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Profiles of bilingualism in early childhood: A person-centred Latent Profile Transition Approach

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 November 2020

Ryanne Francot*
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Elma Blom
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Martine Broekhuizen
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Paul Leseman
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Address for correspondence: Ryanne Francot, E-mail:


Bilingualism as it occurs in current societies is a complex, multidimensional and dynamic phenomenon, calling for new approaches to capture this concept. This study shows the feasibility of a person-centred approach by combining measures of the use of and proficiency in the first and second language from 110 young Turkish–Dutch children at two measurement waves, using two existing datasets. Latent Profile Analysis revealed four profiles, equivalent at age four and six: 1) Dominant L1 use, relatively low L1 and L2 proficiency, 2) Dual L1 and L2 use, around average L1 and L2 proficiency, 3) Dominant L1 use, relatively high L1 and L2 proficiency and 4) Dominant L2 use, relatively high L2 proficiency. Latent Transition Analysis indicated that children changed in profiles over time. Regression analyses showed that profiles were differently related to the family's socioeconomic status and children's nonverbal intelligence at age four. No relations were found at age six.

Research Article
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

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