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Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

Cecilia Magnusson*
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Solna, Sweden
Kyriaki Kosidou
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Christina Dalman
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, A.J. Drexel Autism Institute, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Michael Lundberg
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden Centre for Academic Mental Health, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Avon and Wiltshire Partnership Mental Health NHS Trust, Bristol, UK
Brian K. Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Neuroscience, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Dheeraj Rai
Affiliation:
Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Håkan Karlsson
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Renee Gardner
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Stefan Arver
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, KarolinskaInstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden
*
Cecilia Magnusson, Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46-(0)-8-12337133. Email: Cecilia.magnusson@ki.se
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Abstract

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Background

Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.

Aims

To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.

Method

Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIS) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.

Conclusions

If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.

Type
Short Report
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BYCreative Common License - NCCreative Common License - ND
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Copyright
Copyright © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016

Footnotes

Declaration of interest

None.

References

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