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II. Finds Reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  13 September 2016

John Pearce
Department of Classics, King's College London (J.P.)
Sally Worrell
Portable Antiquities Scheme, Institute of Archaeology, University College London (S.W.)


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Roman Britain in 2015
Copyright © The Author(s) 2016. Published by The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 

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1 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2006. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 38 (2007), 303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 A selection of the most important coins is published annually in the British Numismatic Journal by S. Moorhead.

3 Moorhead, S. and Walton, P., ‘Coins recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: a summary’, Britannia 42 (2011), 432–7Google Scholar; Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2014. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 46 (2015), 357 Google Scholar.

4 Hoards continue to be published in full through the Coin Hoards of Roman Britain series, as well as the individual coins being reported on the PAS database. A collaborative project on hoarding between the British Museum and the University of Leicester continues: Crisis or Continuity. Hoarding in Iron Age and Roman Britain with Special Reference to the 3rd Century AD. Some interim results are discussed (with further references) by Bland, R., ‘Hoarding in Iron Age and Roman Britain 2: the puzzle of the late Roman period’, British Numismatic Journal 84 (2014), 938 Google Scholar.

5 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 357.

6 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 357, with references to earlier reports.

7 Robbins, K., ‘Balancing the scales: exploring the variable effects of collection bias on data collected by the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Landscapes 14 (2013), 5472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8 The object descriptions present substantially revised versions of PAS database entries by the authors of this report. In all cases further discussion concerning their form and significance is also added here.

9 Throughout the year staff in the British Museum, in particular Ralph Jackson and Richard Hobbs, have provided invaluable advice in the identification of individual objects. We are indebted to Justine Bayley, Jenny Price and Philippa Walton for their observations on individual objects considered below and above all to Martin Henig for his generosity in discussing many of the artefacts which we publish here. However, responsibility for any errors in what follows is ours. Once more we also express our thanks to Barry Burnham for reading the text in draft.

10 The geographical sequence in which objects are reported follows that set out in the ‘Roman Britain in 20XX. I. Sites explored’ section of Britannia.

11 Found by J. Perry. Recorded by V. Oakden.

12 As well as the object under discussion here, subsequent finds are from Brough with St Giles, N Yorks. (Type II; DUR-3DB631), Broxholme, Lincs. (Type I; DENO-EB7C77), and Andover, Hants. (Type II; HAMP-378231); Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2007. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 39 (2008), 365–6Google Scholar, no. 15. SF-7584A1, a further find of a seated bound figure, is in a different material (lead alloy) and may not be of Roman date.

13 R. Jackson, ‘Roman bound captives: symbols of slavery?’, in N. Crummy (ed.), Image, Craft and the Classical World (2005), 144–5.

14 Jackson, op. cit. (note 13), 147; M. Gueye, Captifs et captivité dans le monde romain: discours littéraire et iconographique (IIIe siècle av. J.-C.–IIe siècle après J.-C.) (2013), 220–7.

15 Jackson, op. cit. (note 13), 148.

16 Found by L. Sansom. Identified by S. Worrell. Recorded by V. Oakden.

17 A. Kaufmann-Heinimann, Götter und Lararien aus Augusta Raurica, Forschungen in Augst 26 (1998), 28–32, Abb. 7. Cologne: H. Menzel, Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland. III. Bonn (1986), 147, no. 389.

18 Letcombe Regis, Oxon.: Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2009. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 41 (2010), 425–6Google Scholar, no. 9; Lilleshall: WMID-F7B120.

19 Found by W. Longcake. Identified by T. Padley. Recorded by D. Boughton. We thank Jenny Price for comments on this piece.

20 J. Price and S. Cottam, Romano-British Glass Vessels. A Handbook (1998), 99–101.

21 Imago, The Roman Society Centenary Image Bank, ‘Gladiator glass, Vindolanda Museum’. (Accessed 20.06.16).

22 J. Price and S. Cottam, ‘Roman glass’, in T. Wilmott, Birdoswald. Excavations of a Roman Fort on Hadrian's Wall and its Successor Settlements: 198792, English Heritage Archaeological Reports 14 (1997), 343. Piercebridge: H. Cool and J. Price, ‘Digital Chapter 10. The glass vessels’, in H.E.M. Cool and D. Mason (eds), Roman Piercebridge. Excavations by D.W. Harding and Peter Scott 1969–81 (2008), 5–6.

23 Found by B. Middlemass and R. Mitchinson. Recorded by P. Walton. We thank Philippa Walton for further discussion of this piece and for references to the Commodan coins with portraits of the emperor in a lion skin.

24 Kirk, J.R., ‘Bronzes from Woodeaton, Oxon.’, Oxoniensia 14 (1949), 44 Google Scholar, nos 21–3, fig. 9, 5–6 (impressions from coins including those of Numerian (perhaps), Constantine and Crispus). Smith, J. Bagnall, ‘More votive finds from Woodeaton, Oxfordshire’, Oxoniensia 63 (1998), 177–8Google Scholar, no. 17.1m, fig. 11 (impression of a gold stater of Cunobelin).

25 RIC III Commodus 252: (Accessed 10.06.16).

26 D. Braund, Ruling Roman Britain: Kings, Queens, Governors and Emperors from Julius Caesar to Agricola (1996), 22–3.

27 Newcastle altars dedicated to Neptune and Oceanus: RIB 1319–20; dedications to Tethys and Ocean at York: Braund, op. cit. (note 26), 20–2; intaglios: M. Henig, A Corpus of Roman Engraved Gemstones from British Sites, BAR British Series 8 (3rd edn, 2007), 35, 151–2; a statuette of Alexander or of the emperor Nero in the guise of Alexander from Barking Hill, Suffolk: J. Huskinson, CSIR Great Britain. I.8., Roman Sculpture from Eastern England (1994), 14, no. 25.

28 For an overview see P. Walton, ‘The finds from the river’, in H.E.M. Cool and D. Mason (eds), Roman Piercebridge. Excavations by D.W. Harding and Peter Scott 1969–81 (2008), 286–93.

29 Found by D. Cooper. Identified and recorded by R. Griffiths and J. Pearce.

30 Durham, E., ‘Depicting the gods. Metal figurines in Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 31 (2012), 3.15 Google Scholar, Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 2, 2015), 368–70, no. 11.

31 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 370 discuss examples of gods wearing torcs.

32 Found by K. George. Identified and recorded by A. Downes.

33 D. Mackreth, Brooches in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain (2011), 180, type 1.2b, pls 123–4.

34 A. Appels and S. Laycock, Roman Buckles and Military Fittings (2007), 125; J. Nikolay, Armed Batavians: Use and Significance of Weaponry and Horse-gear from Non-military Contexts in the Rhine Delta (50 BC–AD 450) (2007), 227–31, type B15, for horse-gear fittings in vulvate form; M. Feugère, Y. Bourrieau, Y. Roca and P. Wollensack, ‘Applique de harnais: vulve (Artefacts : APH-4023)’, (Accessed 31/05/2016).

35 Found by C. Denny. Identified and recorded by A. Downes and S. Worrell.

36 G. Faider-Feytmans, Les Bronzes romains de Belgique (1979), 131, no. 232 (Anthée), 184–5, nos 377, 380 (Bois-et-Borsu); 185–6, no. 384 (Tienen-Grimde).

37 Male and female anthropomorphic examples are discussed in the publication of a mount from Elmsted, Kent, (KENT-FE87D8), Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 376–7, no. 18. A further example from Wilby, Suffolk, was documented in 2015 (ESS-A9905A).

38 Found by S. Leitch. Identified and recorded by A. Willis and S. Worrell.

39 S. Cociş, ‘Anchor-shaped brooches: typology, chronology, diffusion area, style, workshops’, Dacia 50 (2006), 389–421.

40 Found by M. O'Bee. Identified and recorded by A. Daubney.

41 G. Lloyd-Morgan, The Typology and Chronology of Mirrors in Roman Italy and the North-West Provinces, unpub. PhD thesis, University of Birmingham (1977), 212–20; G. Lloyd-Morgan, ‘Roman mirrors and the third century’, in A. King and M. Henig (eds), The Roman West in the Third Century: Contributions from Archaeology and History, BAR International Series 109 (1981), 145–6.

42 Found by W. Burleigh. Identified and recorded by V. Allnatt and M. Henig.

43 For a review of PAS metal vessel finds and their decoration, see J. Lundock, A Study of the Deposition and Distribution of Copper Alloy Vessels in Roman Britain, BAR Roman Archaeology 9 (2015), 91–108.

44 Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 36), 170, no. 345. Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 363–4, no. 5, with further examples.

45 Found by M. Fanello. Identified and recorded by S. Worrell and M. Henig.

46 A doctoral thesis on these terminals and other priestly regalia items is currently in preparation by Alessandra Esposito, King's College London.

47 LIN-71ECB3, YORYM-36E9D2 and NLM-5FBEB7.

48 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 422–5Google Scholar, no. 19; SF-D4D044. Durham, E. and Fulford, M., ‘The Silchester bronze eagle in Roman Britain’, Archaeological Journal 170 (2013), 78105 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

49 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2011. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 43 (2012), 367–8Google Scholar, no. 10.

50 Found by J. Davies. Identified and recorded by J. Watters.

51 Durham, op. cit. (note 30), 3.35.6,

52 Bunwell: Durham, op. cit. (note 30), no. 637; Worrell, op. cit. (note 1, 2007), 25, 328–30.

53 Found by D. Spinelli. Identified and recorded by R. Tyrell and S. Worrell.

54 Dormagen: J. Farley and F. Hunter, Celts, Art and Identity (2015), 160–1. Zugmantel: Oldenstein, J., ‘Zur Ausrüstung römischer Auxiliareinheiten. Studien zu Beschlägen und Zierat an der Ausrüstung der römischen Auxiliareinheiten des obergermanisch-raetischen Limesgebietes aus dem zweiten und dritten Jahrhundert n. Chr.’, Berichte der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 57 (1976), 282 Google Scholar, no. 1131, Taf. 87. D. Mitten and S. Doeringer, Master Bronzes from the Classical World (1967), 312, no. 314a.

55 Found by J. Mather. Identified and recorded by A. Byard and M. Henig.

56 Walker, S., ‘Emperors and deities in rural Britain. A copper-alloy head of Marcus Aurelius from Steane, near Brackley (Northants)’, Britannia 45 (2014), 231–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

57 Found by C. Barker. Identified by A. Byard and S. Worrell.

58 Wild, J.-P., ‘Button-and-loop fasteners in the Roman provinces’, Britannia 1 (1970), 137–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

59 Worrell, op. cit. (note 12, 2008), 341–6.

60 Found by S. Mansell. Recorded by P. Reavill. Dr Monica Gui (Department of Ancient History and Archaeology, Babeş-Bolyai University) kindly provided the parallels noted outside Britain.

61 E. Chirilă, N. Gudea, V. Lucăcel and C. Pop, Das Römerlager von Buciumi. Beitraäge zur Untersuchung des Limes der Dacia Porolissensis (1972), 73, pl. LXXII/1.

62 E. Chapman, A Catalogue of the Roman Military Equipment in the National Museum of Wales, BAR British Series 388 (2005), 140, TH04; S. James, The Excavations at Dura-Europos. Final Report VII. The Arms and Armour and other Military Equipment (2004), 98, no. 341; Chirilă et al., op. cit. (note 61), 74, pl. LXXV/1, 2.

63 M. Junkelmann, Die Reiter Roms. III. Zubehör, Reitweise, Bewaffnung (1992), Abb. 2.

64 Found by C. Doughty. Identified and recorded by A. Brown.

65 Possible identifications for hooded figures are discussed further with reference to a figurine from Roxwell, Essex, in Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 375–6, no. 17. W. Deonna, De Télesphore au ‘moine bourru’: Dieux, génies et démons encapuchonnés, Collection Latomus 21 (1955).

66 cf. IOW-60FC80; WMID-4CEB20. Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3, 2015), 366–7, no. 9.

67 Found by B. Bing. Identified and recorded by A. Rogerson and J. Pearce.

68 It is too large, for instance, to be the lid of a balsamarium and lacks the suspension loops for a steelyard weight. Martin Henig (pers. comm.) suggests that these may be rein guides or similar elements from a vehicle, although we note it is not closely paralleled in existing examples.

69 LIN-1213A7. Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 49, 2012), 365–6, no. 8.

70 N. Himmelmann, Realistische Themen in der griechischen Kunst der archaischen und klassischen Zeit (1994), 89–122.

71 Menzel, op. cit. (note 17), 101, no. 237, Taf. 111. A. Kaufmann Heinimann, Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz Bd. I Augst (1977), 120–1, no. 189, Taf. 120–1.

72 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 49, 2012), 365–6, no. 8, with further references.

73 N. Lenski, ‘Working models. Functional art and Roman conceptions of slavery’, in M. George (ed.), Roman Slavery and Roman Material Culture (2013), 129–57.

74 Found by A. King. Identified and recorded by G. Crace.

75 A. Marsden, ‘Satyrs, leopards, riders and ravens: anthropomorphic and zoomorphic objects from Roman Norfolk: a safari through the county's religious landscape’, in S. Ashley and A. Marsden (eds), Landscapes and Artefacts. Studies in East Anglian Archaeology presented to Andrew Rogerson (2014), 62–3, no. 46, fig. 7.

76 Found by R. Jenkins. Identified and recorded by E. Darch and M. Henig. This entry draws closely on observations made to us by Martin Henig.

77 See Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘Roman Britain in 2015. III. Inscriptions’, Britannia 47 (2016)Google Scholar, no. 18.

78 G. Platz-Horster, Die antiken Gemmen aus Xanten (1987), 61, no. 112, pl. 21.

79 E. Zwierlein-Diehl, Die antiken Gemmen des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien I (1973), 134–5, no. 409, pl. 68.

80 For this and the following note Martin Henig notes the following examples: C.VOLC-ACI.C.F with a comic actor, P. Zazoff, Antike Gemmen in Deutschen Sammlungen. IV, Hannover,Kestner-Museum (1975), 56, no. 175, pl. 31; ATTI (in impression), with Minerva, G. Sena Chiesa, Gemme del Museo Nazionale di Aquileia (1966), 132, no. 149, pl. vii; VINDALVC/O/NE/IS (i.e. ‘of Vindaluco’) with a craftsman and FELICI/S with an Amazon head, M. Henig, Classical Gems. Ancient and Modern Intaglios and Cameos in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1994), 83, no. 144; 117, no. 219.

81 Henig, Eastcheap, M., ‘A cache of Roman intaglios from Eastcheap, City of London’, Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society 35 (1984), 1213 Google Scholar, no. 2 = M. Henig, The Art of Roman Britain (1995), 33, illus. 14; HERACLI, with Victory, Boscotrecase, U. Pannuti, Catalogo della Collezione Glittica. Museo archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. I (1980), 65, no. 97; FVSCVS with double flute player, Hanover, Zazoff, op. cit. (note 80), 108, no. 452, pl. 63; AVCTVS with Hermes, Fitzwilliam, Henig, op. cit. (note 80), 97, no. 175.

82 Found by P. Olivant. Identified and recorded by E. Wood.

83 Fittock, M., ‘Broken deities: the pipe-clay figurines from Roman London’, Britannia 46 (2015), 111–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

84 Durham, op. cit. (note 30), 3.7

85 Blanc, N. and Gury, F., ‘Eros/Amor Cupido’, Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae Vol. III (1986), 688 Google Scholar, nos 140–5, ‘Eros utilisant son arc’.

86 Fittock, op. cit, (note 83), 119.

87 Identified and recorded by F. Basford, J. Pearce and S. Worrell. For a fuller discussion of the brooch and its parallels see Pearce, J., Basford, F. and Worrell, S., ‘Mars, Roma or Love, actually? A new monogram brooch from Britain’, Lucerna 50 (2016), 22–3Google Scholar. In addition to the parallels listed there, two further examples are noted from Dobruja, Romania; Mihailescu-Bîrliba, L. and Chiriac, C., ‘Deux fibules à inscription de Mésie Inférieure’, Dacia 50 (2006), 423–9Google Scholar.

88 See also, Tomlin, R.S.O., ‘Roman Britain in 2015. III. Inscriptions’, Britannia 47 (2016)Google Scholar, no. 12.

89 Mihailescu-Bîrliba and Chiriac, op. cit. (note 87), 428.

90 Garbsch, J., ‘Beobachtungen an Fibeln des Mars’, Bäyerische Vorgeschichtsblätter 56 (1991), 187–97Google Scholar; E. Genceva, Les fibules romaines de Bulgarie de la fin du 1er s. av. J.-C. à la fin du VIe s. ap. J.-C. (2004), 121.

91 Nikolay, op. cit. (note 34), 142–52.

92 Found by V. Macrae. Identified and recorded by B. Read and S. Worrell.

93 Mackreth, op. cit. (note 33), 178, nos 11331 and 11334, pl. 121.

94 Found by P. Maynard. Identified by D. Williams and S. Worrell. Recorded by M. Broomfield.

95 Found by M. Green. Identified by R. Jackson and M. Henig. Recorded by J. Shoemark and J. Pearce.

96 Durham, op. cit. (note 30), 3.34 The suggestion that the South Shields priestess figure (corpus no. 299) carries an incense box is not convincing, especially when compared to representations in other provinces.

97 One now in Bonn, unprovenanced, one from Köln–Mungersdorf, Menzel, op. cit. (note 17), 56–7, nos 116 and 117; Cologne: Ritter, S., ‘Die antiken Bronzen im Römisch-Germanischen Museum Köln: die Statuetten aus Köln’, Kölner Jahrbuch 27 (1994), 346–7Google Scholar, no. 12; Gaziantep, Montpellier and Lyons: M. Feugère, ‘Prêtre, Genius, STE–4013’, Artefacts. Encyclopédie en ligne des petits objets archéologiques, nos 8, 13, 14 (page accessed 31/05/2016). For a priestess from Lyon, S. Boucher and S. Tassinari, Musée de la Civilisation Gallo-Romaine de Lyon, bronzes antiques, I. Inscriptions, statuaire, vaisselle (1976), 85–6, no. 74.

98 H. Kunckel, Der römische Genius, Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung, Ergänzungsheft 20 (1974), 19.

99 V. Huet, ‘L'encens sur les reliefs sacrificiels romains’, in L. Bodiou, D. Frere and V. Mehl (eds), Les Odeurs et les parfums dans l'antiquité (2008), 109–13; Lyons figurine, Feugère, op. cit. (note 97), no. 13.

100 Huet, op. cit. (note 99), 105–16; J. Scheid, Quand faire, c'est croire. Les rites sacrificiels des romains (2005), 44–50.

101 Huet, op. cit. (note 99), 106–11.

102 V. Huet, ‘Les images de sacrifice en Gaule romaine’, in S. Lepetz and W. van Andringa (eds), Archéologie du sacrifice animal en Gaule romaine. Rituels et pratiques alimentaires (2008), 43–74; Brettell, R., Schotsmans, E.M.J., Rogers, P. Walton, Reifarth, N., Redfern, R.C., Stern, B. and Heron, C.P., ‘Choicest unguents”: Molecular evidence for the use of resinous plant exudates in late Roman mortuary rites in Britain’, Journal of Archaeological Science 53 (2015), 639–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

103 Found by M. Presland. Identified by B. Croxford. Recorded by C. Chestnutt.

104 Durham, op. cit. (note 30), 3.31.

105 e.g. Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 36), 82–3, no. 76, pls 46–7; R. Fleischer, Die römischen Bronzen aus Österreich (1967), 69–72, nos 73–7, Taf. 42–5; Ritter, op. cit. (note 97), 375–6, no. 42.

106 Durham, op. cit. (note 30), 4.4.2.