Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-99c86f546-zzcdp Total loading time: 0.614 Render date: 2021-11-29T13:05:11.405Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Modeling change in biology and psychology

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 May 2011

James T. Townsend
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, Electronic mail: jtownsen@iubacs.bitnet

Abstract

Image of the first page of this content. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.'
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1991

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Ackley, D. H. (1990) Learning from natural selection in an artificial environment. Proceedings of the IJCNN Conference, Washington DC, January. [GFM]Google Scholar
Ackley, D. H. & Littman, M. L. (1990) Learning from natural selection in an artificial environment. Bellcore (videotape). [LDP]Google Scholar
Alford, R. A. & Harris, R. N. (1988) Effects of larval growth history on amphibian metamorphosis. American Naturalist 131:91106. [JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alley, T. R. (1982) Competition theory, evolution, and the concept of an ecological niche. Acta Biotheoretica 31:165–79. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Alley, T. R. (1985) Organism-environment mutuality, epistemics, and the concept of an ecological niche. Synthese 65:411–44. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alt, W. & Hoffman, G., eds. (1990) Biological motion. Springer Verlag. [SF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, A. & Palca, J. (1988) Who knows how the brain works? Nature 335:489–91. [ES]Google Scholar
Arnold, S. J. (1987) Genetic correlation and the evolution of physiology. In: New directions in ecological physiology, ed. Feder, M. E., Bennett, A. F., Burgren, W. W. & Huey, R. B. [JS]Google Scholar
Barto, A. G., Sutton, R. S. & Watkins, C. (in press) Learning and sequential decision making. In: Learning and computational neuroscience, ed. Gabriel, M. & Moore, J. W.. MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Barto, A. G., Sutton, R. S. & Anderson, C. W. (1983) Neuronlike elements that can solve difficult learning control problems. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 13:835–46. (Reprinted 1988: Neurocomputing: Foundations of research, ed. Anderson, J. A. & Rosenfeld, E., MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Bell, W. (in press) Searching behaviour. Chapman & Hall. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bellman, R. (1957) Dynamic programming. Princeton University Press. [aCWC]Google ScholarPubMed
Bellman, R. (1961) Adaptive control processes. A guided tour. Princeton University Press. [LDP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Berry, D. A. & Fristedt, B. (1985) Bandit problems. Chapman & Hall. [AGB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertsekas, D. P. (1987) Dynamic programming: Deterministic and stochastic' models. Prentice-Hall. [BWD]Google Scholar
Bouskila, A. & Blumstein, D. T. (submitted) Rules of thumb for predation hazard assessment: Predictions from a dynamic model. [JS]Google Scholar
Boyce, M. S. & Perrins, C. M. (1987) Optimizing great tit clutch size in a fluctuating environment. Ecology 68:142–53. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1982) Optimal group size in territorial animals. Journal of Theoretical Biology 95:793810. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Busemeyer, J. R. (1982) Choice behavior in a sequential decision-making task. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 29:175207. [JTT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Byrd, J. W., Houston, A. I. & Sozou, P. D. (in press) Optimal fledging times: Analysis of a model by Ydenburg. Ecology. [PDS, RCY]Google Scholar
Campbell, J. H. (1985) An organizational interpretation of evolution. In: Evolution at a crossroads, ed. Depew, D. J. & Weber, B. H.. MIT Press. [FJO-S]Google Scholar
Caraco, T. (1983) White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrychia leucophrys): Foraging preferences in a risky environment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 12:6369. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Caraco, T.. & Wolf, L. L. (1975) Ecological determinants of group sizes in foraging lions. American Naturalist 109:343–52. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chambers, R. C. & Legget, W. C. (1987) Size and age at metamorphosis in marine fishes: An analysis of laboratory reared winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) with a review of variation in other species. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44:1936–47. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charlesworth, B. & Charlesworth, D. (1983) The population dynamics of transposable elements. Genetical Research. 42:127. [ES]Google Scholar
Charnov, E. L. & Skinner, S. W. (1984) Evolution of host selection and clutch size in parasitoid wasps. Florida Entomologist 67:521. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, C. W. (1987) The lazy, adaptable lions: A Markovian model of group foraging. Animal Behavior 35:361–68. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, C. W. & Harvell, D. C. (unpublished) Minimal models of induced defense strategies. [rCWC]Google Scholar
Clark, C. W. & Levy, D. A. (1988) Diel vertical migrations by juvenile sockeye salmon and the antipredation window. American Naturalist 131:271–90. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, C. W. & Mangel, M. (1986) The evolutionary advantages of group foraging. Theoretical Population Biology 30:4575. [rCWC, SF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, D. W. & Ydenberg, R. C. (1990) The risks of parenthood. II. Parent-offspring conflict. Evolutionary Ecology 4:312325. [aCWC, AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, D. (1966) Optimizing reproduction in a randomly varying environment. Journal of Theoretical Biology 18:119–29. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, W. S. & Kaplan, R. H. (1982) Adaptive “coin-flipping”: A decision- heoretic examination of natural selection for random individual variation. Journal of Theoretical Biology 94:135–51. [arCWC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. (1987) From evolution to behavior: Evolutionary psychology as the missing link. In: The latest on the best: Essays on evolution and optimality, ed. Dupre, J.. MIT Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
Craig, R. B., De Angelis, D. R. & Dixon, K. R. (1979) Long and short-term dynamic optimization models with application to the feeding strategy of the loggerhead strike. American Naturalist 113:3151. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuthill, I. & Guilford, T. (in press) Perceived risk and obstacle avoidance in flying birds. Animal Behaviour. [RHM]Google Scholar
Davies, N. B. (1989) Sexual conflict and the polygamy threshold. Animal Behaviour 38:226–34. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, M. (1989) The future of ethology. How many legs are we standing on? In: Perspectives in ethology, vol. 8, ed. Bateson, P. P. G. & Klopfer, P. H.. Plenum. [PC]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1976) The selfish gene. Oxford University Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1982) The extended phenotype. Freeman. [FJO-S, ES]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (1986) The blind watchmaker. W. W. Norton & Co. [GFM]Google Scholar
Dehaene, S.Changeux, J.-P. & Nadal, J. -P. (1987) Neuronal networks that learn temporal sequences by selection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 84:2727–31. [ES]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Den Boer, P. J. (1980) Exclusion or coexistence and the taxonomic or ecological relationship between species. Netherlands Journal of Zoology 30:278306. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deneubourg, J. L. & Goss, S. (1989) Collective patterns and decision making. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution 1:295311. [SF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Devaney, R. L. (1989) An introduction of chaotic dynamical systems, 2nd ed. Addison Wesley. [LDP]Google Scholar
Driver, P. M. & Humphries, D. A. (1988) Protean behavior: The biology of unpredictability. Clarendon Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
Durrell, S. E. A. le V. dit & Goss-Custard, J. D. (1984) Prey selection within a size-class of mussels Mytilus edulis by oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus. Animal Behaviour 30:917–28. [RHM]Google Scholar
Edelman, G. M. (1987) Neural Darwinism. The theory of neuronal group selection. Basic Books. [ES]Google Scholar
Elman, J. L. (1988) Finding structure in time. Center for Research in Language (CRL) Technical Report 8801, University of California, San Dieg, CA. [GFM]Google Scholar
Fagerstrom, T. (1987) On theory, data and mathematics in ecology. Oikos 50:258–61. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Falconer, D. S. (1981) Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman. [PC]Google Scholar
Fantino, E. (1969) Choice and rate of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 12:723–30.[EF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. (1987) Operant conditioning simulations of for aging and the delay-reduction hypothesis. In: Foraging behavior, ed. Kamil, A. C.Krebs, J. R. & Pulliam, H. R.. Plenum Press. [EF]Google Scholar
