Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-rlmms Total loading time: 0.79 Render date: 2021-10-18T02:26:52.344Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Who may I say is calling?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Kathleen A. Akins
Affiliation:
Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 02155
Daniel C. Dennett
Affiliation:
Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, Mass. 02155

Abstract

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1986

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abrams, R. & Taylor, M. A. (1978) A rating scale for emotional blunting. American Journal of Psychiatry 135:225–29. [RF]Google ScholarPubMed
Abrams, R. & Taylor, M. A.(1980) Psychopathology and the electroencephalogram. Biological Psychiatry 15:817–78. [taREH]Google ScholarPubMed
Aho, A., Hopcroft, J. & Ullman, J. (1974) The design and analysis of computer algorithms. Addison-Wesley. [taREH]Google Scholar
Al-Issa, I. (1977) Social and cultural aspects of hallucinations. Psychological Bulletin 84:570–87. [NPS, SS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Al-Issa, I. (1978) Socio-cultural factors in hallucinations. International journal of Social Psychiatry 24:167–76. [rREH, RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Allen, H. A. (1984) Positive and negative symptoms and the thematic organisation of schizophrenic speech. British Journal of Psychiatry 144:611–17. [rREH, HA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allen, H. A. & Allen, D. S. (1985) Positive symptoms and the organization within and between ideas in schizophrenic speech. Psychological Medicine 15:7180. [rREH, HA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allen, H. A., Halperin, J. & Friend, R. (1985) Removal and diversion tactics and the control of auditory hallucinations. Behaviour Research and Therapy 23:601–05. [rREH, HA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Allen, J. F. & Perrault, C. R. (1980) Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence 15:143–78. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alpert, M. (1965) Feedback effects of audition and vocal effort on intensity of voice. Ph.D. dissertation, New York University. [MA]Google Scholar
Alpert, M. (1985) The signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry 26:103–12. [MA, RPB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alpert, M., Angrist, B., Diamond, F. & Gershon, S., 1970. Comparison of ditran intoxication and acute alcohol psychoses. In: Origins and mechanisms of hallucinations, ed. Keup, Wolfram. Plenum Press. [MA]Google Scholar
Alpert, M. & Martz, M. J. (1977) Cognitive views of schizophrenia in light of recent studies of brain asymmetry. In: Psychopathology and brain dysfunction, ed. Shagass, C., Gershon, S. & Friedhoff, A. J.. Raven Press. [rREH, MA]Google Scholar
Alpert, M., Rubinstein, H. & Kesselman, M. (1976) Asymmetry of information processing in hallucinators and nonhallucinators. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 162:258–65. [tarREH, MA, TPB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alpert, M. & Silvers, K. N. (1970) Perceptual characteristics distinguishing hallucinations in schizophrenia and acute alcoholic psychoses. American Journal of Psychiatry 127:298302. [rREH, MA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and statistical manual, 3d. ed. [taREH, JJ]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1983) The architecture of cognition. Harvard University Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Andreasen, N. C. (1979a) Thought, language and communication disorders: 1. Clinical assessment, definition of terms, and evaluation of their reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 36:1315–21. [taREH, RF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andreasen, N. C. (1979b) Thought, language and communication disorders: 2. Diagnostic significance. Archives of Ceneral Psychiatry 36:1325–30. [tarREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Andreasen, N. C., Hoffman, R. & Grove, W. (1984) Language abnormalities in schizophrenia. In: New perspectives in schizophrenia, ed. Seeman, M. & Menuck, M.. Heath. [tarREH, MA, BRR, SS]Google Scholar
Andreasen, N. C. & Olsen, S. (1982) Negative versus positive schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:789–94. [tarREH, RF, MH, SS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angrist, B., Rotrosen, J. & Gershon, S. (1980) Differential effects of amphetamine and neuroleptics on negative vs. positive symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology 72:1719. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arbib, M. A. (1982) From artificial intelligence to neurolinguistics. In: Neural models of language, ed. Arbib, M. A., Caplan, D. & Marshall, J. C.. Academic Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Arieti, S. (1974) Interpretation of schizophrenia. Basic Books. [BRR]Google Scholar
Baillarger, J. (1846) Des Hallucinations. Baillière. [PF]Google Scholar
Bates, E. (1976) Text and context: The acquisition of pragmatics. Academic Press. [rREH]Google Scholar
Bazhin, E. F., Wasserman, L. I. & Tonkonogii, I. M. (1975) Auditory hallucinations and left temporal lobe pathology. Neuropsychologia. 13:481–87. [tarREH, PF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beatty, J. (1982) Task-evoked pupillary responses, processing load, and the structure of processing resources. Psychological Bulletin 91:276–92. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beck, A. T. (1976) Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. International Universities Press. [HA]Google Scholar
Bem, D. J. (1967) Self-perception: An alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena. Psychological Review 74:183200. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benson, K., Zarcone, V. P. & Mezzich, J. (1979) A classification of schizophrenic and its subtypes with measures of sleep staging and REM sleep phasic events. Sleep Research 8:162. [rREH]Google Scholar
Bentall, R. P. (1986) The scientific status of schizophrenia: A critical evaluation. In: Current issues in clinical psychology, ed. Eisenberg, N. & Glasgow, D.. Gower Press. [rREH, RPB]Google Scholar
Bentall, R. P. & Slade, P. D. (1985a) Reality testing and auditory hallucinations: A signal detection analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 24:159–69. [rREH, RPB, SS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bentall, R. P. & Slade, P. D. (1985b) Reliability of a scale measuring disposition towards hallucination: A brief report. Personality and Individual Differences 6:527–29. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blashfield, R. K. (1983) The classification of psychopathology: NeoKreapelinian and quantitative approaches. Plenum Press. [RPB]Google Scholar
Bleuler, E. (1911, 1950) Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias. Aschaffenberg's Handbuch. International Universities Press. [taREH, PF]Google Scholar
Bleuler, E. (1934) Textbook of Psychiatry, trans. Brill, A. A.. Macmillan. [PF]Google Scholar
Bourguignon, E. (1970) Hallucinations and trance: An anthropologist's perspective. In: Origins and mechanisms of hallucinations, ed. Keup, W.. Plenum Press. [rREH, RPB]Google Scholar
Bracha, H. S., Bigelow, L. B., Cabrera, F. & Wyatt, R. (1984) Spatial location of visual hallucinations suggests dominant hemisphere temporal lobe dysfunction in schizophrenia. Presented at annual meeting of Society of Biological Psychiatry, Los Angeles. [PF]Google Scholar
Brand, M. (1984) Intending and acting: Toward a naturalized action theory. Bradford Books, MIT Press. [MB]Google Scholar
Brand, M. (in press) Intentional actions and plans. Midwest Studies in Philosophy. [MB]Google Scholar
Breier, A. & Strauss, J. (1983) Self-control in psychotic disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 40:1141–45. [rREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brett, E. A. & Starker, S. (1977) Auditory imagery and hallucinations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 164:394400. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brockington, I. F., Kendell, R. E. & Leff, J. P. (1978) Definitions of schizophrenia: Concordance and prediction of outcome. Psychological Medicine 8:399412. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brockington, I. F., Kendell, R. E., Wainwright, R. S., Hillier, V. F. & Walker, J. (1979) The distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 135:243–48. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. (1977) Mind, brain, and consciousness: The neuropsychology of cognition. Academic Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Brown, J. (1979) Language representations in the brain. In: Neurobiology of social communication in primates, ed. Steklis, H. & Raleigh, M.. Academic Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Brown, J. (1981) Image and object. Journal of Mental Imagery 5:2628. [taREH]Google Scholar
Bruner, J. S. (1964) The course of cognitive growth. American Psychologist 19:115. [rREH, DFM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buchsbaum, M., Ingvar, D., Kessler, R., Waters, R., Cappelletti, J., Van Kammen, D., King, C., Johnson, J., Manning, R., Flynn, R., Mann, L., Bunney, W. & Sokoloff, L. (1982) Cerebral glucography with positron tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:251–59. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Callaway, E. (1970) Schizophrenia and interference: An analogy with a malfunctioning computer. Archives of General Psychiatry 22:193208. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cegalis, J., Leen, D. & Solomon, E. (1977) Attention in schizophrenia: An analysis of selectivity in the functional visual field. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 86:470–82. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cerny, M. (1964) Electrophysiological study of verbal hallucinations. Activitas Nervosa Superior (Praha) 6:9495. [PF]Google ScholarPubMed
Cerny, M. (1965) On neurophysiological mechanisms in verbal hallucinations: An electrophysiological study. Activias Nervosa Superior (Prague) 7:197–98. [tarREH, PF]Google Scholar
Chaika, E. (1974) A linguist looks at “schizophrenic” language. Brain and Language 1:257–76. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaika, E. (1977) Schizophrenic speech, slips of the tongue, and jargonaphasia: A reply to Fromkin and to Lecours and Vanier-Clement. Brain and Language 4:464–75. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chaika, E. (1981) How shall a discourse be understood? Discourse Processes 4:7188. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chaika, E. (1982) A unified explanation for the diverse structural deviations reported for adult schizophrenics with disrupted speech. Journal of Communication Disorders 15:167–89. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, J. (1966) The early symptoms of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 12:225–51. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, L. & Chapman, J. (1980) Scales for rating psychotic and psychotic like experiences as continua. Schizophrenia Bulletin 6:476–80. [MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chapman, L. J., Edell, W. S. & Chapman, J. P. (1980) Physical anhedonia, perceptual aberration, and psychosis proneness. Schizophrenia Bulletin 6:639–53. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cohen, B., Nachmani, G. & Rosenberg, S. (1974) Referential communication disturbances in acute schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 83:113. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, P. R. & Perrault, C. R. (1979) Elements of a plan-based theory of speech acts. Cognitive Science 3:177212. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohn, N. (1970) The pursuit of the millenium. Oxford University Press. [NPS]Google Scholar
Collicut, J. R. & Hemsley, D. R. (1981) A psychophysiological investigations of auditory functioning in schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 20:199204. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crick, F. & Mitchison, G. (1983) The function of dream sleep. Nature 304:111–14. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cromwell, R. L. (1978) Attention and information processing: A formulation for understanding schizophrenia. In: The nature of schizophrenia, ed. Wynne, L. C., Cromwell, R. L. & Matthysse, S.. John Wiley. [PFG]Google Scholar
Crow, T. J. (1980) Molecular pathology of schizophrenia: More than one disease process? British Medical Journal 280:6668. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cummings, J. L. (1985) Clinical Neuropsychiatry. Grune & Stratton. [rREH, RF]Google Scholar
Davidson, D. (1963) Actions, reasons, and causes. Journal of Philosophy 60:685700. [MB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davidson, J. (1975) Ending structures in conversation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Irvine. [taREH]Google Scholar
Deese, J. (1978) Thought into speech. American Scientist 66:314–21. [tarREH]Google ScholarPubMed
Deese, J. (1984) Thought into speech. Prentice-Hall. [JD]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. (1978) Two approaches to mental images. In: Brainstorms: Philosophical essays on mind and psychology. Bradford Books. [tarREH, BRR]Google Scholar
Easterbrook, J. A. (1959) The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychological Review 66:183201. [PFG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eubanks, D., Faber, R., Spangher, G. & Mumford, A. (unpublished manuscript). Is there a dementiaform subtype of schizophrenia? [RF]Google Scholar
Ey, H. (1934) Hallucinations et delire, Les formes hallucinatoires de l'automatisme verbal. Alcan. [PF]Google Scholar
Eysench, M. W. (1977) Human memory: Theory, research, and individual differences. Pergamon Press. [PFG]Google Scholar
Faaborg-Anderson, K. C. (1957) Electromyographic investigation of intrinsic laryngeal muscles in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandanavica Supplement 140:41:1148. [PF]Google Scholar
Faaborg-Anderson, K. C. & Edfeldt, A. Q. (1958) Electromyography of intrinsic and extrinsic laryngeal muscles during silent speech correlated with reading activity. Acta Otolaryngologia 49:478–82. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Faber, R., Abrams, R., Taylor, M., Kasprison, A., Morris, C. & Weisz, R. (1983) Comparison of schizophrenic patients with formal thought disorder and neurologically impaired patients with aphasia. American Journal of Psychiatry 140:1348–51. [tarREH, RF]Google ScholarPubMed
Faber, R. & Reichstein, M. B. (1981) Language dysfunction in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry. 139:519–22. [taREH, RF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fahlman, S., Hinton, G. & Sejnowski, T. (1983) Massively parallel architectures for AI: NETL, Thistle and Boltzmann machines. In: Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Washington, D.C.. [taREH]Google Scholar
Finke, R. (1979) The functional equivalence of mental images and errors of movement. Cognitive Psychology 11:235–64. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fish, F. J. (1962) Schizophrenia. John Wright. [taREH]Google Scholar
Flor-Henry, P. (1969) Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 10:363–95. [PF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flor-Henry, P. (1976) Lateralized temporal-limbic dysfunction and psychopathology. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280:777–97. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flor-Henry, P. (1983a) Cerebral basis of psychopathology. Wright, PSG. [PF]Google Scholar
Flor-Henry, P. (1983b) Commentary and synthesis. In: Latcrality and psychopathology, ed Flor-Henry, P. & Gruzelier, J.. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press. [PF]Google Scholar
Foulkes, D. (1962) Dream reports from different stages of sleep. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 65:1425. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foulkes, D. & Fleisher, S. (1975) Mental activity in relaxed wakefulness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 84:6675. [tarREH, NFS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foulkes, D. & Scott, E. (1973) An above-zero waking baseline for the incidence of momentarily hallucinatory mentation. In: Sleep Research, ed. Chase, M. H., Stern, W. C. & Walter, P. L.. Brain Information Service/Brain Research Institute. [taREH]Google Scholar
Foulkes, D. & Vogel, G. (1965) Mental activity at sleep onset. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 4:231–43. [taREH, DFM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank, S. M., Rendon, M. I. & Siomopoulous, G. (1980) Language in hallucinations of adolescent schizophrenics. In: Applied Psycholinguistics and Mental Health, ed. Rieber, R. W.. Plenum Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Freedman, B. & Chapman, L. J. (1973) Early subjective experience in schizophrenic episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 82:4654. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Freud, S. (1891, 1953) On aphasia, Trans. Stengel, E.. Imago Press. [TAH]Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1901) Psychopathology of everyday life, trans. Tyson, A.. Norton. [SS]Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1955) The ego and the id. In: The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 19, ed. Strachey, J.. Hogarth. [rREH, DFM]Google Scholar
Frith, C. D. (1979) Consciousness, information processing and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 134:225–35. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Garrett, M. (1975) The analysis of sentence production. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 9, ed. Bowers, G.. Academic Press. [tarREH]Google Scholar
Garrett, M. (1976) Syntactic processes in sentence production. In: New approaches to language mechanisms, ed. Walker, E. C. T. & Wales, R.. North Holland. [taREH]Google Scholar
Gazzaniga, S. M. (1970) The bisected brain. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [rREH, SS]Google Scholar
Gazzaniga, S. M. (1985) The social brain. Basic Books. [rREH]Google Scholar
Gerver, D. (1967) Linguistic rules and perception and recall of speech by schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 6:204–11. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gjerde, P. F. (1983) Attentional capacity dysfunction and arousal in schizophrenia. Psychological Bulletin 93:5772. [PFG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gordon, R. M. (1986) The passivity of emotions. Philosophical Review 95:371–92. [RGM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, L. N. (1948) Verbal hallucinations and activity of vocal musculature: An electromyographic study. American Journal of Psychiatry 105:367–73. [tarREH, PF, JJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, L. N. (1949) Auditory hallucinations and subvocal speech: Objective study in a case of schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 109:418–27. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gould, L. N. (1950) Verbal hallucinations as automatic speech: The reactivation of dormant speech habit. American Journal of Psychiatry 107:110. [PF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gruzelier, J. H. & Venables, P. H. (1972) Skin conductance orienting activity in a heterogenous sample of schizophrenics. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 155:277–87. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gur, R. E. (1978) Left hemisphere dysfunction and left hemisphere overactivation in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:226–38. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gur, R. E., Gur, R. C., Skolnick, B. E., Caroff, S., Obrist, W. D., Resnick, S. & Reivich, M. (1985) Brain function in psychiatric disorders. 3: Regional cerebral blood flow in unmedicated schizophrenics. Archives of General Psychiatry 42:329–34. [rREH, PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haber, R. N. (1979) Twenty years of haunting eidetic imagery: Where is the ghost? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:583629. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hamilton, M. (1985) Auditory hallucinations in nonverbal quadriplegics. Psychiatry 48:382–92. [JJa]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hamilton, M. (1979) Fish's clinical psychopathology. John Wright. [rREH]Google Scholar
Hamilton, M. (1985) Fish's clinical psychopathology, 2d ed.PSG. [RF]Google Scholar
Harley, T. A. (1984) A critique of top-down independent level models of speech production: Evidence from non-plan-internal speech errors. Cognitive Science 8:191219. [rREH, TAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrow, M., Grossman, L., Silverstein, M. & Meltzer, H. (1982) Thought pathology in manic and schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 39:665–71. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrow, M., Lanin-Kettering, I., Prosen, M. & Miller, J. (1983) Disordered thinking in schizophrenia: Intermingling and loss of set. Schizophrenia Bulletin 9:354–67. [taREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harrow, M. & Miller, J. (1980) Schizophrenic thought disorders and impaired perspective. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 89:717–27. [rREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harrow, M. & Quinlan, D. (1985) Disordered thinking and schizophrenic psychopathology. Gardner Press. [rREH, MH]Google Scholar
Harrow, M. & Silverstein, M. (1977) Psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia after the acute phase. Schizophrenia Bulletin 3:608–16. [MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartmann, E. (1975) Dreams and other hallucinations: An approach to the underlying mechanism. In: Hallucinations: Behavior, experience and theory, ed. Siegel, R. K. & West, L. J.. John Wiley. [taREH]Google Scholar
Harvey, N. A. (1918) Imaginary playmates. Ypsilanti: State Normal College. [JJa]Google Scholar
Harvey, P. (1983) Speech competence in manic and schizophrenic psychoses: The association between clinically rated thought disorder and cohesion and reference performance. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 92:368–77. [tarREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hayes-Roth, B. & Hayes-Roth, F. (1979) A cognitive model of planning. Cognitive Science 3:275310. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heilbrun, A. F. (1980) Impaired recognition of self-expressed thoughts in patients with auditory hallucinations. journal of Abnormal Psychology 89:728–36. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heilbrun, A., Blum, M. & Haas, M. (1983) Cognitive vulnerability to auditory hallucination: Preferred imagery mode and spatial location of sounds. British Journal of Psychiatry 143:294–99. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hemsley, D. R. (1977) What have cognitive deficits to do with schizophrenic symptoms? British Journal of Psychiatry 130:167–73. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemsley, D. R. (1982) Failure to establish appropriate response sets: An explanation for a range of schizophrenic phenomena? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:599. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hemsley, D. R. & Richardson, P. H. (1980) Shadowing by context in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 168:141–45. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herbert, R. & Waltensperger, K. (1980) Schizophrasia: Case study of paranoid schizophrenic's language. Applied Psycholinguistics 1:8193. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hirsch, C. L. & DeWolfe, A. S. (1977) Associative interference and premorbid adjustment in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 86:589–96. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hobbes, J. (1979) Conversation as planned behavior. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence.Tokyo. [taREH]Google Scholar
Hoffman, R. (in press). Computer simulations of neural information processing and the schizophrenia/mania dichotomy. Archives of General Psychiatry. [tarREH]Google Scholar
Hoffman, R., Hogben, G., Smith, H. & Calhoun, W. F. (1985) Message disruptions during syntactic processing in schizophrenia. Journal of Communication Disorders 18:183202. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hoffman, R., Kirstein, L., Stopek, S. & Cicchetti, D. (1982) Apprehending schizophrenic discourse: A structural analysis of the listener's task. Brain and Language 15:207–33. [taREH, JD]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, R. & Sledge, W. (1984) A microgenetic model of paragrammatisms produced by a schizophrenic speaker. Brain and Language 21:147–73. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hoffman, R., Stopek, S. & Andreasen, N. (1986) A discourse analysis comparing manic versus schizophrenic speech disorganization. Archives of General Psychiatry 43:831–38. [tarREH, BRR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hollender, M. & Boszormenyi-Nagi, I. (1958) Hallucinations as an ego experience. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 80:9397. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Holzman, P. S. & Levy, D. L. (1977) Smooth pursuit eye movements and functional psychoses: A review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 3:1527. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hopfield, J. J., Feinstein, D. I. & Palmer, R. C. (1983) “Unlearning” has a stabilizing effect in collective memories. Nature 304:158–59. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, M. (1975) Hallucinations: An information-processing approach. In: Hallucinations: Behavior, experience and theory, ed. Siegel, R. K. & West, L. J.. John Wiley. [tarREH]Google Scholar
Horowitz, M. (1983) image formation and psychotherapy. Aronson. [DFM]Google Scholar
Inouye, T. & Shimizu, A. (1970) The electromyographic study of verbal hallucinations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 151:415–22. [taREH, PF, JJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacobson, E. (1932) Electrophysiology of mental activities. American Journal of Psychology 44:677–94. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janet, P. (1906) Major symptoms of hysteria. Macmillan. [PF]Google Scholar
Janet, P. (1936) Le language interieur dans l'hallucination psychique. Annales Medicopsychologiques 2:377–86. [PF]Google Scholar
Jaspers, K. (1963) General psychopathology, trans. Hoenig, J. & Hamilton, M. W.. University of Chicago Press. [RF]Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1976) The evolution of language in the late Pleistocene. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 280:312–25. [rREH, JD, JJa, TBP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1977) The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Houghton Mifflin. [JJa]Google Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1981) The visions of William Blake. Art World 6:16. [JJa]Google Scholar
Johnson, F. H. (1958) Auditory hallucinations as interpreted by means of recorders. Anatomical Record 130:321. [PF]Google Scholar
Johnson, F. H. (1967) Neurophysiological disuse of inner speech as used in thinking in schizophrenia. Anatomical Record 157:366. [PF]Google Scholar
Johnson, F. H. (1978) The anatomy of hallucinations. Nelson-Hall. [RPB, PF, JJa]Google Scholar
Johnson, M. K., Raye, C. L., Foley, H. J. & Foley, M. A. (1981) Cognitive operations and decision bias in reality monitoring. American Journal of Psychology 94:3764. [rREH, RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, R. L. & Miller, M. D. (1965) Auditory hallucinations and intellectual deficits. Journal of Psychiatric Research 3:3741. [rREH, MA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jouvet, M. (1978) Does a genetic programming of the brain occur during paradoxical sleep? In: Cerebral correlates of conscious experience, ed. Buser, P. A. & Rougel-Buser, A.. Elsevier/North Holland. [rREH]Google Scholar
Judkins, M. & Slade, P. (1981) A questionnaire study of hostility in persistent auditory hallucinations. British Journal of Medical Psychology 54:243–50. [JJu]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Junginger, J. & Frame, C. (1985) Self-report of the frequency and phenomenology of verbal hallucinations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173:149–55. [JJu]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kahneman, D. (1973) Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall. [rREH]Google Scholar
Kaplan, R. J. (1983). Movement disorders. In: The clinical neurosciences, ed. Rosenberg, R. N., vol. 2, Churchill Livingston. [rREH]Google Scholar
Kass, W. (1968) The experience of spontaneous hallucination. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic 32:6785. [tarREH]Google ScholarPubMed
Kay, S. R. (1982) Conceptual disorder in schizophrenia as a function of encoding orientation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 170:154–63. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kay, S. R. & Singh, M. M. (1975) A developmental approach to delineate components of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 14:387–99. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kazdin, A. E. (1977) The token economy: A review and evaluation. Plenum Press. [HA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelso, J. A. S. (1983) Concepts and issues in human motor behavior. In: Human motor behavior, ed. Kelso, J. A. S.. Erlbaum Associates [GZ]Google Scholar
Kelter, S., Cohen, R., Engel, D., List, G. & Strohner, H. (1977) The conceptual structure of aphasic and schizophrenic patients in a nonverbal sorting task. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 6:279303. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kendell, R. E. & Brockington, I. F. (1980) The identification of disease entities and the relationship between schizophrenic and affective psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry 137:321–24. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kendell, R. E. & Gourlay, J. A. (1973) The clinical distinction between the affective psychoses and schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 117:261–66. [RPB]Google Scholar
Keup, W., ed. (1970) The origins and mechanisms of hallucinations. Plenum Press. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1974) The representation of meaning in memory. Erlbaum Associates. [taREH]Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. & Van Dijk, T. A. (1978) Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review 85:363–94. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klimes, K. (1941) “Audible thoughts” as a preliminary stage of acoustic hallucination. Archiv Fur Psychiatrie 114:358–65. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Knight, R. A. & Sims-Knight, J. E. (1979) Integration of linguistic ideas in schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88:191202. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Koh, S. D., Kayton, L. & Berry, R. (1973) Mnemonic organization in young nonpsychotic schizophrenics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 81:299310. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolb, L. C. (1973) Modern clinical psychiatry, 8th ed.W. B. Saunders. [MA]Google Scholar
Korchin, S. (1964) Anxiety and cognition. In: Cognition: Theory, research, promise, ed. Scheerer, E.. Harper & Row. [PFG]Google Scholar
Kosslyn, S. (1981) The medium and the message in mental imagery: A theory. Psychological Review 88:4666. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kosslyn, S. & Pomerantz, J. (1977) Imagery, propositions and the form of internal representations. Cognitive Psychology 9:5276. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kubachi, M., Kobayashi, K., Suzuki, M., Hiramatsu, H., Yamaguchi, N., Matsuda, H., Hisada, K. & Momonoi, F. (1985) Front-temporal blood flow in schizophrenic disorders. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica 39:102. [rREH, PF]Google Scholar
Lewine, R., Fogg, L. & Meltzer, H. (1983) Assessment of negative and positive Symptoms in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 9:368–76. [rREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lezak, M. D. (1983) Neuropsychological assessment, 2d ed.Oxford University Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Lhermitte, J. (1949) Comment comprendre les hallucinations. Gazette Medicale de France, Paris 56:345–51. [PF]Google Scholar
Lhermitte, J. (1951) Les hallucinations, clinique et physiopathologie. G. Doin. [PF]Google Scholar
Lindsley, O. R. (1956) Operant conditioning methods applied to research in chronic schizophrenia. Psychiatric Research Report 5:118–39. [PF]Google ScholarPubMed
Lindsley, O. R. (1960) Characteristics of the behavior of chronic psychotics as revealed by free-operant conditioning methods. Diseases of the Nervous System Monograph Supplement 21:6678. [PF]Google ScholarPubMed
Lindsley, O. R. (1961) Direct measurement and functional definition of vocal hallucinatory symptoms in chronic psychosis. Proceedings of the Third Congress of Psychiatry. McGill University Press. [PF]Google Scholar
Lindsley, O. R. (1962) Operant conditioning methods in diagnosis. In: Psychosomatic medicine: The first Hahnemann symposium, ed. Nodine, J. H. & Moyer, J. H.. Lea and Febiger. [PF]Google Scholar
Lindsley, O. R. (1963a) Direct measurement and functional definition of vocal hallucinatory symptoms. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 136:293–97. [PF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lindsley, O. R. (1963b) Free-operant conditioning and psychotherapy, vol. 3. In: Current psychiatric therapies, ed. Masserman, J. H.. Grune and Stratton. [PF]Google Scholar
Linn, E. (1978) Verbal auditory hallucinations: Mind, self, and society. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 164:817. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1960) Verbal regulation of behavior. In: The central nervous system and behavior, ed. Brazierr, M. A. B.. Madison Printing Co. [PF]Google Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1961) The role of speech in the regulation of normal and abnormal behavior. Liveright. [tarREH, GZ]Google Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1968) The mind of a mnemonist. Basic Books. [rREH]Google Scholar
McGuigan, F. J. (1966) Covert oral behavior and auditory hallucinations. Psychophysiology 3:7380. [PF, JJ]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKellar, P. (1968) Experience and behaviour. Penguin Press. [RPB]Google Scholar
McKellar, P. (1972) Imagery from the standpoint of introspection. In: The function and nature of imagery, ed. Sheehan, P. W.. Academic Press. [GFR]Google Scholar
McKellar, P. (1979) Between wakefulness and sleep: Hypnagogic fantasy. In: The potential of fantasy and imagination, ed. Sheikh, A. A. & Shaffer, J. T.. Brandon House. [DFM]Google Scholar
McKellar, P. & Simpson, L. (1954) Between wakefulness and sleep: Hypnagogic imaging. British Journal of Psychology 45:266–76. [DFM]Google Scholar
Magaro, P. A. (1980) Cognition in schizophrenia and paranoia: The integration of cognitive processes. Erlbaum Associates. [BRR]Google Scholar
Maher, B. A. (1972) The language of schizophrenia: A review and interpretation. British Journal of Psychiatry 120:317. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maher, B. A. (1974) Delusional thinking and perceptual disorder. Journal of Individual Psychology 30:98113. [taREH]Google ScholarPubMed
Maher, B., Manschreck, T. C. & Rucklos, M. (1980) Contextual constraint and recall of verbal material in schizophrenia: The effect of thought disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 137:6973. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Manschreck, T. C., Maher, B. A. & Ader, D. N. (1981) Formal thought disorder, the type-token ration, and disturbed voluntary motor movement in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 139:715. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marengo, J. & Harrow, M. (1985) Thought disorder: A function of schizophrenia, mania or psychosis? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 173:3541. [rREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Margo, A., Hemsley, D. R. & Slade, P. D. (1981) The effects of varying auditory input on schizophrenic hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry 139:122–27. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Marks, D. F. (1983). Signal detection theory applied to imagery and states of consciousness. International Imagery Bulletin 1:3951. [DFM]Google Scholar
Marks, D. F. (1986) The neuropsychology of imagery. In: Theories of image formation, ed. Marks, D. F.. Brandon House. [DFM]Google Scholar
Marr, D. (1982) Vision: A computational investigation into the human representation and processing of visual information. W. H. Freeman. [taREH]Google Scholar
Maudsley, H. (1886) Natural causes and supernatural seemings. Kegan Paul, Trench and Co. [PF]Google Scholar
Mayer, M., Alpert, M., Stastny, P., Perlick, D. & Empfield, M. (1985) Multiple contributions to clinical presentations of flat affect in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:420–26. [MA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Max, L. W. (1937) An experimental study of the motor theory of consciousness. 4: Action of current responses in the deaf during awakening, kinaesthetic imagery, and abstract thinking. Journal of Comparative Psychology 24:301. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meichenbaum, D. (1974) Cognitive behaviour modification. General Learning Press. [rREH, HA]Google Scholar
Meichenbaum, D. (1977) Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. Plenum Press. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, M. D., Johnson, R. L. & Richmond, L. H. (1965) Auditory hallucinations and descriptive language skills. Journal of Psychiatric Research 3:4356. [taREH, MA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mintz, S. & Alpert, M. (1972) Imagery vividness, reality-testing and schizophrenic hallucinations. Journal of Abnonnal Psychology 19:310–16. [tarREH, MA, RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Modell, A. H. (1958) The theoretical implications of hallucinatory experiences in schizophrenia. Journal of American Psychoanalytical Association 6:442–80. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Modell, A. H. (1960) An approach to the nature of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 3:259–66. [PF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Modell, A. H. (1962) Hallucination in schizophrenic patients and their relation to psychic structure. In: Hallucinations, ed. West, L.. Grune and Stratton. [PF]Google Scholar
Moore, M. V. (1972) Binary communication for the severely handicapped. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 53:532–33. [JJa]Google ScholarPubMed
Morice, R. D. & Ingram, J. C. L. (1982) Language analysis in schizophrenia: Diagnostic implications. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 16:1121. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morihisa, A., Duffy, F. H. & Wyatt, R. J. (1983) Brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry 40:719–28. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, P. E. & Hampson, P. J. (1983) Imagery and consciousness. Academic Press. [rREH]Google Scholar
Morstyn, R., Duffy, F. H. & McCarley, R. (1983a) Altered P300 topography in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 40:729–34. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morstyn, R., (1983b) Altered topography of EEG spectral content in schizophrenia. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 56:263–71. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mott, R., Small, I. & Anderson, J. (1965) Comparative study of hallucinations. Archives of General Psychiatry 12:595601. [JJu]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, H. B. M., Whitkover, E. D., Fried, J. & Ellenberger, H. (1963) Cross-cultural survey of schizophrenic symptomatology. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 9:237–49. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neale, J. M. & Oltmanns, T. F. (1980) Schizophrenia. John Wiley. [taREH]Google Scholar
Neisser, U. (1967) Cognitive psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [HA]Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84:231–59. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nuechterlein, H. K. & Dawson, E. M. (1984) Information processing and attentional functioning in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 10:160230. [rREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oltmanns, T. F. (1982) Criteria for evaluating hypotheses regarding information processing and schizophrenia. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:610–11. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oppenheimer, H. (1971) Clinical psychiatry. Harper & Row. [taREH]Google Scholar
Parish, E. (1897) Hallucinations and illusions. Walter Scott. [PF]Google Scholar
Perky, C. W. (1910) An experimental study of imagination. American Journal of Psychology 21:422–52. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Piaget, J. (1930) The child's conception of physical causality. Harcourt. [rREH, DFM]Google Scholar
Pines, M. (1978) Invisible playmates. Psychology Today 12:3842. [JJa]Google Scholar
Pogue-Geile, M. & Harrow, M. (1985) Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Their longitudinal course and prognostic importance. Schizophrenia Bulletin 11:427–39. [rREH, MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Posey, T. B. & Losch, M. E. (1983) Auditory hallucinations of hearing voices in 375 normal subjects. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality 2:99113. [rREH, JJ, TBP]Google Scholar
Prince, M. (1909) The dissociation of a personality. Longmans. [DFM]Google Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. (1973) What the mind's eye tells the mind's brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin 80:124. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. (1980) Computation and cognition: Issues in the foundation of cognitive science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3:111–69. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. (1981) The imagery debate: Analogue media versus tacit knowledge. Psychological Review 88:1645. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rachman, S. (1981) Unwanted intrusive cognitions. Advances in Behavior Research and Therapy 3:8999. [HA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ragin, A. & Oltmanns, T. (in press) Communicability and thought disorder in schizophrenics and other diagnostic groups: A followup study. British Journal of Psychiatry. [MH]Google Scholar
Reed, F. G. (1972) The psychology of anomalous experience. Hutchinson. [rREH, GFR]Google Scholar
Reilly, F., Harrow, M., Tucker, G., Quinlan, D. & Siegel, A. (1975) Looseness of associations in acute schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 127:2446. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rochester, S. & Martin, J. (1979) Crazy talk: A study of the discourse of schizophrenic speakers. Plenum Press. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rochester, S., Martin, J. & Thurston, S. (1977) Thought-process disorder in schizophrenia: The listener's task. Brain and Language 4:95114. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rubens, R. L. & Lapidus, L. B. (1978) Schizophrenic patterns of arousal and stimulus barrier functioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 87:199211. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rumelhart, D. & Norman, D. A. (1982) Simulating a skilled typist: A study of skilled cognitive-motor performance. Cognitive Science 6:132. [MB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rund, B. R. (1983) The effect of distraction on focal attention in paranoid and non-paranoid schizophrenic patients compared to normals and non-psychotic psychiatric patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research 17:241–50. [BRR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rund, B. R. (1985) Attention, communication, and schizophrenia. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 58:265–75. [BRR]Google Scholar
Rutter, D. (1979) The reconstruction of schizophrenic speech. British Journal of Psychiatry 134:356–59. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sacerdoti, E. D. (1977) A structure for plans and behavior. Elsevier. [taREH]Google Scholar
Schank, R. (1977) Rules and topics in conversation. Cognitive Science 1:421–42. [TAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schank, R. (1983) Dynamic memory. Cambridge University Press. [taREH, MB]Google Scholar
Schank, R. & Abelson, R. (1977) Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Erlbaum Associates. [taREH, MB]Google Scholar
Schneider, K. (1957) Pramäre und secundäre symptome bei schizophrenie. Fortschritte der Neurologie, Psychiatrie und Ihrer Grenzgebeite 25:487–90. [taREH]Google Scholar
Schneider, S. J. & Wilson, C. R. (1983) Perceptual discrimination and reaction time in hallucinatory schizophrenics. Psychiatry Research 9:243–53. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schreber, D. P. (1955) Memoirs of my nervous illness. Dawson. [JJa]Google Scholar
Schwartz, S. (1974) Arousal and recall: Effects of noise on two retrieval strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102:896–98. [PFG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, S. (1975) Individual differences in cognition: Some relationships between personality and memory. Journal of Research in Personality 9:217–25. [PFG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, S. (1982) Is there a schizophrenic language? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:579626. [taREH, SS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwartz, S. & Kirsner, K. (1984) Can group differences in hemispheric asymmetry be inferred from behavioral laterality indices? Brain and Cognition 3:5771. [SS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sedman, G. (1966a) A comparative study of pseudohallucinations, imagery and true hallucinations. British Journal of Psychiatry 112:917. [tarREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sedman, G. (1966b) “Inner voices”: Phenomenological and clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry 112:485–90. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Segal, S. J. (1970) Imagery and reality: Can they be distinguished? In: Origins and mechanisms of hallucinations, ed. Keup, W.. Plenum Press. [RPB]Google Scholar
Seitz, P. & Molholm, H. B. (1947) Relation of mental imagery to hallucinations. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 57:469–80. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shagass, C. (1976) An electrophysiological view of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 11:330. [taREH]Google ScholarPubMed
Shakow, D. (1962) Segmental set. Archives of General Psychiatry 6:117. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shakow, D. (1977) Segmental set: The adaptive process in schizophrenia. American Psychologist 32:129–39. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shimazono, Y., Katsumi, A., Sakamoto, S., Tanaka, T., Eguchi, T. & Nakamura, H. (1965) Eye movements of waking subjects with closed eyes. Archives of General Psychiatry 13:537–43. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sidgewick, H. A. (1894) Report of the census of hallucinations. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research 26:25394. [RPB]Google Scholar
Siegal, R. K. & West, L. V., eds. (1975) Hallucinations: Behaviour, experience and theory. John Wiley. [RPB]Google Scholar
Silverberg-Shalev, R., Gordon, H., Bentin, S. & Aranson, A. (1981) Selective language deterioration in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 33:547–51. [taREH]Google Scholar
Silverstein, M. I. & Harrow, M. (1982) Inter-relationships among three measures of disordered thinking in continuous word association. Psychological Reports 50:803–9. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Singer, J. L. & Singer, D. C. (1984) Television, imagination and aggression. Erlbaum Associates. [JJa]Google Scholar
Slade, P. D. (1976a) An investigation of psychological factors involved with the predisposition to auditory hallucinations. Psychological Medicine 6:123–32. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slade, P. D. (1976b) Toward a theory of auditory hallucinations: An outline of an hypothetical four-factor model. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 15:415–23. [taREH, RPB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slade, P. D. & Bentall, R. P. (1986) Sensory deceptions: Towards a scientific theory of hallucinations. Croom-Helm. [RPB]Google Scholar
Slade, P. D. & Cooper, R. (1979) Some conceptual difficulties with the term ‘schizophrenia’: An alternative model. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 18:309–17. [RPB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Slater, E. & Roth, M. (1969) Clinical psychiatry. Williams and Wilkins. [rREH]Google Scholar
Sokolov, A. N. (1972) Inner speech and thought. Plenum Press. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Southard, E. E. (1914) American journal of insanity 71:383403. [rREH, PF]Google Scholar
Spanos, N. P. (1983) Ergotism and the Salem witch panic: A critical analysis and an alternative conceptualization. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 19:358–69. [NPS]3.0.CO;2-G>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spanos, N. P. (in press) Hypnosis, nonvolitional responding and multiple personality: A social psychological perspective. In: Progress in experimental personality research, ed. Maher, B., & Maher, W., Academic Press. [NPS]Google Scholar
Spanos, N. P. & Gorassini, D. R. (1984) The structure of hypnotic test suggestions and attributions of responding involuntarily. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:1162–72. [NPS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spanos, N. P. & Radtke, H. L. (1981) Hypnotic visual hallucinations as imaginings: A cognitive-social psychological perspective. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 1:147–70. [NPS]Google Scholar
Spohn, H. & Patterson, J. (1979) Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 5:581im[tarREH, GZ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Starker, S. & Jolin, A. (1982) Imagery and hallucination in schizophrenic patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 170:448–51. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, J. R., Bigelow, L., Denney, D., et al. (1979) Telemetered EEG-EOG during psychotic behaviors of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry 36:251–62. [rREH, PF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stevens, J. R. & Livermore, A. (1982) Telemetered EEG in schizophrenia: Spectral analysis during abnormal behaviour episodes. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 45:385–95. [rREH, PF]Google ScholarPubMed
Strauss, J. (1969) Hallucinations and delusions as points on continua function. Archives of General Psychiatry 21:581–86. [MH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swinney, D. A. (1984) Theoretical and methodological issues in cognitive science: A psycholinguistic perspective. In: Method and tactics in cognitive science, ed. Kintsch, W., Miller, J. R. & Polson, P. G.. Erlbaum Associates. [rREH, WGL]Google Scholar
Swinney, D. A., Onifer, W., Prather, P. & Hirschkowitz, M. (1979) Semantic facilitation across sensory modalities in the processing of individual words and sentences. Memory and Cognition 7:159–65. [WGL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Takahashi, R., Inaba, Y., Inanaga, K. et al. , (1981) CT scanning and the investigation of schizophrenia. Third World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Stockholm (S 371). [rREH, PF]Google Scholar
Tenlake, A. Personal correspondence. [KAA]Google Scholar
Torrey, E. F. & Peterson, M. R. (1974) Schizophrenia and the limbic system. Lancet 2:942–46. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Uchino, J., Araki, K., Tominaga, Y., Niwa, H., Nakama, I., Michitsuji, S., Ishizawa, M., Ohta, Y., Nakane, Y. & Takahashi, R. (1984) Correlation between CT findings of schizophrenics and their clinical symptoms., 2: Usinǵ discriminatory analysis and chi-square test. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologia Japonica 38:179. [rREH, PF]Google Scholar
Underwood, G. (1979) Memory systems and conscious processes. In: Aspects of consciousness, ed. Underwood, G. & Stevens, R. G.. Academic Press. [HA]Google Scholar
Van Dijk, T. (1980) Macrostructures: An interdisciplinary study of global structures in discourse, interaction, and cognition. Erlbaum Associates. [taREH]Google Scholar
Venables, P. (1964) Input disturbances in schizophrenia. In: Progress in experimental personality research, ed. Maher, B. A.. Academic Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1932) Thought in schizophrenia. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 31:1063–77. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1962) Thought and language. Ed. & trans. Hanfmann, E. & Vakar, G.. MIT Press. [taREH, GZ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978) Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press. [taREH, GZ]Google Scholar
Wakeling, A. (1985) Neurobiological aspects of feeding disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research 19:191201. [SS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
West, D. J. (1948) A mass observation questionnaire on hallucinations. Journal of the Society Psychical Research 34:187–96. [RPB]Google Scholar
West, L. J., ed. (1962) Hallucinations. Grune & Stratton. [RPB]Google Scholar
Wilensky, R. (1983) Planning and understanding. Addison-Wesley. [taREH]Google Scholar
Wing, J. K., Cooper, J. E. & Sartorius, N. (1974) The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge University Press. [PF]Google Scholar
Winters, K. C. & Neale, J. M. (1983) Delusions and delusional thinking in psychotics: A review of the literature. Clinical Psychology Review 3:227–53. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wise, R. A. (1982) Neuroleptics and operant behavior: The anhedonia hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:3987. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical investigations, trans. Anscombe, G. E. M.. Macmillan. [rREH, MB, RPB]Google Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1980) Remarks on the philosophy of psychology, ed. von Wright, G. H. & Nyman, H.. University of Chicago Press. [taREH]Google Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1982) Last writings on the philosophy of psychology, vol. 1. University of Chicago Press. [KAA]Google Scholar
World Health Organisation (1975) Schizophrenia: A multinational study. W.H.O. [RPB]Google Scholar
Wykes, T. (1980) Language and schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 10:403–6. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yates, A. J. (1966) Data-processing levels and thought disorder in schizophrenia. Australian Journal of Psychology 18:103–17. [BRR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young, H. F., Bentall, R. P., Slade, P. D. & Dewey, M. E. (in press) The role of brief instructions and suggestibility in the elicitation of auditory and visual hallucinations in normal and psychiatric subjects. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. [RPB]Google Scholar
Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist 35:151–75. [PFG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zarlock, S. P. (1966) Social expectations, language, and schizophrenia. Journal of Humanistic Psychology 6:6874. [taREH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zigler, E. & Phillips, L. (1961) Psychiatric diagnosis and symptomatology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 63:6975. [SS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zivin, G., ed. (1979) The development of self-regulation through private speech. John Wiley. [taREH, GZ]Google Scholar
8
Cited by