The islands of Wallacea were surveyed most intensely by field ornithologists in the nineteenth century, and again in the 1990s. However, the status and habitat use of bird species on many islands remains unknown. This study examined birds in several natural and disturbed habitats on Lembata (also known as Lomblen) Island, Indonesia. A total of 78 bird species were recorded including six endemic to the Lesser Sundas, an additional three Wallacean endemics and a total of 27 resident forest species. Including published records, 91 bird species have been recorded for Lembata. Extrapolation from the cumulative number of new species in the 45 samples gave an expected Total Bird Richness of 103.4 species. The frequency of occurrence of Lesser Sundas endemic bird species, all Wallacean endemics and Lesser Sundas endemic subspecies, forest-dependent species and frugivores was greatest in closed canopy forest (at higher elevations). Conversely, generalist “Australo-Papuan” species, granivores and nectarivores occurred more frequently in lowlands (including human-modified habitats). Protected area proposals were made in 1982, but there has been no management of natural areas for biological conservation on Lembata. Conservation activities aiming to stem forest loss and fragmentation in an Important Bird Area in southern Lembata, which includes significant populations of the Flores Green Pigeon Treron floris (Globally Vulnerable), may be an important step. Merits of the “Species list” survey method are discussed.