; Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2009 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 41 (2010), 430–1Google Scholar, no. 15.

52 Boucher, op. cit. (note 49), 174–5, planches 7–9, including the famous cross-legged figure from Bouray.

53 Found by D. Pearce. Identified and recorded by D. Williams and S. Worrell.

54 D. Atkinson, Report on Excavations at Wroxeter (the Roman City of Viroconium) in the County of Salop, 1923–1927 (1942), 208, H26, fig. 36; Feugère, op. cit. (note 28), 385, 405, fig. 59, Type 29, no. 12b.

55 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 48, 2013), 361–2, no. 15.

56 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 48, 2013), 356, no. 9; Durham, op. cit. (note 45), 3.35.12.

57 Found by G. Edmund. Identified by M. Henig and J. Watters. Recorded by J. Watters.

58 Durham, op. cit. (note 45), 3.35.2. Continental examples of bull figurines are referenced in the PAS record.

59 Worrell, op. cit. (note 51, 2010), 420–1, no. 6.

60 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 429–30Google Scholar, no. 24.

61 Found by A. Ashford. Identified and recorded by A. Byard, M. Henig and J. Pearce.

62 Gardner, E., ‘A statuette representing a boy and goose’, Journal of Hellenic Studies 6 (1885), 115CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ridgway, B., ‘The boy strangling the goose: genre figure or mythological symbol’, American Journal of Archaeology 110 (2006), 643–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar; J.J. Pollitt, Art in the Hellenistic Age (1986), 128–9, nos 132–3; R.R.R. Smith, Hellenistic Sculpture (1991), 136–40. The PAS record also lists further examples.

63 Durham, op. cit. (note 45), no. 68, identified as example of Cupid; J. Foster, The Lexden Tumulus: a Re-appraisal of an Iron Age Burial from Colchester, Essex, BAR British Series 156 (1986), 52–4, fig. 20.1, pl. 8.

64 E. Bartman, Ancient Sculptural Copies in Miniature (1992), 41–2, 47; Boucher, op. cit. (note 49), 181–204, esp. 195–6, notes a widespread occurrence in Gaul, including group subjects. Other PAS examples include a figurine of a sleeping boy from Saffron Walden, Essex (ESS-6F60D3) (Worrell, op. cit. (note 1, 2007), 331, no. 26) and a pendant or steelyard weight rendered as a grotesque head, Osbournby, Lincs. (LIN-1213A7) (Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 40, 2012), 365–6, no. 8).

65 Found by K. Hewitt. Identified by T. Gilmore, S. Worrell and J. Pearce.

66 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2005. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 37 (2006), 451Google Scholar, no. 19; J.M.C. Toynbee, Art in Roman Britain (1962), 175, nos 114 and 116, pls 130, 132; Toynbee, op. cit. (note 33), 322–6, for proliferation of faces in this setting.

67 Kaufmann-Heinimann, op. cit. (note 49), 21–2, Abb. 3.

68 Found by G. Cook. Identified by A. Marsden.

69 M. Henig, pers. comm.; A. Marsden, ‘Satyrs, leopards, riders and ravens’, in S. Ashley and A. Marsden (eds), Landscapes and Artefacts. Studies in East Anglian Archaeology Presented to Andrew Rogerson (2014), 61, no. 41.

70 B. Barr-Sharrar, The Hellenistic and Early Roman Decorative Bust (1987).

71 Walters, B. and Henig, M., ‘Two busts from Littlecote’, Britannia 29 (1988), 407–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

72 Found by D. Allen. Identified and recorded by K. Marsden and J. Pearce.

73 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 43, 2011), 416–17, no. 12, describe an example of a Genius Cucullatus from Buntingford, Herts. (BH-712AC1) and similar figurines. For the countryman figurine see H. Menzel, Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland II.Trier (1966), 41, no. 86, Taf. 40.

74 R. Merrifield, ‘The London Hunter-God and his significance’, in J. Bird, M. Hassall and H. Sheldon (eds), Interpreting Roman London (1996), 105–13; P. Coombe, F. Grew, K. Hayward and M. Henig, CSIR Great Britain. 1.10, Roman Sculpture from London and the South-East (2015), 42–4, nos 73–5, pl. 41; M. Henig, CSIR Great Britain. 1.7, Roman Sculpture from the Cotswold Region, with Devon and Cornwall (1994), 37–9, nos 110–14, pl. 29.

75 S. Cosh and D. Neal, Roman Mosaics of Britain. Vol. IV Western Britain (2010), 54–8; an antiquities auction website shows an unprovenanced figurine of winter in similar form:

76 Worrell, op. cit. (note 51, 2010), 430–1, no. 15; Burleigh, G. and Jackson, R., ‘An unusual Minerva-Fortuna figurine from Hinxworth, Hertfordshire’, Antiquaries Journal 89 (2009), 63–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

77 Durham, op. cit. (note 45), no. 1129, huntsman with deer slung over his shoulders, London.

78 Found by T. Mills. Identified by R. Jackson and S. Worrell. Recorded by J. Jackson.

79 Worrell, op. cit. (note 40, 2009), 288–90, no. 6, provides references to the handful of examples discovered during excavation.

80 Menzel, op. cit. (note 73), no. 286, Taf. 92; Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 49), 185, no. 380, pl. 160.

81 Found by B. Robson. Identified and recorded by K. Sumnall.

82 Durham, op. cit. (note 45), no. 35; Boucher, op. cit. (note 49), nos 403–4, pl. 81; Kaufmann-Heinimann, op. cit. (note 49), 41, no. 36, Taf. 53.

83 Found by A. Duke. Identified and recorded by K. Hinds and A. Willis.

84 Fulford, M., Henig, M. and Johns, C., ‘A late Roman gold finger-ring from Silchester, Hampshire’, Britannia 18 (1987), 279–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Fulford, M., Burnett, A., Henig, M. and Johns, C., ‘A hoard of late Roman rings and silver coins from Silchester, Hampshire’, Britannia 20 (1989), 222–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar, ring nos 3 and 5; C. Johns, The Hoxne Late Roman Treasure, 213–14, nos 8 and 9.

85 M. Henig, A Corpus of Roman Engraved Gemstones from British Sites, BAR British Series 8 (3rd edn, 2007), 105–7, nos 112–25; V. Platt, ‘Butterflies: seals, symbols and the soul in Antiquity’, in L. Gilmour (ed.), Pagans and Christians – from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Papers in honour of Martin Henig, BAR International Series 1610 (2007), 89–99.

86 E. Zwierlein-Diehl, Die antiken Gemmen des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien II (1979), 182, no. 1357, Taf. 127.

87 E. Zwierlein-Diehl, ‘Constantinopolis et Roma. Intailles du IVe et du Ve siècle après Jesus-Christ’, in M.A. Broustet (ed.), La Glyptique des mondes classiques. Mélanges en hommage à Marie-Louise Vollenweider (1997), 92, fig. 15.

88 Found by D. Cobb. Identified and recorded by C. Hayward Trevarthen.

89 YORYM-89CD53 and LIN-3BC5E5.

90 We are indebted to Jerry Slocum for his observations on this category of locks. A very similar casing is documented by him for inclusion in a forthcoming catalogue of his collection. J. Slocum and D. Sonneveld, Roman Empire Mask Puzzle Padlocks, Slocum Inv. # 34021 (formerly Donald Jackson collection 5067). He also draws our attention to a small number of other examples in private European collections (J. Slocum, pers. comm.).

91 Feugère, op. cit. (note 19), CDN-4003. A PAS object from Hadham, Herts. (BH-6225E0), is less likely to be a seal-box than a casing for a lock of this type.

92 Found by V. Macrae. Identified by R. Jackson. Recorded by L. Burnett.

93 R. Jackson, ‘Staphylagra, staphylocaustes, uvulectomy and haemorrhoidectomy: the Roman instruments and operations’, in A. Krug (ed.), From Epidaurus to Salerno: Symposium held at the European University Centre for Cultural Heritage, Ravello, April, 1990 (1992), 167–85; Sparey-Green, C., ‘A Roman medical instrument from Dorchester’, Proceedings Dorset Natural History and Archaeology Society 116 (1994), 135–6Google Scholar. Further references to discussion of this object may be found in the online record.

94 Worrell, op. cit. (note 1, 2007), 34–5, no. 30.

95 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 4, 2014), 421–2, no. 23.

96 We thank Laura Burnett for drawing this to our attention. The specific parallels are with early nineteenth-century Royal Assurance Society firemarks, of which an example (with a very clear online image) was sold by Bonhams in 2007: