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II. Finds Reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 September 2013

Sally Worrell
Affiliation:
Institute of Archaeology, University College Londons.worrell@ucl.ac.uk
John Pearce
Affiliation:
Department of Classics, King's College Londonjohn.pearce@kcl.ac.uk

Abstract

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Type
Roman Britain in 2012
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s) 2013. Published by The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies 

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Footnotes

This paper is published with the aid of grants from the Portable Antiquities Scheme and the Administrators of the Haverfield Bequest

References

1 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2006 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 38 (2007)Google Scholar, 303.

2 Unlike previous years, many of the objects documented from Norfolk in 2012 have been reported on the PAS database as well as on the Norfolk Historic Environment Record.

3 Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2011 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 43 (2012), 355–7Google Scholar.

4 Coins from hoards are not included in the statistics presented in Table 1. Full publication of hoards is provided through the Coin Hoards of Roman Britain series and in the annual Treasure report (http://finds.org.uk/treasure). Details of all hoards are also available on the PAS database. A collaborative project between the British Museum and Leicester University on third-century a.d. coin hoards from Britain began in 2013 (http://finds.org.uk/news/stories/article/id/244).

5 A selection of the most important coins is published annually in the British Numismatic Journal by S. Moorhead.

6 Moorhead, S. and Walton, P., ‘Coins recorded with the Portable Antiquities Scheme: a summary’, Britannia 42 (2011), 432–7Google Scholar; Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 357.

7 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 357.

8 ibid., 367–8, no. 10.

9 ibid., 357.

10 Throughout the year staff at the British Museum, in particular Ralph Jackson and Richard Hobbs, and Martin Henig (University of Oxford) have provided invaluable advice in the identification of individual objects. Janina Parol (British Museum) prepared the images for publication. We would like to record our thanks to Richard Brewer for reading and commenting on a draft of this report.

11 Department of Portable Antiquities and Treasure, British Museum, London WC1B 3DG.

12 The geographical sequence here follows that set out in the ‘Roman Britain in 20xx. I. Sites Explored’ section of Britannia.

13 Found by A. Nielson. Identified by F. McIntosh, J. Pearce and S. Worrell.

14 Durham, E., ‘Depicting the gods. Metal figurines in Roman Britain’, Internet Archaeology 31 (2012)Google Scholar, 315, nos 362 (Dorchester, Dorset) and 840 (Boxford, Suffolk) http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.31.2; Lindgren, C., Classical Art Forms and Celtic Mutations. Figural Art in Roman Britain (1980)Google Scholar, 45.

15 Fleischer, R., Die römischen Bronzen aus Österreich (1967), 56–8Google Scholar, nos 50, 51 and 52, nude god seated with caduceus in his right hand; Menzel, H., Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland II. Trier (1966), 1719 Google Scholar, nos 34 and 38, Taf. 17–19, neither with caducei. Boucher, S., Recherches sur les bronzes figures pré-romaines et romaines (1976), 102–3Google Scholar, nos 169–72, pl. 37.

16 Found by R. Middlemass and R. Mitchinson. Identified and recorded by P. Walton and J. Pearce.

17 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.7.

18 Walton, P., ‘The finds from the river’, in Cool, H.E.M. and Mason, D. (eds), Roman Piercebridge. Excavations by D.W. Harding and Peter Scott 1969–81 (2008), 286–93Google Scholar.

19 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), nos 224, 257, 267.

20 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.7; Menzel, H., Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland III, Bonn (1986), 21–2, nos 46–7Google Scholar; Leibendgut, A., Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz III. Westschweiz, Bern und Wallis (1980), 35–8Google Scholar, no. 29, from Arconciel, Fribourg, with pomegranate in right hand.

21 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), fig. 25, http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue31/2/images/figure25.html.

22 Found by J. Szulc. Identified by A. Downes and S. Worrell.

23 Durham, op. cit. (note 14).

24 e.g. Durham, op. cit. (note 14), no. 55.

25 M. Green, A Corpus of Religious Material from the Civilian Areas of Roman Britain, BAR British Series 24 (1976), pl. xx, e; Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.35.5.

26 Found by S. Spilman. Identified by K. Leahy and S. Worrell. Recorded by A. Downes and C. Bloom.

27 Bishop, M., Finds from Roman Aldborough. A Catalogue of Small Finds from the Romano-British Town of Isurium Brigantum (1996)Google Scholar, 68, nos 424–8, fig. 37; Bishop, M. and Coulston, J., Roman Military Equipment from the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome (2nd edn, 2006)Google Scholar, 162, no. 12, fig. 100.

28 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 385–6, table 2.

29 Found by M. Chapman. Identified by L. Wilson-Andrews and S. Worrell.

30 Similar to an example from Castleford, see Cool, H.E.M. and Philo, C., Roman Castleford: Excavations 1974–85. Vol. 1, The Small Finds, Yorkshire Archaeology 4 (1998)Google Scholar, 40, no. 31, fig. 8.

31 Grave finds of paired brooches are discussed by R. Philpott, Burial Practices in Roman Britain, BAR British Series 219 (1991), 135.

32 Wild, J.P., ‘Clothing in the North-Western provinces of the Roman Empire’, Bonner Jahrbucher 168 (1968), 207–8Google Scholar, example chain lengths given being between 12.4 and 21 cm.

33 Found by J. Nicholas. Identified by M. Foreman.

34 Kaufmann-Heinemann, A., Götter und Lararien aus Augusta Raurica, Forschungen in Augst 26 (1998), 32–6Google Scholar; Faider-Feytmans, F., Les bronzes romains de Belgique (1979)Google Scholar, 146, nos 270–1; Menzel, op. cit. (note 20), 116, no. 275; Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 371.

35 Menzel, op. cit. (note 20), Taf. 117–18.

36 This object was recorded by Adam Daubney and John Pearce. It was stolen from an exhibition in Keelby in 2012 and the record was created using images taken by the finder prior to its theft.

37 Lindgren, op. cit. (note 14), 101–5, pl. 75. For other examples, see Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 34), 53–4, no. 11, from Blicquy; Kaufmann-Heinemann, A., Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz. Augst (1977), 26–7Google Scholar, no. 14.

38 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.14. New examples include those from West Lavington, Wilts. (WILT-69AC91), Yapham, E Yorks. (YORYM-CA4661) and Stanstead Abbotts (see below).

39 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 4.4.1.

40 Found by R. Boughton. Identified by A. Daubney.

41 Discussion of the Wickenby figurine (LIN-3A2272) includes references to continental examples, see Worrell, S. and Pearce, J., ‘Roman Britain in 2010 II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 42 (2011), 412–13Google Scholar, no. 7. For Mercury figurines in Britain in general, see Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.15; as well as Wickenby, further examples from the PAS are reported from Urchfont, Wilts. (WILT-564501), Lavenham, Suffolk (ESS-BC68F7), and the Isle of Wight (IOW-80A331).

42 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 4.4.1.

43 Identified and recorded by A. Daubney, J. Pearce and S. Worrell.

44 Brampton, Norfolk; Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.35.12; Rudling, D., ‘Roman period temples, shrines and religion in Sussex’, in Rudling, D. (ed.), Ritual Landscapes of Roman South-East Britain (2008)Google Scholar, 130, fig. 6.14.

45 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), no. 414, from Colchester Royal Grammar School site, a Romano-Celtic temple; Green, M.J., Symbol and Image in Celtic Religious Art (1989), 136–7Google Scholar.

46 Toynbee, J.M.C., Art in Roman Britain (1962)Google Scholar, 190; cf. No. 15 below.

47 Found by D. Goddard. Identified by C. Burrill and J. Pearce.

48 Bauchhenß, G., Die Iupitersäulen in den germanischen Provinzen (1981), 66–7Google Scholar.

49 Vian's corpus does not give any examples of figurines: F. Vian, Répertoire des Gigantomachies figurées dans l'art grec et romain (1951).

51 Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae IV, Gigantes, 249, no. 546. According to Leibendgut, A., Die römischen Bronzen der Schweiz, II Avenches (1976), 38–9Google Scholar, no. 21, the authenticity of a cock-headed anguiped from Avenches, in cuirass with shield and whip, is uncertain.

52 Vian, op. cit. (note 49); Dunbabin, K., Mosaics of the Greek and Roman World (1999), 136–7Google Scholar, fig. 139.

53 Bauchhenß, op. cit. (note 48), 505–7.

54 T. Ambrose and M Henig, ‘A new Roman rider-relief from Stragglethorpe, Lincolnshire’, Britannia 11 (1980), 135–8.

55 Henig, M., A Corpus of Engraved Gemstones from British Sites (3rd edn, 2007), 145–6Google Scholar, nos 426 and 434.

56 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), fig. 2. http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue31/2/images/figure23.html

57 Found by A. Riley. Identified by A. Downes and S. Worrell. Recorded by C. Bloom.

58 Kaufmann-Heinemann, op. cit. (note 34), 28–32, Abb. 6–7.

59 Found by H. Stanley. Identified by K. Leahy, A. Daubney and S. Worrell. Recorded by C. Burrill.

60 J. Bayley, pers. comm.

61 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.12, 4.4.1; Worrell, op. cit. (note 1), 328–30, nos 25, 26a–c.

62 Found by M. Hamman. Identified by A. Bolton and S. Worrell.

63 Menzel, op. cit. (note 20), 144, no. 376, Taf. 133.

64 Found by R. Turland. Identified and recorded by J. Cassidy and S. Worrell.

65 Furger, A. et al. , Die römischen Siegelkapseln aus Augusta Raurica, Forschungen in Augst 44 (2009), 5861 Google Scholar; C. Andrews, Roman Seal-boxes in Britain, BAR British Series 567 (2012), 19–22.

66 e.g. Furger et al., op. cit. (note 65), 81, nos 10 and 11, Abb. 56. Bishop, M. and Dore, J., Corbridge: Excavations of the Roman Fort and Town 1947–80 (1988)Google Scholar, 68, no. 65, fig. 78; Andrews, op. cit. (note 65), pl. 2.

67 Andrews, op. cit. (note 65), 106–7. Cf. Derks, T. and Roymans, N., ‘Seal-boxes and the spread of Latin literacy in the Rhine Delta’, in Cooley, A. (ed.), Becoming Roman, Writing Latin? Literacy and Epigraphy in the Roman West (2002), 87134 Google Scholar.

68 Furger et al., op. cit. (note 65), 22–3.

69 Found by J. Baxter. Identified by A. Brown and S. Worrell. Recorded by A. Brown.

70 M. Snape, Roman Brooches from North Britain: A Classification and a Catalogue of Brooches from Sites on the Stanegate, BAR British Series 235 (1993), 64, no. 127, fig. 13; Allason-Jones, L. and Mckay, B., Coventina's Well: A Shrine on Hadrian's Wall (1985)Google Scholar, 23, no. 40.

71 Mackreth, D., Brooches in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain (2012)Google Scholar, 183, nos 8047 and 8048, pl. 125.

72 E. Patek, Verbreitung und Herkunft der römischen Fibeltypen von Pannonien, Dissertationes Pannonicae Ser. II, Nr 19 (1942), pl. XXI.12; Riha, E., Die römischen Fiblen aus Augst und Kaiseraugst (1979)Google Scholar, Taf. 67.1735–6. Feugère, M., Les fibules en Gaule méridionale (1985), 383–7Google Scholar, fig. 59.

73 Finder T. Clark. Identified by R. Tyrell, S. Worrell and J. Pearce.

74 A non-exhaustive list of PAS examples from Gloucestershire to Norfolk includes WILT-3ABB97, WILT-19A504, HAMP-A02501, BH-29C003, BH-IA5EA7, BH-02F2E4, SUR-FCDE51, NMS-E15B77, NMS-DB80B4, NMS-DFC291, NMS-9A60E2, NMS-399314, GLO-0A4CB6, GLO-0A4385.

75 Borrill, H., ‘Casket burials’, in Partridge, C., Skeleton Green, A Late Iron Age and Romano-British Site (1981), 314–18Google Scholar; Hunter, F., ‘Funerary lions in Roman provincial art’, in Noelke, P. (ed.), Romanisation und Resistenz in Plastik, Architektur und Inschriften der Provinzen des Imperium Romanum: Neue Funde und Forschungen (2003), 5967 Google Scholar.

76 Menzel, op. cit. (note 20), 137–40, nos 348–53, Taf. 130–1.

77 Found by T. Clark. Identified by R. Jackson and R. Tyrell. Recorded by R. Tyrell.

78 BM AF 425; Johns, C., The Jewellery of Roman Britain (1996)Google Scholar, 12, fig. 1.3.

79 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 375–6, nos 20–1.

80 Found by J. McArthur. Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by D. Williams.

81 Kozloff, A.P., Animals in Ancient Art from the Leo Mildenberg Collection (1981), 196–7Google Scholar, no. 184; Menzel, H., Die römischen Bronzen aus Deutschland I, Speyer (1960)Google Scholar, 21, no. 29, Taf. 32.

82 Lamps: Mitten, D.G. and Doeringer, S.F., Master Bronzes from the Classical World (1967)Google Scholar, 298, no. 296; Bailey, D.M., A Catalogue of the Lamps in the British Museum IV, Lamps of Metal and Stone and Lampstands (1996)Google Scholar, 63, no. Q3778, pls 75 and 185. Gems: Kozloff, op. cit. (note 81), nos 185 and 186; Henig, M., The Content Family Collection of Ancient Cameos (1990)Google Scholar, 26, no. 47; Henig, M. et al. , Classical Gems, Ancient and Modern Intaglios and Cameos in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar, 486, no. 1072a. Figurines: Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 3.35.3. Coins: Henig, M., ‘Verica's hound’, Oxford Journal of Archaeology 7 (1988), 253–5Google Scholar.

83 Found by M. Steele Snr. Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by J. Watters and J. Pearce.

84 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), no. 758, a cloaked figurine from Devon, but with the cloak hanging from both shoulders and no. 29 from Barkway where the figure is naked with a baldric worn diagonally across the torso.

85 Lindgren, op. cit. (note 14), 101–5, pl. 75; Durham, op. cit. (note 14), no. 30.

86 M. Henig, pers. comm.

87 Durham, op. cit. (note 14), 4.4.1.

88 Identified by C. Wagner. Recorded by E. Darch.

89 Scheibler, I., ‘Rezeptionsphasen des jüngeren Sokratesporträts in der Kaiserzeit’, Jahrbuch des deutschen archäologischen Instituts 119 (2004), 179258 Google Scholar.

90 Lang, J., Mit Wissen geschmückt? Überlegungen zur bildlichen Rezeption griechischer Dichter und Denker in der römischen Lebenswelt am Beispiel kleinformatiger Bildwerke (2012)Google Scholar, ch. 2.2.2; Wagner, C. and Boardman, J., A Collection of Classical and Eastern Intaglios, Rings and Cameos (2003)Google Scholar, 16, 62, 87, nos 96, 447–8 and 622.

91 For the example from South Shields, likely to be a recent import, Allason-Jones, L. and Miket, R., The Catalogue of the Small Finds from South Shields Roman Fort (1984)Google Scholar, 344, no. 10.7, pl. XI; Henig, op. cit. (note 55), 153, cat. no. 486.

92 Found by J. Dovey. Identified and recorded by A. Brown and S. Worrell.

93 Bishop and Coulston, op. cit. (note 27), 120–1.

94 ibid., 120, fig. 70.8; E. Chapman, A Catalogue of Roman Military Equipment in the National Museum of Wales, BAR British Series 388 (2005), 150; Waldringfield (SF-BC1C94); Worrell, op. cit. (note 1), 323, no. 18.

95 Nicolay, J., Armed Batavians. Use and Significance of Weaponry and Horse Gear from Non-Military Contexts in the Rhine Delta (50 BC to AD 450) (2007)Google Scholar, 291.53, 161.1 and 291.54, fig. 2.24, pl. 85.

96 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 383–93.

97 Found by B. Collins. Identified by A. Brown and S. Worrell. Recorded by A. Brown.

98 Menzel, op. cit. (note 20), 169, no. 471, Taf. 143.

99 Found by M. Wilding. Identified and recorded by A. Brown, S. Worrell and J. Pearce.

100 Hunter, F., ‘Frontier finds, frontier art – views of enamelled vessels’, in Breeze, D. (ed.), The First Souvenirs Enamelled Vessels from Hadrian's Wall (2012), 91–2Google Scholar, 99, fig. 9.4.

101 S. Worrell, ‘Enamelled vessels and related objects reported to the Portable Antiquities Scheme 1997–2010’, in Breeze, op. cit. (note 100), 75–6, figs 8.6–8.7.

102 Found by P. Andrews. Recorded by A. Downes, M. Henig and J. Pearce.

103 Durham, op. cit. (note 14).

104 Fleischer, op. cit. (note 15), 175–6, no. 243, Taf. 119; Webster, G., Roman Imperial Army (3rd edn, 1985)Google Scholar, 136, fig. 22, with tail loop, a characteristic also of another figurine, sold at auction on 1 December 2011 (no dimensions or description): http://www.timelineauctions.com/lot/bronze-capricorn-figurine/4429/

105 Keppie, L., ‘The origins and early history of the Second Augustan Legion’, in Brewer, R.J. (ed.), The Second Augustan Legion and the Roman Military Machine (2002)Google Scholar, 13, fig. 1.2.

106 Faider-Feytmans, op. cit. (note 34), 188–93. Bendinelli, G., Il tesoro di argenteria di Marengo (1937), 34–6Google Scholar, 59–64.

107 Barton, T., ‘Augustus and Capricorn: astrological polyvalency and imperial rhetoric’, Journal of Roman Studies 85 (1995), 3351 Google Scholar, esp. 47–8.

108 Suetonius, Aug. 94.12.

109 Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (1989)Google Scholar, 231.

110 Barton, op. cit. (note 107), 48–51.

111 Creighton, J., Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain (2000), 102–17Google Scholar.

112 Henig, op. cit. (note 55), 143, 173, nos 407–8, 663–6; an unprovenanced enamelled zoomorphic brooch in the form of a capricorn-like creature (NARC-E29A65).

113 Keppie, op. cit. (note 105), 12–16. Auxiliaries, e.g. a leather shield cover from Roomburg (Netherlands), Driel-Murray, C. van, ‘A shield cover of Cohors XV Voluntariorum cR ’, Journal of Roman Military Equipment Studies 10 (1999), 4554 Google Scholar; a building dedication from Brough by Bainbridge, RIB III, 3215.

114 e.g. RIC 58 (Carausius); de la Bedoyère, G., ‘Carausius and the marks RSR and I.N.P.C.D.A’, Numismatic Chronicle 158 (1998), 7988 Google Scholar. A more extensive article on the figure and its context is in preparation by Pearce and Minnitt.

115 Found by A. White. Identified and recorded by R. Herbert and S. Worrell.

116 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2007. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 39 (2008), 341–2Google Scholar.

117 Kiernan, P., Miniature Votive Offerings in the North-West Provinces of the Roman Empire (2009), 165–8Google Scholar, 175–9.

118 Schüster, J., ‘Springhead metalwork’, in Biddulph, E. et al. , Settling the Ebbsfleet Valley. High Speed 1 Excavations at Springhead and Northfleet, Kent. The Late Iron Age, Roman, Saxon and Medieval Landscape. Vol. II: Late Iron Age to Roman Finds Reports (2010), 244–5Google Scholar, no. 187, with wider references. Green, M., ‘Model objects from military areas of Roman Britain’, Britannia 12, (1981), 261–2Google Scholar reports two examples of clay miniature amphorae from Norton.

119 Found by N. Booth. Identified and recorded by K. Hinds and S. Worrell.

120 Worrell, op. cit. (note 116), 366–7.

121 Worrell, S., ‘Roman Britain in 2005. II. Finds reported under the Portable Antiquities Scheme’, Britannia 37 (2006)Google Scholar, 465, no. 37, with further references.

122 Feugère, op. cit. (note 72), 383–7, 404, fig. 59.

123 Found by O. Emmans. Identified and recorded by R. Webley.

124 Jackson, R., Camerton. The Late Iron Age and Early Roman Metalwork (1990)Google Scholar, 36, ref. 67; Bishop and Coulston, op. cit. (note 27), 106; Chapman, op. cit. (note 94), 136, Te04; Jenkins, I., ‘A group of silvered-bronze horse-trappings from Xanten (Castra Vetera)’, Britannia 16 (1985)Google Scholar, 150, fig. 14.

125 Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 384–6.

126 Found by S. O'Brien. Identified by A. Gwilt and F. Basford. Recorded by F. Basford.

127 A. Gwilt, pers. comm.; Richmond, I., Hod Hill. Vol. 2. Excavations Carried Out Between 1951 and 1958 (1968)Google Scholar, 114, no. 28, fig. 57.

128 Brailsford, J.W., ‘The Polden Hill hoard, Somerset’, Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 41 (1975), 222–34Google Scholar.

129 Found by R. Tideman. Identified by C. Haywood Trevarthen.

130 Johns, op. cit. (note 78), 58.

131 Found by I. James. Identified by B. Crerar. Recorded by C. Hayward Trevarthen.

132 Johns, op. cit. (note 78), 63, fig. 3.25, 84, 107.

133 Found by C. Theobald. Identified and recorded by D. Williams.

134 MacGregor, M., Early Celtic Art in North Britain (1976)Google Scholar, 159, no. 152.

135 Manning, W.H., Catalogue of the Romano-British Iron Tools, Fittings and Weapons in the British Museum (1985), 149–51Google Scholar.

136 MacGregor, op. cit. (note 134), no. 142. The Roman arms and armour reported to the PAS are summarised by Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 374–5.

137 Found by S. Girardot. Identified by M. Henig. Recorded by A. Richardson and J. Pearce.

138 For an example from the House of Julius Polybius at Pompeii, see Roberts, P., Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum (2013)Google Scholar, 113, fig. 118.

139 C. Braun, Römische Bronzebalsamarien mit Reliefdekor, BAR International Series S917 (2001), 5–8.

140 ibid., 52–4; for thiasoi, see catalogue nos 35 (123–6), 49 (135–6) and 51 (136, no image).

141 ibid.; Allason-Jones, L., ‘Enamelled flask from Catterick Bypass (site 433)’, in Wilson, P.R. (ed.), Cataractonium: Roman Catterick and its Hinterland. Excavations and Research, 1958–1997, Part II (2002), 7880 Google Scholar.

142 Braun, op. cit. (note 139), 36–9.

143 Found by K. Clark. Identified and recorded by R. Jackson and S. Worrell.

144 Hattatt, R., Brooches of Antiquity (1987)Google Scholar, 176, no. 1057.

145 Riha, E., Die römischen Fibeln aus Augst und Kaiseraugst: die Neufunde seit 1975, Forschungen in Augst 18 (1994), 161–2Google Scholar, e.g. nos 2831–2, Taf. 42; Ettlinger, E., Die römischen Fibeln in der Schweiz (1979)Google Scholar, 123, no. 16, Taf. 14; J. Bayley and S. Butcher, Roman Brooches from Britain: A Technological and Typological Study based on the Richborough Collection, Reports of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London 68 (2004), 129, 369.

146 e.g. a harness stud, Glanton, Northumberland (NCL-A38DF3); Worrell and Pearce, op. cit. (note 3), 361–2, no. 4 with references.