Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-tn8tq Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-21T01:31:22.217Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

The functional overlap of executive control and language processing in bilinguals*

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 June 2015

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD Department of Psychology and Maryland Neuroimaging Center, University of Maryland, MD
School of Psychology, University of Nottingham
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
Address for correspondence: Emily Coderre, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Cognitive Neurology/Neuropsychology-Department of Neurology, 1629 Thames Street, Suite 350, Baltimore, MD,


The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control in bilinguals such that the executive control and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where executive control and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of executive control during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic control, we hypothesize that regions commonly involved in language processing, linguistic control, and non-linguistic control may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals. A conjunction of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a flanker task with linguistic and non-linguistic distractors and a semantic categorization task showed functional overlap in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in bilinguals, whereas no overlap occurred in monolinguals. This research therefore identifies a neural locus of functional overlap of language and executive control in the bilingual brain.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)



The authors would like to thank Donald Bolger for help with paradigm design, and Allen Braun for providing research participants. This research was funded in part by the Intramural Research Program of the NIDCD, NIH.


Abutalebi, J., Brambati, S. M., Annoni, J.-M., Moro, A., Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2007). The neural cost of the auditory perception of language switches: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study in bilinguals. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 1376213769.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abutalebi, J., Della Rosa, P. A., Green, D. W., Hernandez, M., Scifo, P., Keim, R., Cappa, S.F., & Costa, A. (2012). Bilingualism Tunes the Anterior Cingulate Cortex for Conflict Monitoring. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 20762086.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2007). Bilingual language production: The neurocognition of language representation and control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 242275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ali, N., Green, D. W., Kherif, F., Devlin, J. T., & Price, C. J. (2010). The role of the left head of caudate in suppressing irrelevant words. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 23692386.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ashburner, J. (2007). A fast diffeomorphic image registration algorithm. NeuroImage, 38, 95113.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Badre, D., Poldrack, R., Paré-Blagoev, E. J., Insler, R. Z., & Wagner, A. D. (2005). Dissociable controlled retrieval and generalized selection mechanisms in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Neuron, 47, 907918.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Grady, C., Chau, W., Ishii, R., Gunji, A., & Pantev, C. (2005). Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: evidence from MEG. NeuroImage, 24, 4049.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., Green, D. W., & Gollan, T. H. (2009). Bilingual Minds. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 10, 89129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Binder, J. R., Frost, J. A., Hammeke, T. A., Cox, R. W., Rao, S. M., & Prieto, T. (1997). Human brain language areas identified by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17, 353362.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bokde, A. L., Tagamets, M. A., Friedman, R. B., & Horwitz, B. (2001). Functional interactions of the inferior frontal cortex during the processing of words and word-like stimuli. Neuron, 30, 609617.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bolger, D. J., Perfetti, C. A., & Schneider, W. (2005). Cross-cultural effect on the brain revisited: Universal structures plus writing system variation. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 92104.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botvinick, M. M., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (2001). Conflict monitoring and cognitive control. Psychological Review, 108, 624652.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botvinick, M. M., Cohen, J. D., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Conflict monitoring and anterior cingulate cortex: an update. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 539546.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braun, A. R., Guillemin, A., Hosey, L., & Varga, M. (2001). The neural organization of discourse: an H2 15O-PET study of narrative production in English and American sign language. Brain, 124, 20282044.