Fantino, E. & Abarca, M. (1985) Choice, optimal foraging, and the delay-reduction hypothesis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8:315–30. [aCWC, EF, PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. & Preston, R. A. (1988) Foraging for integration. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:683–84. [EF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fantino, E. & Preston, R. A. (1989) The delay-reduction hypothesis: Some new tests. In: Psychobiology: Issues and applications, ed. Bond, N. W. & Siddle, D. A. T.. Elsevier (North-Holland). [EF]Google Scholar
Feynman, R. P.Leighton, R. B. & Sands, M. (1964) The Feynman lectures on physics, vol. II. Addison-Wesley. [ES]Google Scholar
Fisher, R. A. (1930) The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford University Press. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilliam, J. F. & Fraser, D. F. (1987) Habitat selection under predation hazard: Test of a model with foraging minnows. Ecology 68:1856–62. [ JT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Godfray, H. C. J. (1987) The evolution of clutch size in invertebrates. In: Oxford surveys in evolutionary ecology, vol. 4., ed. Harvey, P. H. & Partridge, L.. Oxford University Press. [rCWC]Google Scholar
Goldberg, D. E. (1989) Genetic algorithms in search, optimization, and machine learning. Addison-Wesley. [GFM]Google Scholar
Goodwin, B. C. & Trainor, L. E. (1980) A field description of the cleavage process in embryogenesis. Journal of Theoretical Biology 85:757–82. [ES]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gould, S. J. & Lewontin, R. C. (1979) The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptational programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 205:581–98. [aCWC, CLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grafen, A. (1984) Natural selection, kin selection, and group selection. In: Behavioral ecology: An evolutionary approach, 2nd ed., ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B.. Blackwell. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Green, D. M. & Swets, J. A. (1966) Signal detection theory and psychophysics. Krieger. [JTT]Google Scholar
Hamilton, W. D. (1964) The evolution of social behavior. I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:152. [GFM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardin, G. (1960) The competitive exclusion principle. Science 131:1292–97. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harley, C. B. (1981) Learning the evolutionarily stable strategy. Journal of Theoretical Biology 89:611–33. [ES]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hartl, D. L. & Clark, A. G. (1989) Principles of population genetics, 2nd ed. Sinauer. [FJO-S]Google Scholar
Heinrich, B. (1983) Do bumblebees forage optimally, and does it matter? American Zoologist 23:273–81. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyman, D. P. & Sobel, M. J. (1984) Stochastic models in operations research, vol. 2. McGraw-Hill. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Heyman, G. M. (1988) Optimization theory: A too narrow path. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:136–37. [MLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heyman, G. M. & Hermstein, R. J. (1986) More on concurrent interval-ratio schedules: A replication and review. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 46:331–51. [EF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hofbauer, J. & Sigmund, K. (1988) The theory of evolution and dynamical systems. Cambridge University Press. [ES]Google Scholar
Holden, A. V. (1986) Chaos. Princeton University Press. [LDP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holland, J. (1975) Adaptation in natural and artificial systems. University of Michigan Press. [GFM]Google Scholar
Horn, H. S. & Rubenstein, D. I. (1984) Behavioral adaptations and life history. In: Behavioral ecology, 2nd ed., ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N.. Blackwell. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. (1990) Foraging in the context of life-history: General principles and specific models. In: Behavioural mechanisms of food selection, ed. Hughes, R. N.. NATO ASI Series, vol. G20. Springer Verlag. [AIH]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1986) Evaluating the selection pressure on foraging decisions. In: Relevance of models and theories in ethology, ed. Camper, R. & Zayan, R.. Privat. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1987) Singing to attract a mate - a stochastic dynamic game. Journal of Theoretical Biology 129:5768. [aCWC, RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1988a) A framework for the functional analysis of behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:117–63. [aCWC, EF, AIH, MLH, GFM, FJO-S, LDP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, A. I. & McNamara, J. M. (1988b) Fighting for food: A dynamic version of the hawk-dove game. Evolutionary Ecology 2:5164. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houston, A. I.Clark, C. W.McNamara, J. M. & Mangel, M. (1988) Dynamic models in behavioural and evolutionary ecology. Nature 332:2934. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howe, M. L. & Rabinowitz, F. M. (1990) Development: Sequence, structure and chaos. Annals of Theoretical Psychology 7 (in press). [MLH]Google Scholar
Hughes, R. N. (1979) Optimal diets under the energy maximisation premise: The effects of recognition time and learning. American Naturalist 113:209–21. [RHM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Intriligator, M. D. (1971) Mathematical optimization and economic theory. Prentice Hall. [PS-H]Google Scholar
Iwasa, Y. & Teramoto, E. (1980) A criterion of life history evolution based on density-dependent selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology 13:168. [JT]Google Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1989a) Behavioral heterochrony and the evolution of birds' helping at the nest: An unselected consequence of communal breeding? American Naturalist 133:394406. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, I. G. (1989b) Levels of analysis or analyses at the same level. Animal Behaviour 37:696–97. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janetos, A. C. & Cole, B. J. (1981) Imperfectly optimal animals. Behavioural Ecology Sociobiology 9:203–9. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jordan, M. I. (1986) Serial order: A parallel distributed processing approach. Institute for Cognitive Science Technical Report 8604, University of California, San Diego, CA. [GFM]Google Scholar
Katz, P. L. (1974) A long-term approach to foraging optimization. American Naturalist 108:758–82. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, C. P. (1989) Incubation games. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University. [AIH]Google Scholar
Kirpatrick, M. & Lande, R. (1989) The evolution of maternal characters. Evolution 43:485503. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klomp, H. (1970) The determination of clutch size in birds: A review. Ardea 58:1124. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Klopf, A. H. & Morgan, J. S. (in press) The role of time in natural intelligence: Implications of classical and instrumental conditioning for neuronal and neural network modeling. In: Learning and computational neuroscience, ed. Gabriel, M. & Moore, J. W.. MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Klopf, A. H. (1988) A neuronal model of classical conditioning. Psychobiology 16:85125. [AGB]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B. (1984) Behavioural ecology, 2nd ed. Blackwell. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & McCleery, R. H. (1984) Optimization in behavioral ecology. In: Behavioral Ecology, 2nd ed., ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B.. Blackwell. [PS-H]Google Scholar
Lack, D. (1954) Natural regulation of animal numbers. Clarendon Press. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Lande, R. & Arnold, S. J. (1983) The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37:1210–26. [PC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Langton, C. G. (1989) Artificial life. Addison-Wesley. [GFM]Google Scholar
Levins, R. (1968) Evolution in changing environments. Princeton University Press. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Lucas, J. R. & Walter, L. R. (1988) Determinants of short-term caching behavior in Carolina chickadees. Unpublished. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Lucas, J. R. & Walter, L. R. (in press) Short-term caching strategies: Effects of state variables. Animal Behaviour. [CLH]Google Scholar
Lucas, J. R.Schmid-Hempel, P. (1988) Diet choice in patches: Time-constraint and state-space solutions. Journal of Theoretical Biology 131:307332. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, D. & Rowe, L. (1990) Life-history strategies for energy gain and predator avoidance under time constraints. American Naturalist 135:686707. [rCWC, RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ludwig, D. A. (1989) Small models are beautiful; efficient estimators are even more beautiful. In: Mathematical approaches to problems in resource management and epidemiology, ed. Castillo-Chavez, C.Levin, S. A. & Shoemaker, C. A.. Springer Verlag. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Mace, R. H. & Houston, A. I. (1989) Pastoral strategies for survival in unpredictable environments: A model of herd composition that maximizes household viability. Agricultural Systems 31:185204. [RHM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mangel, M. (1987) Oviposition site selection and clutch size in insects. Journal of Mathematical Biology 25:122. [aCWC, CLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mangel, M. (in press) Adaptive walks on behavioral landscapes and the evolution of optimal behavior by natural selection. Evolutionary Ecology. [JS]Google Scholar
Mangel, M. (1990) Dynamic information in uncertain and changing worlds. Journal of Theoretical Biology 146:317–22. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mangel, M. and Clark, C. W. (1986) Towards an unified foraging theory. Ecology 67:1127–38. [SF, ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mangel, M. and Clark, C. W. (1988)Dynamic modeling in behavioral ecology. Princeton University Press. [aCWC, JR, JS]Google Scholar
Martindale, S. (1982) Nest defence and central place foraging: A model experiment. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 10:8589. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1978) Optimization theory in evolution. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9:3156. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1982) Evolution and theory of games. Cambridge University Press. [aCWC, ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard-Smith, J.Burian, R.Kauffman, S.Albrech, P.Campbell, J.Goodwin, B.Lande, R.Raup, D. & Wolpert, L. (1985) Developmental constraints and evolution. Quarterly Review of Biology 60:265–87. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayr, E. (1982) The growth of biological thought. Harvard University Press. [aCWC]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J. (1977) Decision making in animals. Nature 269:1521. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McFarland, D. J. & Houston, A. I. (1981) Quantitative ethology: The state space approach. Pitman. [aCWC]Google Scholar
McFarland, D. J., & Sibley, R. M. (1972) “Unitary drives” revisited. Animal Behaviour 20:548–63. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McNamara, J. M. (1990) The starvation-predation trade-off and some behavioural and ecological consequences. In: Behavioural mechanisms of food selection, ed. Hughes, R. N.. NATA ASI Series, vol. G20. Springer Verlag. [AIH]Google Scholar
McNamara, J. M. (1990) The policy which maximizes long-term survival of an animal faced with the risks of starvation and predation. Advances in Applied Probability 22:295308. [arCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, J. M. & Houston, A. I. (1982) Short-term behavior and lifetime fitness. In: Functional ontogeny, ed. McFarland, D. J.. Pitmans. [aCWC]Google Scholar
McNamara, J. M. & Houston, A. I. (1987) Starvation and predation as factors limiting population size. Ecology 68:1515–19. [rCWC[CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, J. M. & Houston, A. I. (1990a) Starvation and predation in a patchy environment. In: Living in a patchy environment, ed. Swingland, I. & Shorrocks, B.. Oxford University Press. [AIH]Google Scholar
McNamara, J. M. & Houston, A. I. (1990b) The state-dependent ideal-free distribution. Evolutionary Ecology 4:298311. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, J. M., Houston, A. I. & Krebs, J. R. (1990) Why hoard? The economics of food-storing in tits. Behavioural Ecology 1:1223. [CLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McNamara, J. M.Mace, R. H. & Houston, A. I. (1987) Optimal daily routines of singing and foraging in a bird singing to attract a mate. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 20:399405. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Michod, R. E. (1989) Darwinian selection in the brain. Evolution 43:694–96. [ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, G. F. & Todd, P. M. (1990) Exploring adaptive agency with genetic algorithms and neural networks. In: Proceedings of the 1990 Connectionist Models. Summer, San Mateo, CA, ed. Touretsky, D. S.Elman, J. L.Sejnowski, T. J. & Hinton, G. E.. Morgan Kauffman. [GFM]Google Scholar
Miller, G. F.Todd, P. M. & Hegde, S. (1989) Designing neural networks using genetic algorithms. In: Proceedings of the third international conference on genetics algorithms, San Mateo, CA, ed. Schaffer, J. D.. Morgan Kauffman. [GFM]Google Scholar
Mitchell, W. A. & Valone, T. J. (1990) The optimization research program: Studying adaptations by their function. Quarterly Review of Biology 65:4352. [rCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molnar, I. & Verhas, J. (1990) Mechanical aspects of development. In: Organizational constraints on the dynamics of evolution, ed. Maynard Smith, J. & Vida, G.. Manchester University Press. [ES]Google Scholar
Nisbett, R. & Ross, L. (1980) Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Prentice Hall. [EF]Google Scholar
Odling-Smee, F. J. (1988) Niche constructing phenotypes. In: The role of behavior in evolution, ed. Plotkin, H. C.. MIT Press. [FJO-S]Google Scholar
Ollason, J. (1980a) Learning to forage-optimally? Theoretical Population Biology 18:4456. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ollason, J. (1980b) Behavioural consequences of hunting by expectation: a simulation study of foraging tactics. Theoretical Population Biology 23:323–46. [SF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oster, G. F. & Wilson, E. O. (1978) Caste and ecology in the social insects. Princeton University Press. [aCWC]Google ScholarPubMed
Packer, C.Scheel, D. & Pusey, A. E. (1990) Why lions form groups: Food is not enough. American Naturalist 136:119. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Partridge, L. D. (1976) A proposal for study of a state description of the motor system. In: Motor control, ed. Shahani, M.. Elsevier. [LDP]Google Scholar
Partridge, L. D. (1982) The “good enough” calculus of evolving control system evolution is not engineering. American Journal of Physiology 242:R173–77. [LDP]Google Scholar
Philippi, T. & Seger, J. (1989) Hedging one's evolutionary bets, revisited. Trends in Evolutionary Ecology 4:4144. [rCWC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pianka, E. (1976) Competition and niche theory. In: Theoretical ecology, ed. May, R. M. & Saunders, W. B.. [TRA]Google Scholar
Pierce, G. J. & Ollason, J. G. (1987) Eight reasons why optimal foraging theory is a complete waste of time. Oikos 49:111118. [aCWC, PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Poethke, H. J. & Kaiser, H. (1985) A simulation approach to evolutionary game theory: The evolution of timesharing behaviour in a dragonfly mating system. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 18:155–63. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pontrjagin, L. S., Boltyanskii, V. S., Gamkrelidze, R. V. & Mishchenco, E. F. (1962) The mathematical theory of optimal processes. Wiley-Interscience. [aCWC]Google Scholar
Price, K. (1989) Territorial defence and bequeathal by red squirrel mothers in the northern boreal forest. M.S. thesis, Simon Fraser University. [RCY]Google Scholar
Pyke, G. H. (1978) Optimal foraging: Movement patterns of bumblebees between inflorescences. Theoretical Population Biology 13:7297. [PC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rachlin, H.Battalio, R. Ca.Kagel, J. H. & Green, L. (1981) Maximization theory in behavioral psychology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4:371–90. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Real, L. (in press) Sequential search theory and mate choice. I. Models of single-sex discrimination. American Naturalist. [JS]Google Scholar
Real, L. & Caraco, T. (1986) Risk and foraging in stochastic environments. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:371–90. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rechten, C.Avery, M. I. & Stevens, T. A. (1983) Optimal prey selection: Why do great tits show partial preferences? Animal Behavior 31:576–84. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rescorla, R. A. & Wagner, A. R. (1972) A theory of Pavlovian conditioning: Variations in the effectiveness of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. In: Classical conditioning II, ed. Black, A. H. & Prokasy, W. F.. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [AGB]Google Scholar
Roitberg, B. D. (1990) Optimistic and pessimistic fruit flies: Evaluating fitness consequences of estimation errors. Behaviour 114:6582. [JS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothstein, S. I. (1982) Success and failures in avian egg and nestling recognition with comments on the utility of optimality reasoning. American Zoologist 22:547–60. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rothstein, S. I. (1986) A test of optimality: egg recognition in the eastern phoebe. Animal Behaviour 34:1109–19. [PC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumelhart, D. E. & McClelland, J. L. (1986) Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition MIT Press/Bradford Books. [GFM]Google Scholar
Schaffer, J. D. (1989) Proceedings of the third international conference on genetic algorithms, San Mateo, CA. Morgan Kauffman. [GFM]Google Scholar
Schaffer, W. M. (1974) Optimal reproductive effort in fluctuating environments. American Naturalist 108:783–90. [ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaffer, W. M. (1983) The application of optimal control theory to the general life history problem. American Naturalist 121:418431. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schaller, G. B. (1972) The Serengeti lion. University of Chicago Press. [JS]Google Scholar
Schmid-Hempel, P.Kacelnik, A. & Houston, A. I. (1985) Honeybees maximize efficiency by not filling their crop. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 17:6166. [PS-H]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1987) Toward a universal law of generalization for psychological science. Science 237:1317–23. [GFM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simon, H. A. (1962) An information processing theory of intellectual development. In: Thought in the young child, ed. Kessen, W. & Kuhlman, C.. Monographs for the Society for Research in Child Development 27:150–62. [MLH]Google Scholar
Slatkin, M. (1974) Hedging one's evolutionary bets. Nature 250:704–05. [rCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slobodkin, L. B. (1975) Comments from a biologist to a mathematician. In: Ecosystem analysis and prediction, ed. Levin, S. A.. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. [TRA]Google Scholar
Slobodkin, L. B. & Rapoport, A. (1974) An optimal strategy of evolution. Quarterly Review of Biology 49:181200. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, E. A. (1988) Realism, generality, or testability: The ecological modeler's dilemma. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11:149–50. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stamps, J. A. (in press) The effect of conspecifics on habitat selection in territorial species. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. [JS]Google Scholar
Stearns, S. C. (1976) Life-history tactics: A review of the ideas. Quarterly Review of Biology 51:347. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stearns, S. C. (in press) Comparative and experimental approaches to the evolutionary ecology of development. In: Evolution et developement, ed. Chaline, R. & David, B.. [PC]Google Scholar
Stearns, S. C. & Crandall, R. E. (1984) Plasticity of age and size at sexual maturity: A life history response to unavoidable stress. In: Fish reproduction, ed. Potts, G. & Wootton, R.. Academic Press. [PS-H]Google Scholar
Stearns, S. C. & Koella, J. C. (1986) The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits: Predictions of reaction norms for age and size at maturity. Evolution 40:893914. [JT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stearns, S. C. & Schmid-Hempel, P. (1987) Evolutionary insights should not be wasted. Oikos 49:118–25. [PS-H, SF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephens, D. W. & Krebs, J. R. (1986) Foraging theory. Princeton University Press. [aCWC, SF]Google Scholar
Stephens, D. W. (1987) On economically tracking a variable environment. Theoretical Population Biology 32:1525. [aCWC, MLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sumida, B. H., Houston, A. I., McNamara, J. M. & Hamilton, W. D. (1990) Genetic algorithms and evolution. Journal of Theoretical Biology 147:5984. [AIH]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutherland, W. J. and Parker, G. A. (1985) Distribution of unequal competitors. In: Behavioural ecology, ed. Sibly, R. M. & Smith, R. H.. Blackwell. [RHM]Google Scholar
Sutton, R. S. (1984) Temporal credit assignment in reinforcement learning. Ph.D. thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. [AGB]Google Scholar
Sutton, R. S. (1988) Learning to predict by the methods of temporal differences. Machine Learning 3:944. [AGB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sutton, R. S. & Barto, A. G. (1987) A temporal-difference model of classical conditioning. In: Proceedings of the ninth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum. [AGB]Google Scholar
Sutton, R. S. & Barto, A. G. (in press) Time-derivative models of Pavlovian conditioning. In: Learning and Computational Neuroscience, ed. Gabriel, M. & Moore, J. W.. MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Szathmàry, E. (1989) The emergence, maintenance, and transitions of the earliest evolutionary units. In: Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology, ed. Harvey, P. H. & Partridge, L.. Oxford University Press. [ES]Google Scholar
Szekely, T., Sozou, P. D. & Houston, A. I. (in press) Flocking behaviour of passerines: A dynamic model for the nonreproductive season. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. [PDS]Google Scholar
Taylor, F. (in press) Testing hypotheses about the evolution of the mean phenotype in temporally variable environments. In: Genetics, evolution, and coordination of insect life cycles, ed. Gilbert, F.. Springer- Verlag. [JT]Google Scholar
Taylor, P. & Jonker, L. (1978) Evolutionarily stable strategies and game dynamics. Mathematical Biosciences 40:145–56. [ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Terborgh, J. (1989) Where have all the birds gone? Princeton University Press. [rCWC]Google Scholar
Thompson, D. B. A. (1983) Prey assessment by plovers (charadridae): Net rate of energy intake and vulnerability to kleptoparasites. Animal Behaviour 31:1226–36. [RHM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Todd, P. M. & Miller, G. F. (in press) The evolution of adaptive agency: Natural selection and associative learning. In: Simulation of adaptive behavior, ed. Meyer, J. A. & Wilson., S.MIT Press/Bradford Books. [GFM]Google Scholar
Townsend, J. T. (in press) Chaos theory: A brief tutorial and discussion. Festschrift for W. K. Estes, ed. Healy, A., Kosslyn, S., & Shiffrin, R.. Erlbaum Associates. [JTT]Google Scholar
Townsend, J. T. & Busemeyer, J. R. (1989) Approach-avoidance: Return to dynamic decision behavior. In: Current issues in cognitive processes: Tulane Flowerree symposium on cognition, ed. Izawa, C.. Erlbaum Associates. [JTT]Google Scholar
Travis, J. (1982) A method for the statistical analysis of time-energy budgets. Ecology 63:1925. [JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Travis, J. (1989) The role of optimizing selection in natural populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20:279–96. [JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Travis, J., Farr, J. A., Henrich, S. & Cheong, R. T. (1987) Testing theories of clutch overlap with the reproductive ecology of Heterandria formosa. Ecology 68:611–23. [JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trexler, J. C., Travis, J. & Trexler, M. (1990) Phenotypic plasticity in the sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Pisces: Poeciliidae) II. Laboratory experiment. Evolution 44:157–67. [JT]Google ScholarPubMed
Tsitsiklis, J. N. (1989) On the control of discrete-event dynamical systems. Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems, 2:95107. [BWD]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vandermeer, J. H. (1975) Interspecific competition: A new approach to the classical theory. Science 188:253–55. [TRA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vincent, T. L. & Brown, J. S. (1984) Stability in an evolutionary game. Theoretical Population Biology 26:408–27. [ES]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, C. J. C. H. (1989) Learning from delayed rewards. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, England. [AGB]Google Scholar
Werbos, P. J. (1977) Advanced forecasting methods for global crisis warning and models of intelligence. General Systems Yearbook 22:2538. [AGB]Google Scholar
Werbos, P. J. (1987) Building and understanding adaptive systems: A statistical/numerical approach to factory automation and brain research. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics 17:720. [AGB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Werner, E. E. & Gilliam, J. F. (1984) The ontogenetic niche and species interactions in size-structured populations. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:393426. [JT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Widrow, B. & Hoff, M. E. (1960) Adaptive switching circuits. In: 1960 WESCON Convention Record, part IV. Reprinted 1988: Neurocomputing: Foundations of research, ed. Anderson, J. A. & Rosenfeld., E.MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Wiener, N. (1964) God & Gol, Inc. MIT Press. [AGB]Google Scholar
Wiens, J. A. (1977). On competition and variable environments. American Scientist 65:590–97. [TRA]Google Scholar
Wilson, A. C. (1985) The molecular basis of evolution. Scientific American 253:148–57. [FJO-S]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wyles, J. S., Kunkel, J. G. & Wilson, A. C. (1983) Birds, behavior, and anatomical evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 80:4394–97. [FJO-S]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ydenberg, R. C. (1982) Territorial vigilance and foraging behavior: A study of trade-offs. Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University. [RCY]Google Scholar
Ydenberg, R. C. (1987) Nomadic predators and geographical synchrony in microtine population cycles. Oikos 50:270–72. [rCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ydenberg, R. C. (1989) Growth-mortality trade-offs and the evolution of juvenile life histories in the avian family, Alcidae. Ecology 70:14961508. [arCWC, RCY, PS-H, PDS]Google Scholar
Ydenberg, R. C. & Clark, C. W. (1989) Aerobiosis and anaerobiosis during diving by Western grebes: An optimal foraging approach. Journal of Theoretical Biology 139:437–49. [aCWC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ydenberg, R. C. & Houston, A. I. (1986) Optimal trade-offs between foraging and territorial defense in the great tit (Parus major). Animal Behavior 34:1041–50. [RCY]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yoshimura, J. & Clark, C. W. (in press) Individual adaptations in stochastic environments. Evolutionary Ecology. [arCWC]Google Scholar
1
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Modeling change in biology and psychology
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Modeling change in biology and psychology
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Modeling change in biology and psychology
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *