Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-fg2fv Total loading time: 0.416 Render date: 2021-10-19T03:25:57.752Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Dominance: The baby and the bathwater

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Irwin S. Bernstein
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30602 and Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center of Emory University

Abstract

The concept of dominance is used in the behavioral and biological sciences to describe outcomes in a variety of competitive interactions. In some taxa, a history of agonistic encounters among individuals modifies the course of future agonistic encounters such that the existence of a certain type of relationship can be inferred. If one is to characterize such relationships as dominance, however, then they must be distinguished from other kinds of interaction patterns for which the term tends to be used, as well as from factors such as territoriality and "trained" winners and losers, which may also influence the expression of agonistic behavior. Operational definitions based on causal, functional, evolutionary, and ontogenetic considerations have been proposed. Reliability and validity problems have been discussed, but the dominance concept has proved useful despite methodological difficulties. The confusion of dominance relationships (which involve two or more individuals) with dominance ranks (which are assigned to a single individual) has obscured the possible evolutionary basis of dominance relationships. If benefits accrue to dominant members of pairs, then those attributes which allow an animal to establish dominance can be selected. Dominance per se and dominance ranks, on the other hand, cannot be genetically transmitted since they constitute relationships with other individuals rather than absolute attributes. Dominance rankings in particular may be useful for describing behavioral patterns within a group, but they may reflect our own ability to count rather than any important variable in social organization.

Type
Target Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1981

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Abernethy, V. (1974) Dominance and sexual behavior: A hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry 131:813–17. [VA, ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Abernethy, V. (1978) Feminists' heterosexual relationships. Archives of General Psychiatry 35:435–38. [VA]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Adams, D. B. (1979) Brain mechanisms for offense, defense, and submission. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:201–41. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altmann, S. A. (1962a) A field study of the sociobiology of rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta. Annals of New York Academy of Science 102:338435. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Altmann, S. A. (1962b) The social behavior of anthropoid primates: An analysis of some recent concepts. In: Roots of behavior, ed. Bliss, E. L., pp. 227–85. New York: Hoeber Medical Division of Harper Brothers. [ISB]Google Scholar
Altmann, S. A. (1967) The structure of primate social communication. In: Social communication among primates, ed. Altman, S. A., pp. 325–62. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. [KJF]Google Scholar
Altmann, S. A. & Altmann, J. (1979) Demographic constraints on behavior and social organization. In: Primate ecology and human origins, ed. Bernstein, I. S. & Smith, E. O., pp. 4764. New York: Garland STPM Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Anderson, C. O. & Mason, W. A. (1978) Competitive social strategies in groups of deprived and experienced rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology 11:289–99. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, P. K. (1970) Ecological structure and gene flow in small mammals. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 26:299321. [JRK]Google Scholar
Angermeier, W. F.; Phelps, J. B.; Oreste, M.; Davis, H.; & Reynolds, H. H. (1967) Dominance hierarchies in monkeys. Psychonomic Science 9:435–36. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Angst, W. (1975) Basic data and concepts on the social organization of Macaca fascicularis. Primate Behavior 4:325–88. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bachmann, C. & Kummer, H. (1980) Male assessment of female choice in hamadryas baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 6:315–21. [BS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banks, E. M.; Wood-Gush, D. G. M; Hughes, B. O.; and Mankovich, N. J. (1979) Social rank and priority of access to resources in domestic fowl. Behavioural Processes 4:197209. [EMB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnett, S. A. (1975) The rat: A study in behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [PFB]Google Scholar
Bartlett, D. P. & Meier, G. W. (1971) Dominance status and certain operants in a communal colony of rhesus macaques. Primates 12:209–19. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basckin, D. R. & Krige, P. D. (1973) Some preliminary observations on the behavior of an urban troop of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) during the birth season. Journal of Behavioral Science 1:287–96. [ISB]Google Scholar
Benton, D. & Brain, P. F. (1979) Behavioural comparisons of isolated, dominant and subordinate mice. Behavioural Processes 4:211–19. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benton, D.; Goldsmith, J. F.; Gamal-el-Din, L.; Brain, P. F.; & Hucklebridge, F. H. (1978) Adrenal activity in isolated mice and mice of different social status. Physiology and Behaviour 20:459–64. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1980) Comparisons of measures of dominance in the laboratory mouse. Animal Behaviour 28:1274–79. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bernstein, I. S. (1964) Role of the dominant male rhesus in response to external challenges to the group. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 57:404–6. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1966) Analysis of a key role in a capuchin (Cebus albifrons) group. Tulane Studies in Zoology 13:4954. [ISB]Google Scholar
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1968) Social status of two hybrids in a wild troop of Macaca irus. Folia Pri-matologia 8:121–31. [ISB]Google Scholar
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1969) Stability of the status hierarchy in a pigtail monkey group (Macaca nemestrina). Animal Behaviour 17:452–58. [DKC]Google Scholar
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1970) Primate status hierarchies. In: Primate behavior: Developments in field and laboratory research, ed. Rosenblum, L. A., pp. 71109. New York: Academic Press. [ISB, RSM]Google Scholar
Benton, D.; Dalrymple-Alford, J. C.; & Brain, P. F. (1976) Dominance, aggression and reproduction in primate societies. Journal of Theoretical Biology 60:459–72. [ISB, KJF]Google Scholar
Bernstein, I. S. & Gordon, T. P. (1980) The social component of dominance relationships in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Animal Behaviour 28:1033–39. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blanchard, R. J. & Blanchard, D. C. (1980) The colony model: Experience counts. Behavioral and Neural Biology 30:109–12. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanchard, R. J.; Blanchard, D. C.; Takahashi, T.; & Kelley, M. J. (1977) Attack and defensive behavior in the albino rat. Animal Behaviour 25:622–34. [PFB, KJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Blanchard, R. J.; Takahashi, L. K.; & Blanchard, D. C. (1977) The development of intruder attack in colonies of laboratory rats. Animal Learning and Behavior 5:365–69. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boelkins, R. C. (1967) Determination of dominance hierarchies in monkeys. Psychonomic Science 7:317–18. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boelkins, R. C. & Wilson, A. P. (1972) Intergroup social dynamics of the Cayo Santiago rhesus (Macaca mulatto) with special reference to changes in group membership by males. Primates 13:125–40. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brambleltt, C. A. (1978) Is the concept of "control group" valid? A quantitative comparison of behavior of caged baboon groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 49:217–26. [CAB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1975) What does individual housing mean to a mouse? Life Sciences 16:187200. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brain, P. F. (1977) Hormones and Aggression Vol. 1. Annual Research Reviews. Montreal: Eden Press. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1978) Hormones and Aggression Vol. 2. Annual Research Reviews. Montreal: Eden Press. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1979) Hormones, Drugs and Aggression Vol. 3. Annual Research Reviews. Montreal: Eden Press. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1980) Adaptive aspects of hormonal correlates of attack and defence: A study in ethobiology. In: Recent progress in brain research, ed. McConnell, P. S. et al. , pp. 391414. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1981a) Differentiating types of attack and defense in rodents. In: Multidisciplinary approaches to aggression research, ed. Brain, P. F. & Benton, D.. Amsterdam: Elsevier. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F. (1981b) Hormones and aggression in infra-human vertebrates. In: The Biology of aggression, ed. Brain, P. F. & Benton, D.. Alphen aan der Rijn: Noordhoff/Sijthoff. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brain, P. F. & Al-Maliki, S. (1978) A comparison of "intermale fighting" in "standard opponent" tests and attack directed towards locusts by "TO" strain mice: Effects of simple experimental manipulations. Animal Behaviour 26:723–37. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brain, P. F. & Al-Maliki, S. (1979) A comparison of effects of simple experimental manipulations on fighting generated by breeding activity and predatory aggresion in "TO" strain mice. Behaviour 69:183200. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brain, P. F. & Benton, D. (1977) What does individual housing mean to a research worker? IRCS Journal of Medical Science 5:459–63. [PFB]Google Scholar
Brain, P. F.; Benton, D.; Howell, P. A.; & Jones, S. E. (1980) Resident rats' aggression towards intruders. Animal Learning and Behavior 8:331–35. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brain, P. F.; Chiodera, P.; Csermely, D.; Mainardi, D.; Mainardi, M.; Parmigiani, S.; Pasquali, A.; Valenti, G.; & Vescovi, P. (1981) Effects of housing conditions and social rank and behaviour in the house mouse. Abstract submitted to 17th International Ethology Congress (Oxford). [PFB]Google Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1963) Aggressiveness, dominance and social organization in the Steller Jay. Condor 65:460–84. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brown, J. L. (1975) The evolution of behavior. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
Brown, L. E. (1966) Home range and movement of small mammals. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 18:111–42. [KJF]Google Scholar
Buirski, P.; Kellerman, H.; Plutchik, R.; Weininger, R.; & Buirski, N. (1973) A field study of emotions, dominance and social behavior in a group of baboons (Papio anubis). Primates 14:6778. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bunnell, B. N.; Kenshalo, D. R. Jr; Allen, J. D.; Manning, F. J.; & Sodetz, F. J. (1979) Performance correlates of social behavior and organization: Social rank and omission of reinforcement in rhesus monkeys (M. mulatto). Primates 20:7786. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Candland, D.; Dresdale, L.; Leiphart, J.; Bryan, D.; Johnson, C.; & Nazar, B. (1973) Social structure of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus iquitos): Relationships among behavior, heartrate, and physical distance. Folia Primatological 20:211–40. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carpenter, C. R. (1942) Characteristics of social behavior in nonhuman primates. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 4:248–58. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carpenter, C. R. (1965) The howlers of Barro Colorado Island. In: Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes, ed. DeVore, I., pp. 250–91. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. [ISB]Google Scholar
Casey, D. E. & Clark, T. W. (1976) Some spacing relations among the central males of a transplanted troop of Japanese macaques (Arashiyama West). Primates 17:433–50. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Castell, R. & Heinrich, B. (1971) Rank order in a captive female squirrel monkey colony. Folia Primatologica 14:182–89. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chalmers, N. R. & Rowell, T. E. (1971) Behaviour and female reproductive cycles in a captive group of mangabeys. Folia Primatologica 14:114. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chamove, A. S. & Bowman, R. E. (1976) Rank, rhesus social behavior, and stress. Folia Primatologica 26:5766. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. (1956) Social structure of a colony of Macaca mulatto. British Journal of Animal Behavior 4:113. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. (1961) The nature and special features of the instinctive social bond of primates. In: Social life of early man, ed. Washburn, S. L., pp. 1733. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co. [ISB]Google Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. (1966) Resolution of social conflict in animals and man. Ciba Symposium, 1635. [ISB]Google Scholar
Chance, M. R. A. (1967) Attention structure as the basis of primate rank orders. Man 2:503–18. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chase, I. D. (1974) Models of hierarchy formation in animal societies. Behavioral Science 19:374–82. [RP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheney, D. L. (1977) The acquisition of rank and the development of reciprocal alliances among free-ranging immature baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 2:303–18. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheney, D. L. (1978a) Interactions of immature male and female baboons with adult females. Animal Behaviour 26:389408. [RAH, RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheney, D. L. (1978b) The play partners of immature baboons. Animal Behaviour 26:1038–50. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chepko-Sade, D. (1974) Division of group F at Cayo Santiago. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 41:472. [JRK]Google Scholar
Chepko-Sade, D. & Sade, D. S. (1979) Patterns of group splitting within matri-lineal kinship groups: A study in group structure. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5:6786. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cherkovich, G. M. & Tatoyan, S. K. (1973) Heart rate (radiotelemetrical registration) in macaques and baboons according to dominant-submissive rank in a group. Folia Primatologica 20:265–73. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chickering, L. (1976) Changes in social structure in a captive vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops) monkey group. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 44:170. [ISB]Google Scholar
Chitty, D. (1970) Variation and population density. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 26:327–33. [JRK]Google Scholar
Christian, J. J. (1963) Endocrine adaptive mechanisms and the physiological regulation of population growth. In: Physiological Mammalogy I, ed. Mayer, W. V. & Van Gelder, R. G., pp. 189353. New York: Academic Press. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christian, J. J. (1970) Social subordination, population density, and mammalian evolution. Science 168:8490. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christian, J. J. (1980) Endocrine factors in population regulation. In: Biosocial mechanisms of population regulation, ed. Cohen, M. N., Malpass, R. S., & Klein, H. G., pp. 55115. Now Haven: Yale University Press. [DSS]Google Scholar
Christopher, S. B. (1972) Social validation of an objective measure of dominance in captive monkeys. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 4:1920. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, D. L. & Dillon, J. E. (1973) Evaluation of the water incentive method of social dominance measurement in primates. Folia Primatologica 19:293311. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clark, D. L. & Dillon, J. E. (1974) Social dominance relationships between previously unacquainted male and female squirrel monkeys. Behaviour 50:218–31. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, D. L. & Gay, P. E. (1978) Behavioral correlates of social dominance. Biology of Psychiatry 13:445–54. [ISB]Google ScholarPubMed
Clark, I. D. & Nakashima, E. N. (1972) Measurement of social dominance in squirrel monkeys. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 4:143–14. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, M. M. & Galef, B. G. Jr. (1977) Patterns of agonistic interaction and space utilization by agoutis (Dasyproeta punctata): A brief report. Behavioral Biology 20:135–40. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collias, N. E. (1944) Aggressive behavior among vertebrate animals. Physiological Zoology 17:83123. [DSS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Corrigan, J. G. & Flannelly, K. J. (1979) Ultrasonic vocalizations of defeated male rats. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 93:105–15. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cox, C. R. & LeBoeuf, B. J. (1977) Female incitation of male competition: A mechanism in sexual selection. American Naturalist 111:317–35. [EMB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crawford, M. P. (1942) Dominance and social behavior in chimpanzees in a non-competitive situation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 33:267–77. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crook, J. H. (1970) Socioecology of primates. In: Social behaviour of birds and mammals, ed. Crook, J. H.. London: Academic Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Darwin, C. (1872) The expression of the emotions in man and the animals. London: John Murray. [DSS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, R. & Krebs, J. R. (1978) Animal signals: information or manipulation. In: Behavioural ecology, an evolutionary approach, ed. Krebs, J. R. & Davies, N. B.. pp. 282309. Sunderland. Mass.: Sinauer Associates. [SAG, SHV]Google Scholar
DeFries, J. C. & McClearn, G. F. (1970) Social dominance and Darwinian fitness in the laboratory mouse. American Naturalist 104:408–11. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeVore, I. (1963) A comparison of the ecology and behavior of monkeys and apes. In: Classification and human evolution, ed. Washburn, S. L., pp. 301–9. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co. [ISB]Google Scholar
DeVore, I. (196AG Male dominance and mating behavior in baboons. In: Sex and behavior, ed. Beach, F. A., pp. 266–89. New York: John Wiley and Sons. [ISB]Google Scholar
Drews, D. R. & Dickey, C. L. (1977) Observational and competitive measures of dominance in rats. Psychological Record 1:331–38. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drickamer, L. C. (1974) Social rank, observability, and sexual behavior of rhesus monkeys (Macaco mulatto). Journal of Reproductive Fertility 37:117–20. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. & Dunbar, E. P. (1977) Dominance and reproductive success among female gelada baboons. Nature (London) 266:351–52. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Duvall, S. W.; Bernstein, I. S.; & Gordon, T. P. (1976) Paternity and status in a rhesus monkey group. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 47:2531. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eaton, G. G. (1974) Male dominance and aggression in Japanese macaque reproduction. In: Reproductive behavior, ed. Montagna, W. & Sadler, W. A., pp. 287–97. New York: Plenum Press. [GGE]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eaton, G. G. & Resko, J. A. (1974) Plasma testosterone and male dominance in a Japanese macaque (Macaco fuscata) troop compared with repeated measures of testosterone in laboratory males. Hormones and Behavior 5:251–59. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Epsmark, Y. (1974) Dominance relationship as a possible regulating factor in roe deer and reindeer populations. In: The behavior of ungulates and its relation to management, ed. Geist, V. & Walther, F., pp. 787–96. IUCN Publications New Series No. 24. Morges, Switzerland. [DFL]Google Scholar
Errington, P. (1963) Muskrat populations. Ames: Iowa State University Press. [JRK]Google Scholar
Estrada, A. (1977) A study of the social relationships in a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaco arctoides). Bollitin de Estudios de Medicín y Biologie (Mexican) 29:313–94. [ISB]Google Scholar
Etkin, W. (1964) Types of social organization in birds and mammals. In: Social behavior and organization among vertebrates, ed. Etkin, W., pp. 256–97. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Evans, S. H.; Chafetz, M. D.; & Gage, F. H. (1981) Taxonomic abstraction in psychobiology. Submitted for publication. [FHG]Google Scholar
Ewald, P. W. & Rohwer, S. (1980) Age, coloration and dominance in non-breeding hummingbirds: A test of the asymmetry hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 7:273–79. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ewer, R. (1968) Ethology of mammals. London: Logos Press Limited. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fairbanks, L. (1980) Relationships among adult females in captive vervet monkeys: Testing a model of rank-related attractiveness. Animal Behaviour 28:853–59. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farres, A. G. & Haude, R. H. (1976) Dominance testing in rhesus monkeys: Comparison of competitive food getting, competitive avoidance and competitive drinking procedures. Psychological Reports 38:127–34. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fisher, R. M. & Myres, M. T. (1979) A review of factors influencing extralimital occurrences of Clark's Nutcracker in Canada. Canadian Field Naturalist 94:4351. [SAG]Google Scholar
Fretwell, S. D. (1980) Evolution of migration in relation to factors regulating bird numbers. In: Migrant birds in the neotropics, ed. Keast, A. and Morton, E. S., pp. 517–27. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. [SAG]Google Scholar
Friedman, R. C. (1975) Critique of a hypothesis of dominance and sexual behavior. American Journal of Psychiatry 132:967–69. [ISB]Google ScholarPubMed
Gage, F. H. (1978) A multivariate approach to the analysis of social dominance. Behavioral Biology 23:3851. [FHG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gage, F. H. & Lieberman, A. F. (1978) A multivariate analysis of social dominance in children. Aggressive Behavior 4:219–29. [FHG]3.0.CO;2-B>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gamal-el-Din, L. A. (1978) Some aspects of adrenomedullary function in relation to agonistic behaviour in the mouse (Mus musculus). Polytechnic of Central London, Ph.D. Dissertation. [PFB]Google Scholar
Gartlan, J. S. (1968) Structure and function in primate society. Folia Primatologica 8:89120. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gauthreaux, S. A. Jr. (1978) The ecological significance of behavioral dominance. In: Perspectives in ethology, ed. Bateson, P. P. G. and Klopfer, P. H., pp. 1754. New York: Plenum Press. [ISB, SAG]Google Scholar
Gouzoules, H. (1974) Harrassment of sexual behavior in the stumptail macaque, Macaca arctoides. Folia Primatologica 22:208–17. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Green, R.; Whalen, R. E.; Rutley, B.; & Battie, C. (1972) Dominance hierarchy in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Role of the gonads and androgen on genital display and feeding order. Folia Primatologica 18:185–95. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guhl, A. M. & Allee, W. C. (1944) Some measurable effects of social organization in flocks of hens. Physiological Zoology 17:320–47. [EMB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, K. R. L. (1965) Social organization of the old-world monkeys and apes. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 14:265–89. [ISB]Google Scholar
Hall, K. R. L. & DeVore, I. (1965) Baboon social behavior. In: Primate behavior: Field studies of monkeys and apes, ed. De, I. Vore, pp. 53110. New York: Hold, Rinehart and Winston. [ISB]Google Scholar
Hamilton, C. L. (1960) Comparison of two methods of dominance in the monkey. Psychological Reports, 6:247–50. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanby, J. P. (1975) Male-male mounting in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). Animal Behaviour 22:836–49. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harding, R. S. O. (1980) Agonism, ranking, and the social behavior of adult male baboons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 53:203–16. [BS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haude, R. H.; Graber, J. G.; & Farres, A. G. (1976) Visual observing by rhesus monkeys: Some relationships with social dominance rank. Animal Learning Behavior 4:163–66. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hausfater, G. (1975a) Dominance and reproduction in baboons (Papio cynocephalus). Contributions to Primatology 7:1150. [ISB, JRK, BS, RMS]Google Scholar
Hausfater, G. (1975b) Estrous females: Their effects on the social organization of the baboon group. In: Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatotogical Society, ed. Kondo, S., Kawai, M., Ehara, A. & Kawamura, S., pp. 117–27. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Hazlett, B. (1968) Size relations and aggressive behaviour in the hermit crab Clibanarius vitatus. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 25:608–14. [SHV]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1974) The Biological bases of human social behaviour. New York: McGraw Hill. [RB]Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1978) Dominance and role: Two concepts with dual meanings. Journal of Social Biology Structure 1:2738. [ISB, GGE, RAH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hofstadter, D. R. (1980) Chapter II. Meaning and form in mathematics. In: Goedel, Escher, Bach: An eternal golden braid. New York: Vintage Books, Random House.Google Scholar
Immelmann, K. (1975) Ecological significance of imprinting and early learning. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 6:1537. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Itani, J. (1961) The society of Japanese monkeys. Japan Quarterly 8:110. [ISB]Google Scholar
Jay, P. (1965) Field studies. In: Behavior of nonhuman primates, ed. Schrier, A. M., Harlow, H. F. & Stollnitz, F., pp. 525–92. New York: Academic Press. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jolly, A. (1966) Lemur behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [BS]Google ScholarPubMed
Kaplan, J. R. (1976) Patterns of interference and the control of aggression in a group of free-ranging rhesus monkeys. Doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston. [JRK]Google Scholar
Kaufmann, J. H. (1965) A three year study of mating behavior in a free ranging band of rhesus monkeys. Ecology 46:500512. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufmann, J. H. (1967) Social relations of adult males in a free-ranging band of rhesus monkeys. In: Social communication among primates, ed. Altmann, S. A., pp. 7398. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Kaufmann, J. H. (1971) Is territorality definable? In: Behavior and environment, ed. Esser, A. H., pp. 3639. New York and London: Plenum Press. [KJF]Google Scholar
Kawai, M. (1965) On the system of social ranks in a natural troop of Japanese monkeys: I. Basic rank and dependent rank. In: Japanese monkeys, ed. Altmann, S. A., pp. 6686. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [ISB]Google ScholarPubMed
Kawamura, S. (1958) On the rank system in a natural group of Japanese monkeys. Primates 1:1 11–30. [ISB]Google Scholar
Kendall, M. G. & Smith, B. B. (1940) On the method of paired comparison. Biometrika 31:324–45. [PSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ketterson, E. D. (1979) Aggressive behavior in wintering Dark-eyed Juncos: Determinants of dominance and their possible relation to geographic variation in sex ratio. Wilson Bulletin 91:371–83. [SAG]Google Scholar
Ketterson, E. D. & Nolan, V. Jr. (1979) Seasonal, annual, and geographic variation in sex ratio of wintering populations of Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis). Auk 96:532–36. [SAG]Google Scholar
Keverne, E. B.; Leonard, R. A.; Scruton, D. M.; & Young, S. K. (1978) Visual monitoring in social groups of talapoin monkeys (Miopithecus talapoin). Animal Behaviour 26:933–44. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kikkawa, J. (1980) Winter survival in relation to dominance classes among Silvereyes Zosterops lateralis chlorocephala of Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef. Ibis 122:437572. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koford, C. (1966) Population changes in rhesus monkeys: Cayo Santiago, 1960–1964. Tulane Studies in Zoology 13:17. [JRK]Google Scholar
Krebs, C. J. (1978) Aggression, dispersal and cyclic changes in populations of small rodents. In: Aggression, dominance, and individual spacing, ed. Krames, L., Pliner, P., and Alloway, T.. New York: Plenum. [RCB]Google Scholar
Krebs, J. R. & Perrins, C. M. (1978) Behaviour and population regulation in the Great Tit (Parus major). In: Population control by social behaviour, ed. Ebling, F. J. & Stoddart, D. M., pp. 2347. London: Praeger. [SAG]Google Scholar
Kreveld, D. van. (1970) A selective review of dominance-subordination relations in animals. Genetic Psychology Monographs 81:143–73. [DKC]Google Scholar
Kummer, H. (1967) Dimensions of a comparative biology of primate groups. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 27:357–66. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kummer, H. (1968) Social organization of hamadryas baboons. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [RAH]Google Scholar
Landau, H. G. (1951) On dominance relations and the structure of animal societies: I. Effect of inherent characteristics. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 13:119. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LeBoeuf, B. (1974) Male-male competition and reproductive success in elephant seals. American Zoologist 14:163–76. [EMB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leonard, J. W. (1979) A strategy approach to the study of primate dominance behaviour. Behavioural Processes 4:155–72. [ISB, KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leshner, A. I. & Candland, D. K. (1972) Endocrine effects of grouping and dominance rank in squirrel monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 8:441–45. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leyhausen, P. (1971) Dominance and territoriality as complemented in mammalian social structure. In: Behavior and environment, ed. Esser, A. H., pp. 2333. New York and London: Plenum Press. [KJF]Google Scholar
Lindzey, G.; Winston, H.; & Manosevitz, M. (1961) Social dominance in inbred mouse strains. Nature (London) 191:474–76. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lore, R. & Flannelly, K. (1977) Rat Societies. Scientific American 236:106–15. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lott, D. F. (1979) Dominance relations and breeding rate in mature male American bison. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 49:418–32. [DFL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mackintosh, J. H. (1970) Territory formation by laboratory mice. Animal Behaviour 18:177–83. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mainardi, D.; Mainardi, M.; Parmigiani, S.; & Pasquali, A. (1977) Relationship between aggressiveness due to isolation and social status in the house mouse. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei 63:120–25. [PFB]Google Scholar
Manogue, K.; Leshner, A. I.; & Candland, D. K. (1975) Dominance status and adrenocortical reactivity to stress in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Primates 16:457–63. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marler, P. (1969) Colobus guereza: Territoriality and group composition. Science 163:9395. [DSS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maroney, R. & Leary, R. (1957) A failure to condition submission in monkeys. Psychological Reports 3:472. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maslow, A. H. (1936) III. A theory of sexual behavior in infrahuman primates. Journal of Genetic Psychology 48:310–36. [ISB]Google Scholar
Maslow, A. H. (1940) Dominance quality and social behavior in infrahuman primates. Journal of Social Psychology 11:313–24. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxim, P. E. (1972) Behavioral Effects of telestimulating hypothalamic reinforcement sites in freely moving rhesus monkeys. Brain Research 42:243–62. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxim, P. E.An interval scale for studying and quantifying social relations in pairs of rhesus monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 105:123–47. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxim, P. E. (1977) Self-stimulation of a hypothalamic site in response to tension or fear. Physiology and Behavior 18:197201. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxim, P. E. (1978a) Quantification of social behavior in pigtail monkeys. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes 4:5067. [ISB, KJF, PEM]Google Scholar
Maxim, P. E. (1978b) Quantitative analysis of small group interaction in rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 48:283–95. [ISB, KJF, PEM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maxim, P. E. (1981) Contexts and messages in macaque social communication. In press. [PEM]Google Scholar
Maxim, P. E. & Storrie, M. (1979) Ultradian barpressing for rewarding brain stimulation in rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 22:683–87. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maxim, P. E; Bowden, D. M.; & Sackett, G. P. (1976) Ultradian rhythms of solitary and social behavior in rhesus monkeys. Physiology and Behavior 17:337–44. [PEM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
May, R. M. (1971) Some mathematical remarks on the paradox of voting. Behavioral Science 16:143–51. [PSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. (1974) The theory of games and the evolution of animal conflicts. Journal of Theoretical Biology 47:209–21. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. & Parker, G. A. (1976) The logic of asymmetric contests. Animal Behaviour 24:159–75. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maynard Smith, J. & Price, G. R. (1973) The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246:1518. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mazur, A. (1973) A cross-species comparison of status in small established groups. American Sociological Review 38:513–30. [ISB, KJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mazur, A. (1976) Effects of testosterone on status in primate groups. Folia Primatologica 26:214–26. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McKenna, J. J. (1974) Coming of age in Hanuman langur society. Zoonooz 47:1218. [ISB]Google Scholar
Michael, R. P.; Wilson, M.; & Plant, T. M. (1973) Sexual behaviour of male primates and the role of testosterone. In: Comparative Ecology and Behaviour of Primates, ed. Michael, R. P. & Crook, J. H., pp. 236313London: Academic Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Miller, N. E. (1959) Liberalization of basic S-R concepts. In: Psychology, a Study of a Science, Study 1, Vol. 2, ed. Koch, S.. New York: McGraw-Hill. [RAH]Google Scholar
Miller, R. E. & Banks, J. H. Jr. (1962) The determination of social dominance in monkeys by a competitive avoidance method. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology 55:137–41. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mori, A. (1977) Social organization of provisioned Japanese monkey troops which have extraordinary large population sizes. Journal Anthropology and Sociology, Nippon. 85:325–45. [ISB]Google Scholar
Morris, M. D. & McMahan, C. A. (1980) A note on the dominance hierarchy index. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology. 42:739–46. [CAB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morse, D. H. (1974) Niche breadth as a function of social dominance. American Naturalist 109:818–30. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murphy, J. V.; Miller, R. E.; & Mirsky, I. A. (1955) Interanimal conditioning in the monkey. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 48:211–14. [KJF]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Niemi, R. G. & Riker, W. H. (1976) The choice of voting systems. Scientific American 234(6):2127. [PSP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nowlis, V. (1941) The relation of degree of hunger to competitive interaction in chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology 32:91115. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oates, J. (1977) The social life of a black-and-white colobus monkey, Colobus guereza. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 45:160. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Packer, C. (1979) Male dominance and reproductive activity in Papio anubis. Animal Behaviour 37:3745. [ISB, BS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, G. A. (1974) Assessment strategy and the evolution of fighting behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology 47:223–43. [SAG]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parmigiani, S. & Pasquali, A. (1979) Aggressive responses of isolated mice towards opponents of differing social status. Bolletino Zoologico 46:4150. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parmigiani, S.; Mainardi, D.; Mainardi, M.; & Pasquali, A. (1979) A research on the supposed homology between isolated and dominant males in the house mouse. Monitore zoologico italiano 13:211–13. [PFB]Google Scholar
Parmigiani, S.; Mainardi, D.; & Pasquali, A. (1981) A comparison of aggressiveness in dominant, subordinate and isolated house mice. In: The biology of aggression, ed. Brain, P. F. & Benton, D.. Alphen aan der Rijn: Noord-hoff/Sijthoff. [PFB]Google Scholar
Paterson, J. D. (1973) Ecologically different patterns of aggressive and sexual behavior in two troops of Ugandan baboons, Papio anubis. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 38:641–47. [ISB, SAG]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Petraitis, P. S. (1979) Competitive networks and measures of intransitivity. American Naturalist 114:921–25. (GGE]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ploog, D. W.; Blitz, J.; & Ploog, F. (1963) Studies on social and sexual behavior of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Folia Primatologia 1:2966. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plutchik, R. (1963) Opcrationism as methodology. Behavioral Science 8:234–41. [RP]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plutchik, R. (1974) Foundations of experimental research. 2d ed.New York: Harper and Row. [RP]Google Scholar
Plutchik, R. (1980a) Emotion: A psychocvolutionary synthesis. New York: Harper and Row. [RP]Google Scholar
Plutchik, R. (1980b) A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In: Theories of Emotion, ed. Plutchik, R. & Kellerman, H.. New York: Academic Press. [RP]Google Scholar
Plutchik, R.; Climent, C.; & Ervin, F. (1976) Research strategies for the study of human violence. In: Issues in brain/behavior control, ed. Smith, W. L. & Kling, A.. New York: Spectrum. [RP]Google Scholar
Poirier, F. E. (1970) Dominance structure of the Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii) of South India. Folia Primatologica 12:161–86. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Popp, J. L. & DeVore, I. (1979) Aggressive competition and social dominance theory. In: Perspectives on human evolution. Vol. 6: Behavior of great apes. ed. Hamburg, D. A. & Goodall, J., pp. 316–38. Menlo Park, Calif.Staples Press/W.A. Benjamin Publishing Company. [ISB]Google Scholar
Reinhardt, V. (1973) Beiträge zur sozialen Rangordnung und Melkordnung bei Kühen. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 32:281–92. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Richards, S. M. (197–1) The concept of dominance and methods of assessment. Animal Behaviour 22:914–30. [ISB, DKC, KJF, BS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boonwal, M. L. (1976) Dominance behavior in South Asian primates. Journal of Scientific Industrial Research 35:244–60. [ISB]Google Scholar
Rose, R. M; Bernstein, I. S.; & Holaday, J. W. (1971) Plasma testosterone, dominance rank and aggressive behavior in a group of male rhesus monkeys. Nature 231:366–68. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, T. E. (1966) Hierarchy in the organization of a captive baboon group. Animal Behaviour 14:430–43. [ISB]Google Scholar
Howell, T. E. (1972) Female reproductive cycles and social behavior in primates. In: Advances in the study of behavior, vol. 4, ed. Lehrman, D. S., Hinde, R. A. & Shaw, E., pp. 69105. New York: Academic Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Howell, T. E. (1973) The social behavior of monkeys. Baltimore, Md.: Penguin Books. [ISB, PEM]Google Scholar
Howell, T. E. (1974) The concept of social dominance. Behavioral Biology 11:131–54. [ISB, DKC. KJF, BS, SHV]Google Scholar
Sade, D. S. (1966) Ontogeny of social relations in a group of free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaco mulatta Zimmerman). Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Berkeley. [JRK]Google Scholar
Sade, D. S. (1967) Determinants of dominance in a group of free-ranging rhesus monkeys. In: Social communication among primates, ed. Altmann, S. A., pp. 99114. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [ISB, KJF, JRK]Google Scholar
Sade, D. S. (1978) Population biology of free-ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico. In: Biosocial Mechanisms of Population Regulation, ed. Cohen, M. N., Malpass, R. S., & Klein, H. C., pp. 171–87. New Haven: Yale University Press. [JRK]Google Scholar
Sade, D.; Cushing, K.; Cushing, P.; Dunaif, J.; Figueroa, A.; Kaplan, J. R.; Lauer, C.; Rhodes, D.; & Schneider, J. (1976) Population dynamics in relation to social structure on Cayo Santiago. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 20:253– 62. [JRK]Google Scholar
Sassenrath, E. (1970) Increased adrenal responsiveness related to social stress in rhesus monkeys. Hormones and Behavior 1:283–98. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schein, M. W., ed. (1975) Social hierarchy and dominance. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. [EMB]Google Scholar
Schein, M. W. & Fohrman, M. H. (1955) Social dominance relationships in a herd of dairy cattle. British Journal of Animal Behaviour 3:4555. [CAB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schjelderup-Ebbe, T. (1922) Beiträge zur Sozialpsychologie des Haushuhns. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 88:225–52. [EMB, SAG]Google Scholar
Schjelderup-Ebbe, T. (1935) Social behavior of birds. In: A handbook of social psychology, ed., Murchison, C. A., pp. 947–72. Worcester, Mass.: Clark University Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Scott, J. P. (1948) Dominance and the frustration-aggression hypothesis. Physiological Zoology 21:31 -39. [ DKC]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Scott, J. P. (1971) Theoretical issues concerning the origin and causes of fighting. In: The physiology of aggression and defeat, ed. Eleftheriou, B. E. & Scott, J. P., pp. 1141. New York: Plenum Press. [SHV]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seyfarth, R. M. (1976) Social relationships among adult female baboons. Animal Behaviour 24:917–38. [ISB, GGE, RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seyfarth, R. M. (1977) A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys. Journal of Theoretical Biology 65:671–98. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Seyfarth, R. M. (1980) The distribution of grooming and related behaviors among adult female vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 28:798813. [GGE, RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smuts, B. (1979) Adult male social interactions and consort success among olive baboons. Unpublished manuscript. [BS]Google Scholar
Smuts, B. (1980) Effects on social behavior of loss of high rank in wild adult female baboons (Papio anubis). Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Animal Behavior Society, Fort Collins, Colorado, 06 9–13, 1980. [BS]Google Scholar
Smuts, B. (In prep.) Social relationships among adult male and female baboons (Papio anubis). Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University. [BS]Google Scholar
Stammbach, E. (1978) On social differentiation in groups of captive female hamadryas baboons. Behaviour 67:322–38. [ISB, RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stephenson, G. R. (1975) Social structure of mating activity in Japanese macaques. In: Proceedings from the Symposia of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatology Society, ed. Kondo, S., Kawai, M., Ehara, A. & Kawamura, S., pp. 63115. Tokyo: Japan Science Press. [ISB]Google Scholar
Strayer, F. F. & Harris, P. J.Social cohesion among captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 5:93110. [DKC]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Strum, S. C. (In press) Agonistic dominance in male baboons: An alternative view. Internation Journal of Primatology. [BS]Google Scholar
Swanson, H. H. (1980) Social and hormonal influences and scent marking in the Mongolian gerbil. Physiology and Behavior 24:839–42. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Swanson, H. H. & Lockley, M. R. (1978) Population growth and social structure in confined colonies of Mongolian gerbils: Scent gland size and marking behaviour as indices of social status. Aggressive Behavior 4:5789. [PFB]3.0.CO;2-8>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Syme, G. J. (1974) Competitive orders as measures of social dominance. Animal Behaviour 22:931–40. [ISB, DKC, KJF]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taub, D. M. (1980) Female choice and mating strategies among wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus L.). In: The macaques: Studies in ecology, behavior and evolution, ed. Lindburg, D. L., pp. 287394. New York: Van Nostrand, Reinhold. [ISB]Google Scholar
Thor, D. H. (1976) Intraspecifie aggression in rats and dimensions of enclosure. Psychological Reports 38:1253–54. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thor, D. H. & Flannelly, K. J. (1976) Exposure to females as a variable in territorial aggression of the laboratory rat. Psychological Reports 38:749–50. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thurmond, J. B. (1975) Technique for producing and measuring territorial aggression using laboratory mice. Physiology and Behavior 14:879–81. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wade, M. J. & McCawley, D. E. (1980) Group selection: The phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of small populations. Evolution 34:799812. [DSS]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wagner, G. C.; Beauving, L. G.; & Hutchinson, R. (1979) Androgen dependency of aggressive target-biting and paired fighting in male mice. Physiology and Behavior 22:4346. [PFB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warden, C. J. & Galt, W. (1943) Study of cooperation, dominance, grooming and other social factors in monkeys. Journal of Genetic Psychology 63:213–33. [ISB]Google Scholar
Warren, J. M. & Maroney, R. J. (1958) Competitive social interaction between monkeys. Journal of Social Psychology 48:223–33. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Waser, P. M. and Wiley, R. H. (1980) Mechanisms and evolution of spacing in animals. In: Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol. 3, ed. Marler, P. & Vandenbergh, J. G., pp. 159223. New York: Plenum Press. [SAG]Google Scholar
Watson, A. & Moss, R. (1979) Population cycles in the Tetraonidae. Ornis Fennica 56:87109. [SAG]Google Scholar
Wiley, R. Haven & Hartnett, S. A. (1980) Mechanisms of spacing in groups of juncos: Measurement of behavioral tendencies in social situations. Animal Behaviour 28:1005–16. [RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willhoite, F. H. Jr. (1976) Primates and political authority: A biobehavioral perspective. American Political Science Review 70:1110–26. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilson, D. S. (1979) The natural selection of populations and communities. Menlo Park: Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co. [DSS]Google Scholar
Wilson, E. O. (1975) Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. [RP]Google Scholar
Wilson, M.; Gordon, T. P.; & Bernstein, I. S. (1978) Timing of births and reproductive success in rhesus monkey social groups. Journal of Medical Primatology 7:202–12. [JRK]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Winter, P. & Ploog, D. (1967) Social organization and communication of squirrel monkeys in captivity. In: Progress in Primatology, pp. 263–71. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. [ISB]Google Scholar
Wrangham, R. W. (1981, in press) Drinking competition in vervet monkeys. Animal Behaviour 29: [RMS]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal dispersion in relation to social behavior. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. [JRK]Google Scholar
Yerkes, R. M. (1940) Social behavior of chimpanzees. Dominance between mates, in relation to sex status. Journal of Comparative Psychology 30:147–86. [ISB]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
376
Cited by