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brysbaert, M., & Duyck, W. (2010). Is it time to leave behind the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual language processing after fifteen years of service? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 359371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brysbaert, M., & New, B. (2009). Moving beyond Kucera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 977990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Thomason, M. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2002). Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fMRI. Neuron, 33, 301311.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Calvo, A., & Bialystok, E. (2014). Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning. Cognition, 130, 278288.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Coderre, E. L., van Heuven, W. J. B., & Conklin, K. (2013). The timing and magnitude of Stroop interference and facilitation in monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 420441.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conklin, H. M., Curtis, C. E., Katsanis, J., & Iacono, W. G. (2000). Verbal Working Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia Patients and Their First-Degree Relatives: Evidence From the Digit Span Task. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 275277.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Corbetta, M., Miezin, F. M., Shulman, G. L., & Petersen, S. E. (1993). A PET study of visuospatial attention. The Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 12021226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costafreda, S. G., Fu, C. H. Y., Lee, L., Everitt, B., Brammer, M. J., & David, A. S. (2006). A systematic review and quantitative appraisal of fMRI studies of verbal fluency: role of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Human Brain Mapping, 27, 799810.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crinion, J., Turner, R., Grogan, A., Hanakawa, T., Noppeney, U., Devlin, J. T., Aso, T., Urayama, S., Fukuyama, H., Stockton, K., Usui, K., Green, D.W., & Price, C. J. (2006). Language control in the bilingual brain. Science, 312, 15371540.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Crosson, B., Benefield, H., Cato, M. A., Sadek, J. R., Moore, A. B., Wierenga, C. E., Gopinath, K., Soltysik, D., Bauer, R.M., Auerbach, E.J., Gökçay, D., Leonard, C.M., & Briggs, R. W. (2003). Left and right basal ganglia and frontal activity during language generation: Contributions to lexical, semantic, and phonological processes. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 10611077.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cuetos, F., Glez-Nosti, M., Barbón, A., & Brysbaert, M. (2011). SUBTLEX-ESP: Spanish word frequencies based on film subtitles. Psicológica, 32, 133143.Google Scholar
Culham, J. C., & Kanwisher, N. G. (2001). Neuroimaging of cognitive functions in human parietal cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 11, 157163.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Bleser, R., Dupont, P., Postler, J., Bormans, G., Speelman, D., Mortelmans, L., & Debrock, M. (2003). The organisation of the bilingual lexicon: A PET study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 16, 439456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Bruin, A., Roelofs, A., Dijkstra, T., & Fitzpatrick, I. (2014). Domain-general inhibition areas of the brain are involved in language switching: FMRI evidence from trilingual speakers. NeuroImage, 90, 348359.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Desmond, J. E., & Glover, G. H. (2002). Estimating sample size in functional MRI (fMRI) neuroimaging studies: Statistical power analyses. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 118, 115128.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 175197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dobbins, I. G., & Wagner, A. D. (2005). Domain-general and domain-sensitive prefrontal mechanisms for recollecting events and detecting novelty. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 17681778.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eickhoff, S. B., Stephan, K. E., Mohlberg, H., Grefkes, C., Fink, G. R., Amunts, K., & Zilles, K. (2005). A new SPM toolbox for combining probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps and functional imaging data. NeuroImage, 25, 13251335.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eriksen, B., & Eriksen, C. (1974). Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in a nonsearch task. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 16, 143149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fan, J., McCandliss, B. D., Fossella, J., Flombaum, J. I., & Posner, M. I. (2005). The activation of attentional networks. NeuroImage, 26, 471479.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ferstl, E., Neumann, J., Bogler, C., & Von Cramon, D. Y. (2008). The extended language network: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on text comprehension. Human Brain Mapping, 29, 581593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fiebach, C. J., Friederici, A. D., Müller, K., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2002). fMRI evidence for dual routes to the mental lexicon in visual word recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garbin, G., Sanjuan, A., Forn, C., Bustamante, J. C., Rodriguez-Pujadas, A., Belloch, V., Hernandez, M., Costa, A., & Avila, C. (2010). Bridging language and attention: Brain basis of the impact of bilingualism on cognitive control. NeuroImage, 53, 12721278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gitelman, D. R., Nobre, A. C., Sonty, S., Parrish, T. B., & Mesulam, M.-M. (2005). Language network specializations: An analysis with parallel task designs and functional magnetic resonance imaging. NeuroImage, 26, 975985.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gray, J. R., Chabris, C. F., & Braver, T. S. (2003). Neural mechanisms of general fluid intelligence. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 316322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, D. W. (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 6781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo, T., Liu, H., Misra, M., & Kroll, J. F. (2011). Local and global inhibition in bilingual word production: fMRI evidence from Chinese-English bilinguals. NeuroImage, 56, 23002309.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernandez, A. E. (2009). Language switching in the bilingual brain: What's next? Brain and Language, 109, 133140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernandez, A. E., Dapretto, M., Mazziotta, J., & Bookheimer, S. (2001). Language switching and language representation in Spanish-English bilinguals: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 14, 510520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hernandez, A. E., Martinez, A., & Kohnert, K. (2000). In search of the language switch: An fMRI study of picture naming in Spanish-English bilinguals. Brain and Language, 73, 421431.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hervais-Adelman, A. G., Moser-Mercer, B., & Golestani, N. (2011). Executive control of language in the bilingual brain: integrating the evidence from neuroimaging to neuropsychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 18.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hirshorn, E. A., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2006). Role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in covert word retrieval: neural correlates of switching during verbal fluency. Neuropsychologia, 44, 25472557.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horwitz, B. (2014). The elusive concept of brain network: Comment on “Understanding brain networks and brain organization” by Luiz Pessoa. Physics of Life Reviews, 11 (3), 448451.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Horwitz, B., Amunts, K., Bhattacharyya, R., Patkin, D., Jeffries, K., Zilles, K., & Braun, A. R. (2003). Activation of Broca's area during the production of spoken and signed language: a combined cytoarchitectonic mapping and PET analysis. Neuropsychologia, 41, 18681876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hutton, C., Bork, A., Josephs, O., Deichmann, R., Ashburner, J., & Turner, R. (2002). Image distortion correction in fMRI: A quantitative evaluation. NeuroImage, 16, 217240.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Indefrey, P. (2006). A Meta-analysis of Hemodynamic Studies on First and Second Language Processing: Which Suggested Differences Can We Trust and What Do They Mean? Language Learning, 56, 279304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kim, K. H., Relkin, N. R., Lee, K. M., & Hirsch, J. (1997). Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Nature, 388, 171174.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kovelman, I., Baker, S. A., & Petitto, L.-A. (2008a). Bilingual and monolingual brains compared: a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of syntactic processing and a possible “neural signature” of bilingualism. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 153169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kovelman, I., Shalinsky, M. H., Berens, M. S., & Petitto, L. A. (2008b). Shining new light on the brain's “Bilingual Signature”: A functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy investigation of semantic processing. NeuroImage, 39, 14571471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kroll, J. F., Bobb, S. C., & Wodniecka, Z. (2006). Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kroll, J. F., Dussias, P. E., Bogulski, C. A., & Valdes Kroff, J. R. (2012). Juggling Two Languages in One Mind: What Bilinguals Tell Us About Language Processing and its Consequences for Cognition. In Ross, B. H. (Ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation (Volume 56., Vol. 56, pp. 229262). USA: Elsevier.Google Scholar
Lancaster, J. L., Rainey, L. H., Summerlin, J. L., Freitas, C. S., Fox, P. T., Evans, A. C., Toga, A.W., & Mazziotta, J. C. (1997). Automated Labeling of the Human Brain: A Preliminary Report on the Development and Evaluation of a Forward-Transform Method. Human Brain Mapping, 5, 238242.3.0.CO;2-4>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lancaster, J. L., Woldorff, M. G., Parsons, L. M., Liotti, M., Freitas, C. S., Rainey, L., Kochunov, P.V., Nickerson, D., Mikiten, S.A., & Fox, P. T. (2000). Automated Talairach Atlas Labels For Functional Brain Mapping. Human Brain Mapping, 10, 120131.3.0.CO;2-8>CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lehtonen, M., Laine, M., Niemi, J., Thomsen, T., Vorobyev, V. A., & Hugdahl, K. (2005). Brain correlates of sentence translation in Finnish-Norwegian bilinguals. Neuroreport, 16, 607610.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Li, C. S. R., Yan, P., Sinha, R., & Lee, T. W. (2008). Sub-cortical processes of motor response inhibition during a stop signal task. NeuroImage, 41, 13521363.Google Scholar
Luk, G., Anderson, J. A. E., Craik, F. I. M., Grady, C., & Bialystok, E. (2010). Distinct neural correlates for two types of inhibition in bilinguals: Response inhibition versus interference suppression. Brain and Cognition, 74, 347357.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Luk, G., Green, D. W., Abutalebi, J., & Grady, C. (2012). Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27, 14791488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacDonald, A. W., Cohen, J. D., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2000). Dissociating the Role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Cognitive Control. Science, 288, 18351838.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mahendra, N., Plante, E., Magloire, J., Milman, L., & Trouard, T. P. (2003). fMRI variability and the localization of languages in the bilingual brain. NeuroReport, 14, 12251228.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marian, V., Spivey, M., & Hirsch, J. (2003). Shared and separate systems in bilingual language processing: Converging evidence from eyetracking and brain imaging. Brain and Language, 86, 7082.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCandliss, B. D., Cohen, L., & Dehaene, S. (2003). The visual word form area: expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 293299.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meara, P. M. (2005). X_Lex: the Swansea Vocabulary Levels Test. v2.05. Swansea: Lognostics.Google Scholar
Meara, P. M., & Miralpeix, I. (2006). Y_Lex: the Swansea Advanced Vocabulary Levels Test. v2.05. Swansea: Lognostics.Google Scholar
Melcher, T., & Gruber, O. (2009). Decomposing interference during Stroop performance into different conflict factors: an event-related fMRI study. Cortex, 45, 189200.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mestres-Missé, A., Turner, R., & Friederici, A. D. (2012). An anterior-posterior gradient of cognitive control within the dorsomedial striatum. NeuroImage, 62, 4147.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Milham, M. P., Banich, M. T., & Barad, V. (2003). Competition for priority in processing increases prefrontal cortex's involvement in top-down control: An event-related fMRI study of the Stroop task. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 212222.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Montant, M., Schön, D., Anton, J.-L., & Ziegler, J. C. (2011). Orthographic Contamination of Broca's Area. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morton, J. B., & Harper, S. N. (2007). What did Simon say? Revisiting the bilingual advantage. Developmental Science, 10, 719726.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nee, D. E., Wager, T. D., & Jonides, J. (2007). Interference resolution: Insights from a meta-analysis of neuroimaging tasks. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7, 117.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niendam, T. A., Laird, A. R., Ray, K. L., Dean, Y. M., Glahn, D. C., & Carter, C. S. (2012). Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 241268.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Novick, J. M., Kan, I. P., Trueswell, J. C., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2009). A case for conflict across multiple domains: Memory and language impairments following damage to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26, 527567.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Novick, J. M., Trueswell, J. C., & Thompson-Schill, S. L. (2005). Cognitive control and parsing: Reexamining the role of Broca's area in sentence comprehension. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 263281.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker Jones, ’Oi, Green, D. W., Grogan, A., Pliatsikas, C., Filippopolitis, K., Ali, N., Lee, H.L., Ramsden, S., Gazarian, K., Prejawa, S., Seghier, M.L., & Price, C. J. (2011). Where, When and Why Brain Activation Differs for Bilinguals and Monolinguals during Picture Naming and Reading Aloud. Cerebral Cortex, 22, 892902.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perani, D., Abutalebi, J., Paulesu, E., Brambati, S., Scifo, P., Cappa, S. F., & Fazio, F. (2003). The role of age of acquisition and language usage in early, high-proficient bilinguals: An fMRI study during verbal fluency. Human Brain Mapping, 19, 170182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Perani, D., Dehaene, S., Grassi, F., Cohen, L., Cappa, S. F., Dupoux, E., Fazio, F., & Mehler, J. (1996). Brain processing of native and foreign languages. NeuroReport, 7, 23492444.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pessoa, L. (2014). Understanding brain networks and brain organization. Physics of Life Reviews, 11 (3), 400435.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peterson, B. S., Kane, M. J., Alexander, G. M., Lacadie, C., Skudlarski, P., Leung, H. C., . . . Gore, J. C. (2002). An event-related functional MRI study comparing interference effects in the Simon and Stroop tasks. Cognitive Brain Research, 13, 427440.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peterson, B. S., Skudlarski, P., Gatenby, J. C., Zhang, H., Anderson, A. W., & Gore, J. C. (1999). An fMRI study of Stroop word-color interference: evidence for cingulate subregions subserving multiple distributed attentional systems. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 12371258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Power, J. D., Barnes, K. A., Snyder, A. Z., Schlaggar, B. L., & Petersen, S. E. (2012). Spurious but systematic correlations in functional connectivity MRI networks arise from subject motion. NeuroImage, 59, 21422154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Price, C. J., Green, D. W., & von Studnitz, R. (1999). A functional imaging study of translation and language switching. Brain, 122, 22212235.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richardson, F. M., Seghier, M. L., Leff, A. P., Thomas, M. S. C., & Price, C. J. (2011). Multiple routes from occipital to temporal cortices during reading. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31, 82398247.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ridderinkhof, K. R., Ullsperger, M., Crone, E. A., & Nieuwenhuis, S. (2004). The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control. Science, 306, 443447.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodriguez-Fornells, A., De Diego Balaguer, R., & Münte, T. F. (2006). Executive control in bilingual language processing. Language Learning, 56, 133190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez-Fornells, A., van der Lugt, A., Rotte, M., Britti, B., Heinze, H.-J., & Münte, T. F. (2005). Second language interferes with word production in fluent bilinguals: brain potential and functional imaging evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 422433.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodríguez-Pujadas, A., Sanjuán, A., Ventura-Campos, N., Román, P., Martin, C., Barceló, F., Costa, A., & Avila, C. (2013). Bilinguals use language-control brain areas more than monolinguals to perform non-linguistic switching tasks. PLoS ONE, 8, e73028.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roelofs, A., van Turennout, M., & Coles, M. G. H. (2006). Anterior cingulate cortex activity can be independent of response conflict in Stroop-like tasks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 1388413889.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rushworth, M. F., Ellison, A., & Walsh, V. (2001). Complementary localization and lateralization of orienting and motor attention. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 656661.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sabb, F. W., Bilder, R. M., Chou, M., & Bookheimer, S. Y. (2007). Working memory effects on semantic processing: priming differences in pars orbitalis. NeuroImage, 37, 311322.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shadmehr, R., & Holcomb, H. H. (1999). Inhibitory control of competing motor memories. Experimental Brain Research, 126, 235251.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tan, L. H., Laird, A. R., Li, K., & Fox, P. T. (2005). Neuroanatomical correlates of phonological processing of Chinese characters and alphabetic words: A meta-analysis. Human Brain Mapping, 25, 8391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thompson-Schill, S. L., Bedny, M., & Goldberg, R. F. (2005). The frontal lobes and the regulation of mental activity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 15, 219224.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Heuven, W. J. B., & Dijkstra, T. (2010). Language comprehension in the bilingual brain: fMRI and ERP support for psycholinguistic models. Brain Research Reviews, 64, 104122.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Heuven, W. J. B., Schriefers, H., Dijkstra, T., & Hagoort, P. (2008). Language conflict in the bilingual brain. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 27062716.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van Veen, V., & Carter, C. S. (2002). The anterior cingulate as a conflict monitor: fMRI and ERP studies. Physiology & Behavior, 77, 477482.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vargha-Khadem, F., Watkins, K. E., Price, C. J., Ashburner, J., Alcock, K. J., Connelly, A., Frackowiak, R.S.J., Friston, K.J., Pembrey, M.E., Mishkin, M., Gadian, D.G., & Passingham, R. E. (1998). Neural basis of an inherited speech and language disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 1269512700.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, Y., Kuhl, P. K., Chen, C., & Dong, Q. (2009). Sustained and transient language control in the bilingual brain. NeuroImage, 47, 414422.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watkins, K. E., Vargha-Khadem, F., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R. E., Connelly, A., Friston, K. J., Frackowiak, R.S.J., Mishkin, M., & Gadian, D. G. (2002). MRI analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: structural brain abnormalities. Brain, 125, 465478.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ye, Z., & Zhou, X. (2009). Conflict control during sentence comprehension: fMRI evidence. NeuroImage, 48, 280290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed