Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-67wsf Total loading time: 0.579 Render date: 2022-05-24T16:36:32.786Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The cognitive science of souls: Clarifications and extensions of the evolutionary model

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 December 2006

Jesse M. Bering*
Affiliation:
Institute of Cognition and Culture, Queen's University Belfast, BelfastBT7 1NN, United Kingdomqub.ac.uk/icchttp://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/InstituteofCognitionCulture/Staff/JesseMBering/

Abstract:

The commentaries are a promising sign that a research programme on the cognitive science of souls will continue to move toward empirical and theoretical rigor. Most of the commentators agree that beliefs in personal immortality, in the intelligent design of souls, and in the symbolic meaning of natural events can provide new insight into human social evolution. In this response I clarify and extend the evolutionary model, further emphasizing the adaptiveness of the cognitive system that underlies these beliefs.

Type
Author's Response
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2006

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aarts, H., Custers, R. & Wegner, D. M. (2005) On the inference of personal authorship: Enhancing experienced agency by priming effect information. Consciousness and Cognition 14:439–58. [JP]Google Scholar
Abramowitz, J., Huppert, J., Cohen, A. B., Cahill, S. P. & Tolin, D. F. (2002) Religious obsessions and compulsions in a non-clinical sample: The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity. Behaviour Research and Therapy 40:825–38. [ABC]Google Scholar
Aichhorn, M., Perner, J., Kronbichler, M., Staffen, W. & Ladurner, G. (2006) Do visual perspective tasks need theory of mind? NeuroImage 30:1059–68. [DK]Google Scholar
Alcorta, C. & Sosis, R. (2005) Ritual, emotion, and sacred symbols: The evolution of religion as an adaptive complex. Human Nature 16:323–59. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Alexander, R. (1987) The biology of moral systems. Aldine de Gruyter. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Alvarado, C. S. (1992) The psychological approach to out-of-body experiences: A review of early and modern developments. Journal of Psychology 126:237–50. [DK]Google Scholar
Alvarado, C. S. (2000) Out-of-body experiences. In: Varieties of anomalous experiences, ed. Cardena, E., Lynn, S. J. & Krippner, S., pp. 183218. American Psychological Association. [DK]Google Scholar
Alvarado, K. A., Templer, D. I., Bresler, C. & Thomas-Dobson, S. (1995) The relationship of religious variables to death depression and death anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychology 51:202–04. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Angell, J. R. (1911) Philosophical and psychological usages of the terms mind, consciousness, and soul. Psychological Bulletin 8:846–47. [MF]Google Scholar
Anonymous (1939) Wolanda Hindia: Zendingstijdschrift voor jongeren, vol. 13. Liebenswürdige Wilden. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Argyle, M. (2000) Psychology and religion: An introduction. Routledge. [MF]Google Scholar
Arzy, S., Idel, M., Landis, T. & Blanke, O. (2005) Speaking with oneself: Autoscopic phenomena in writings from the ecstatic Kabbalah. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12:429. [DK]Google Scholar
Astuti, R. (forthcoming a) Ancestors and the afterlife. In: The salvaged mind: Social anthropology, religion, and the cognitive sciences, ed. Whitehouse, H. & Laidlaw, J.. Carolina Academic Press. [aJMB, PLH, HW]Google Scholar
Astuti, R. (forthcoming b) What happens after death? In: Questions of Anthropology, eds. Astuti, R., Parry, J. P. & Stafford, C.. Berg. [PLH]Google Scholar
Astuti, R. & Harris, P. L. (submitted) Understanding mortality and the life of the ancestors in rural Madagascar. [rJMB, PLH]Google Scholar
Atran, S. (2002) In gods we trust: The evolutionary landscape of religion. Oxford University Press. [aJMB, IP, LES]Google Scholar
Atran, S. (2003) Genesis of suicide terrorism. Science 299:1534–39. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Atran, S. & Norenzayan, A. (2004) Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(6):713–70. [arJMB, ABC, GEN]Google Scholar
Axelrod, R. (1984/1990) The evolution of co-operation. Penguin. [IP]Google Scholar
Bainbridge, W. S. (1992) Crime, delinquency, and religion. In: Religion and mental health, ed. Schumaker, J. F., pp. 199210. Oxford University Press. [WSB]Google Scholar
Bainbridge, W. S. (2002) The endtime family: Children of God. State University of New York Press. [WSB]Google Scholar
Bainbridge, W. S. (2006) God from the machine: Artificial intelligence models of religious cognition. AltaMira. [WSB]Google Scholar
Bainbridge, W. S. (2006) (in press) The secular abyss. Lexington. [WSB]Google Scholar
Baldwin, D. A. & Moses, L. S. (1996) The ontogeny of social information gathering. Child Development 67:1915–39. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Baldwin, J. M. (1903) Mind and body, from the genetic point of view. Psychological Review 10:225–47. [MF]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (1999) The evolution of a theory of mind. In: The descent of mind: Psychological perspectives on hominid evolution, ed. Corballis, M. C. & Lea, S. E. G.. Oxford University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S. (2000) Theory ofmind and autism: A fifteen-year review. In: Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience, ed. Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D. J., pp. 320. Oxford University Press. [SF]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H. & Cohen, D. J., eds. (2000) Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive neuroscience, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. [SF]Google Scholar
Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S. & Joliffe, T. (1997) Is there a “language of the eyes”? Evidence from normal adults and adults with autism or Asperger syndrome. Visual Cognition 4:311–41. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Barrett, D. B., Johnson, T. M. & Crossing, P. F. (2006) In: Britannica book of the year, 2006. Retrieved June 4, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9432655 [KRL]Google Scholar
Barrett, H. C. & Behne, T. (2005) Children's understanding of death as the cessation of agency: A test using sleep versus death. Cognition 96:93108. [arJMB, EME]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L. (2000) Exploring the natural foundations of religion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:2934. [arJMB, GEN]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L. (2003) Epidemiological and nativist accounts in the cognitive study of culture: A commentary on Pyysia¨inen's innate fear of Bering's ghosts. Journal of Cognition and Culture 3(3):226–32. [IP]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L. (2004) Why would anyone believe in God? AltaMira Press. [aJMB, HW]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L. & Johnson, A. H. (2003) The role of control in attributing intentional agency to inanimate objects. Journal of Cognition and Culture 3:208–17. [BMH]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L. & Keil, F. (1996) Conceptualizing a nonnatural entity: Anthropomorphism in God concepts. Cognitive Psychology 31:219–47. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Barrett, J. L., Richert, R. & Driesenga, A. (2001) God's beliefs versus mother’s: The development of nonhuman agent concepts. Child Development 72:5065. [aJMB, EME]Google Scholar
Bartsch, K. & Wellman, H. M. (1995) Children talk about the mind. Oxford University Press. [DE]Google Scholar
Bateson, M., Nettle, D. & Roberts, G. (2006) Cues of being watched enhance cooperation in a real-world setting. Biology Letters (Online publication: DOI:10.1098/rsbl.2006.0509). [rJMB]Google Scholar
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenhauer, C. & Vohs, K. D. (2001) Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology 5:323–70. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Becker, E. (1971) The birth and death of meaning. Free Press. [JG]Google Scholar
Becker, E. (1973) The denial of death. Free Press. [JG]Google Scholar
Beit-Hallahmi, B. (2006) Atheists: A psychological profile. In: Cambridge companion to atheism, ed. Martin, M. Cambridge University Press. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Beit-Hallahmi, B. & Argyle, M. (1997) The psychology of religious behaviour, belief and experience. Routledge. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Bemmer, J. M. (2002) The rise and fall of the afterlife. Routledge. [MF]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. (2002a) Intuitive conceptions of dead agents’ minds: The natural foundations of afterlife beliefs as phenomenological boundary. Journal of Cognition and Culture 2(4):263308. [arJMB, BMH, KRL, IP]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. (2002b) The existential theory of mind. Review of General Psychology 6:324. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. (2003a) Religious concepts are probably epiphenomena: A reply to Pyysiäinen, Boyer, and Barrett. Journal of Cognition and Culture 3(3):244–54. [IP]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. (2003b) Towards a cognitive theory of existential meaning. New Ideas in Psychology 21:101–20. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. (2005) The evolutionary history of an illusion: Religious causal beliefs in children and adults. In: Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child development, ed. Ellis, B. & Bjorklund, D.. Guilford Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. & Bjorklund, D. F. (2004) The natural emergence of reasoning about the afterlife as a developmental regularity. Developmental Psychology 40:217–33. [arJMB, EME, BMH, SN, PR]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. & Bjorklund, D. F. (2004) (in press) The serpent's gift: Evolutionary psychology and consciousness. In: Cambridge handbook of consciousness, ed. Zelazo, P. D., Moscovitch, M., & Thompson, E.. Cambridge University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M., Hernández-Blasi, C. & Bjorklund, D. F. (2005a) The development of ‘afterlife’ beliefs in secularly and religiously schooled children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 23:587607. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M., McLeod, K. A. & Shackelford, T. K. (2005b) Reasoning about dead agents reveals possible adaptive trends. Human Nature 16:360–81. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. & Johnson, D. D. P. (2005) “O Lord … you perceive my thoughts from afar”: Recursiveness and the evolution of supernatural agency. Journal of Cognition and Culture 5:118–42. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. & Parker, B. D. (in press) Children's attributions of intentions to an invisible agent. Developmental Psychology. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bering, J. M. & Shackelford, T. K. (2004) The causal role of consciousness: A conceptual addendum to human evolutionary psychology. Review of General Psychology 8:227–48. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Berrios, G. E. & Luque, R. (1995) Cotard's syndrome: Analysis of 100 cases. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 91:185–88. [DC]Google Scholar
Bjorklund, D. F. & Pellegrini, A. D. (2002) The origins of human nature: Evolutionary developmental psychology. American Psychological Association. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Blackmore, S. J. (1982) Beyond the body: An investigation of out-of-body experiences. Heinemann. [DK]Google Scholar
Blanchard, E. (n.d.) Thunder gods and kamikazes: The suicide air offenses of World War II. The War Times Journal. Retrieved November 8, 2004, from http://www.wtj.com/articles/kamikaze/. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Blanke, O. & Arzy, S. (2005) The out-of-body experience: Disturbed self-processing at the temporo-parietal junction. Neuroscientist 11:1624. [DK]Google Scholar
Blanke, O., Landis, T., Spinelli, L. & Seeck, M. (2004) Out-of-body experience and autoscopy of neurological origin. Brain 127:243–58. [DK]Google Scholar
Blanke, O. & Mohr, C. (2005) Out-of-body experience, heautoscopy, and autoscopic hallucination of neurological origin: Implications for neurocognitive mechanisms of corporeal awareness and self-consciousness. Brain Research Reviews 50:184–99. [DK]Google Scholar
Blanke, O., Mohr, C., Michel, C. M., Pascual-Leon, A., Brugger, P., Seeck, M., Landis, T. & Thut, G. (2005) Linking out-of-body experience and self processing to mental own-body imagery at the temporoparietal junction. Journal of Neuroscience 25:550–57. [DK]Google Scholar
Blanke, O., Ortigue, S., Landis, T. & Seeck, M. (2002) Stimulating illusory own-body perceptions. Nature 419:269–70. [DK]Google Scholar
Bloch, M. (2002) Are religious beliefs counter intuitive? In: Radical interpretation in religion, ed. Frankenberry, N. Cambridge University Press. [MB]Google Scholar
Blok, S., Newman, G. & Rips, L. J. (2005) Individuals and their concepts. In: Categorization inside and outside the lab, ed. Ahn, W.-K., Goldstone, R. L., Love, B. C., Markman, A. B. & Wolff, P., pp. 127–49. American Psychological Association. [GEN]Google Scholar
Bloom, P. (2004) Descartes’ baby: How the science of child development explains what makes us human. Basic Books. [aJMB, NJB, KRL, PR]Google Scholar
Blumer, H. (1969) Symbolic interactionism. Prentice-Hall. [WSB]Google Scholar
Bourgeois, M. (1969) Le syndrome de Cotard aujourd’hui. Annales Médico-Psychologiques 127:534–44. [DC]Google Scholar
Bowlby, J. (1973) Attachment and loss. Hogarth. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2000) Functional origins of religious concepts: Conceptual and strategic selection in evolved minds. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 6:195214. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2001) Religion explained: The evolutionary origins of religious thought. Basic Books. [arJMB, PB, IP, HW]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2003a) Are ghost concepts “intuitive,” “endemic,” and “innate?” Journal of Cognition and Culture 3(3):233–43. [aJMB, IP]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2003b) Religious thought and behaviour as by-products of brain function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7(3):119–24. [PB, IP]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2004) Religion, evolution, and cognition. A review of S. Atran's In gods we trust, and D. S. Wilson's Darwin's Cathedral. Current Anthropology 45(3):430–33. [IP]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. (2005) A reductionistic model of distinct modes of religious transmission. In: Mind and religion: Psychological and cognitive foundations of religiosity, ed. Whitehouse, H. & McCauley, R. N.. AltaMira Press. [IP]Google Scholar
Boyer, P. & Barrett, H. C. (2005) Domain-specificity and intuitive ontology. In: The handbook of evolutionary psychology, ed. Buss, J. Wiley. [IP]Google Scholar
Brugger, P. (2006) From phantom limb to phantom body: Varieties of extracorporeal awareness. In: Human body perception from the inside out, ed. Knoblich, G., Thornton, I. M., Grosjean, M. & Shiffrar, M., pp. 171210. Oxford University Press. [DK]Google Scholar
Bruner, J. (1990) Acts of meaning. Harvard University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bruner, J. (2001) Self-making and world-making. In: Narrative and identity: Studies in autobiography, self, and culture, ed. Brockmeier, J. & Carbaugh, D.. John Benjamins. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bulbulia, J. (2004) Area review: The cognitive and evolutionary psychology of religion. Biology and Philosophy 19:655–86. [aJMB, IP]Google Scholar
Bulbulia, J. (2005) Are there any religions? Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 17:71100. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Bullot, N. J. & Rysiew, P. (2005) Tracking objects, tracking agents. Interdisciplines, “Referring to Objects.” Available at: http://www.interdisciplines.org/objects/papers/5. [NJB]Google Scholar
Burnham, T. & Hare, B. (in press) Engineering human cooperation: Does involuntary neural activation increase public goods contributions? Human Nature. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Campbell, J. (2002) Reference and consciousness. Clarendon Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Camus, A. (1943/1991) The myth of Sisyphus, and other essays. Vintage. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Carey, S. & Xu, F. (2001) Infant's knowledge of objects: Beyond object files and object tracking. Cognition 80:179213. [NJB]Google Scholar
Carroll, S. B. (2006) Endless forms most beautiful: The new science of Evo Devo and the making of the animal kingdom. Norton. [EME]Google Scholar
Castelli, F., Frith, C., Happž, F. & Frith, U. (2002) Autism, Asperger syndrome and brain mechanisms for the attribution of mental states to animated shapes. Brain 125:1839–49. [SF]Google Scholar
Childers, P. & Wimmer, M. (1971) The concept of death in early childhood. Child Development 42:12931301. [KRL]Google Scholar
Clark, A. (2000) A theory of sentience. Clarendon Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Clark, T. W. (1994) Death, nothingness, and subjectivity. The Humanist 54:1520. [aJMB]Google Scholar
CNN March 1997 interview with Osama bin Laden. Retrieved November 7, 2004 from http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/binladen/binladenintvw-cnn.pdf. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Cohen, A. B. & Hall, D. E. (submitted) Social support, existential beliefs, and well-being among Catholic, Jewish, and Protestant older adults. [ABC]Google Scholar
Cohen, A. B., Malka, A., Rozin, P. & Cherfas, L. (2006) Religion and unforgivable offenses. Journal of Personality 74:85118. [ABC]Google Scholar
Cohen, A. B., Pierce, J. D. Jr.,, Meade, R., Chambers, J., Gorvine, B. J. & Koenig, H. G. (2005) Intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity, belief in the afterlife, death anxiety, and life satisfaction in young Catholic and Protestant adults. Journal of Research in Personality 39:307–24. [ABC]Google Scholar
Cohen, A. B., Siegel, J. I. & Rozin, P. (2003) Faith versus practice: Different bases for religiosity judgments by Jews and Protestants. European Journal of Social Psychology 33:287–95. [ABC]Google Scholar
Cohen, D., Cottias, C. & Basquin, M. (1997) Cotard's syndrome in a 15-year-old girl. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 95:164–65. [DC]Google Scholar
Colwell, J., Schröder, S. & Sladen, D. (2000) The ability to detect unseen staring: A literature review and empirical tests. British Journal of Psychology 91:7185. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Consoli, A., Soultanian, C., Tanguy, M. L., Laurent, C., Perisse, D., Luque, R., Berrios, G. & Cohen, D. (in press) Cotard's syndrome in adolescents and young adults is associated with an increased risk of bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders. [DC]Google Scholar
Crick, F. (1994) The astonishing hypothesis: The scientific search for the soul. Charles Scribner’s. [DE]Google Scholar
Crook, J. H. & Crook, S. J. (1988) Tibetan polyandry: Problems of adaptation and fitness. In: Human reproductive behavior: A Darwinian perspective, ed. Betzig, L., Borgerhoff-Mulder, M. & Turke, P., pp. 97114. Cambridge University Press. [ABC]Google Scholar
Daly, M. & Wilson, M. (1994). Evolutionary psychology of male violence. In: Male violence, ed. Archer, J. Routledge. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Davis, D. G. & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001) Loss and meaning: How do people make sense of loss? American Behavioral Scientist 44:726–41. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Davis, N. Z. (1977) Ghosts, kin, and progeny: Some features of family life in early modern France. Daedalus 106:87114. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dawkins, R. (2003) Viruses of the mind. In: A devil's chaplain: Selected essays by Richard Dawkins, ed. Menon, L., pp. 128–45. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. [BMH]Google Scholar
de Unamuno, M. (1912/1954) Tragic sense of life. Dover. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dechesne, M., Pyszczynski, T., Arndt, J., Ransom, S., Sheldon, K. M., van Knippenberg, A., & Janssen, J. (2003) Literal and symbolic immortality: The effect of evidence of literal immortality on self-esteem striving in response to mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84:722–37. [aJMB, JG]Google Scholar
Defeyter, M. A. & German, T. P. (2003) Acquiring an understanding of design: Evidence from children's insight problem solving. Cognition 89:133–55. [aJMB, EME]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1991) Consciousness explained. Little, Brown. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1995) Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings of life. Simon & Schuster. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (1996) Kinds of minds. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dennett, D. C. (2006) Breaking the spell: Religion as a natural phenomenon. Viking. [DK]Google Scholar
Deridder, R., Hendriks, E., Zani, B., Pepitone, A. & Saffioti, L. (1999) Additional cross-cultural evidence on the selective usage of nonmaterial beliefs in explaining life events. European Journal of Social Psychology 29:435–42. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Diener, E., Fraser, S., Beaman, A. & Kelman, R. (1976) Effects of deindividuation variables on stealing among Halloween trick-or-treaters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33:178–83. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Dijksterhuis, A., Preston, J., Wegner, D. M. & Aarts, H. (under review) Effects of subliminal priming of natural and supernatural agents on judgments of authorship. [JP]Google Scholar
Dobzhansky, T. (1967) The biology of ultimate concern. New American Library. [DE]Google Scholar
Donnellan, K. S. (1974) Speaking of nothing. The Philosophical Review 83(1):331. [NJB]Google Scholar
Dostoyevsky, F. (1877/1949) Diary of a writer. Charles Scribner’s. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. (1993) Coevolution of neocortical size, group size and language in humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16:681735. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. (2004) The human story: A new history of mankind's evolution. Faber and Faber. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Dunbar, R. I. M. & Spoors, M. (1995) Social networks, support cliques, and kinship. Human Nature 6:273–90. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Durant, W. & Durant, A. (1968) Lessons of history. Simon & Schuster. [ABC]Google Scholar
Ellison, C. (1991) Religious involvement and subjective well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 32:8099. [KRL]Google Scholar
Ellison, P., Govern, J., Petri, H. & Figler, M. (1995) Anonymity and aggressive driving behaviour: A field study. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 10:265–72. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Emler, N. (1994) Gossip, reputation, and social adaptation. In: Good gossip, ed. Ben-Ze’ev, A.. University of Kansas Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Epley, N., Morewedge, C. K. & Keysar, B. (2004) Perspective taking in children and adults: Equivalent egocentrism but differential correction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40:760–68. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Estes, D. (1994) Young children's understanding of the mind: Imagery, introspection, and some implications. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 15:529–48. [DE]Google Scholar
Estes, D. (1998) Young children's awareness of their mental activity. Child Development 69:1345–60. [DE]Google Scholar
Estes, D., Wellman, H. M. & Woolley, J. D. (1989) Children's understanding of mental phenomena. In: Advances in child development and behavior, vol. 22, ed. Reese, H. W., pp. 4187. Academic Press. [DE]Google Scholar
Evans, E. M. (2000) The emergence of beliefs about the origins of species in schoolage children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 46:221–54. [EME]Google Scholar
Evans, E. M. (2001) Cognitive and contextual factors in the emergence of diverse belief systems: Creation versus evolution. Cognitive Psychology 42:217–66. [aJMB, EME]Google Scholar
Evans, E. M. (2005) Teaching and learning about evolution. In: The virus and the whale: Explore evolution in creatures small and large, ed. Diamond, J. NSTA Press. [EME]Google Scholar
Evans, E. M., Poling, D. & Mull, M. (2001) Confronting the existential questions: Children's understanding of death and origins. Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research In Child Development, Minneapolis, MN, April 19–22, 2001. [EME]Google Scholar
Evans, G. (1982) The varieties of reference, pp. 143203. Oxford University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Fehr, E. & Fischbacher, U. (2004) Third-party punishment and social norms. Evolution and Human Behavior 25:6387. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Ferrari, M. (2003) Baldwin's two developmental resolutions to the mind-body problem. Developmental Review 23:79108. [MF]Google Scholar
Fessler, D. M. T. & Haley, K. J. (2003) The strategy of affect: Emotions in human cooperation. In: The genetic and cultural evolution of cooperation, ed. Hammerstein, P. MIT Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Festinger, L., Pepitone, A. & Newcomb, T. (1952) Some consequences of deindividuation in a group. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 47:382–89. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Flavell, J. H., Green, F. L. & Flavell, E. R. (2000) Development of children's awareness of their own thoughts. Journal of Cognition and Development 1:97112. [EME, PLH]Google Scholar
Florian, V. & Kpavetz, S. (1985) Children's concept of death: A cross-cultural comparison among Muslims, Druze, Christians, and Jews in Israel. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 16:174–89. [KRL]Google Scholar
Forde, D., ed. (1954) African worlds. Oxford University Press. [MB]Google Scholar
Fortes, M. (1959) Oedipus and Job in West African religion. Cambridge University Press. [MB]Google Scholar
Fowles, J. (1978) The Magus. Dell. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Frank, R. (1988) Passions within reason: The strategic role of emotions. Norton. [aJMB, PB]Google Scholar
Franks, L. (1994) The return of the fugitive. The New Yorker, June 13, pp. 40–59. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Freud, S. (1915) Thoughts for the times on war and death. In: The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, vol. 14, pp. 274301. Hogarth. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Futuyma, D. J. (1998) Evolutionary biology. Sinauer. [JH]Google Scholar
Gallup Organization (1999) Americans remain very religious, but not necessarily in conventional ways. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/poll/content/login.aspx?ci=3385. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Gardner, M. (1999) The whys of a philosophical scrivener, 2nd edition. St. Martin's Press. [DE]Google Scholar
Geertz, C. (1960) The religion of Java. Free Press. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Gergely, G. & Csibra, G. (2003) Teleological reasoning in infancy: The naϊve theory of rational action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7:287–92. [aJMB]Google Scholar
German, T. P. & Barrett, H. C. (2005) Functional fixedness in a technologically sparse culture. Psychological Science 16:15. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Gilbert, D. T. (2001) Why economists are not afraid to die. Paper presented at the First International Conference on Experimental Existential Psychology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. August 2–4, 2001. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Gilbert, P. & McGuire, M. T. (1998) Shame, status, and social roles: Psychobiology and evolution. In: Shame, interpersonal behavior, psychopathology, and culture, ed. Gilbert, P. & Andrews, B.. Oxford University Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Gintis, H. (2000) Strong reciprocity and human sociality. Journal of Theoretical Biology 206(2):169–79. [PB]Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1959) The presentation of self in everyday life. Penguin. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Goffman, E. (1963) Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Simon & Schuster. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Gold, G. J. & Weiner, B. (2000) Remorse, confession, group identity, and expectancies about repeating a transgression. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 22:291300. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Goldenberg, J. L., McCoy, S. K., Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J. & Solomon, S. (2000) The body as a source of self-esteem: The effect of mortality salience on identification with one's body, interest in sex, and appearance monitoring. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79:118–30. [BMH]Google Scholar
Golsworthy, R. & Coyle, A. (1999) Spiritual beliefs and the search for meaning among older adults following partner loss. Mortality 4:2140. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Gottfried, G. M. & Jow, E. E. (2003) “I just talk with my heart”: The mind-body problem, linguistic input, and the acquisition of folk psychological beliefs. Cognitive Development 18:7990. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Greeley, A. M. & Hout, M. (1999) Americans’ increasing belief in life after death: Religious competition and acculturation. American Sociological Review 64:813–35. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Green, C. E. (1968) Out-of-body experiences. Institute of Psychophysical Research. [DK]Google Scholar
Greenberg, J., Landau, M. J., Solomon, S. & Pyszczynski, T. (in press) What is the primary psychological function of religion? In: Handbook of the psychology of religion, ed. Wurff, D. Oxford University Press. [JG]Google Scholar
Greyson, B. (2000) Dissociation in people who have near-death experiences: Out of their bodies or out of their minds? Lancet 355:460–63. [DK]Google Scholar
Guthrie, S. (1993) Faces in the clouds. Oxford University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Habermas, J. (1971) Knowledge and human interests. Beacon Press. [WSB]Google Scholar
Hafer, C. L. & Bègue, L. (2005) Experimental research on just-world theory: Problems, developments, and future challenges. Psychological Bulletin 131:128–67. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Haidt, J., Björklund, F. & Murphy, S. (2004) Moral dumbfounding: When intuition finds no reason. Unpublished manuscript, University of Virginia. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Haley, K. J. & Fessler, D. M. T. (2005) Nobody's watching? Subtle cues affect generosity in an anonymous economic game. Evolution and Human Behavior 26:245–56. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Hansen, G., Jensen, S. B., Chandresh, L. & Hilden, T. (1988) The psychotropic effect of ketamine. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 20:419–25. [DK]Google Scholar
Harcourt, A. H. & de Waal, F. B., eds. (1992) Coalitions and alliances in humans and other animals. Oxford University Press. [PB]Google Scholar
Harris, P. L., Brown, E., Marriott, C., Whittall, S. & Harmer, S. (1991) Monsters, ghosts and witches: Testing the limits of the fantasy-reality distinction in young children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 9:105–23. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Harris, P. L. & Giménez, M. (2005) Children's acceptance of conflicting testimony: The case of death. Journal of Cognition and Culture 5:143–64. [arJMB, PLH, HW]Google Scholar
Harris, P. L. & Koenig, M. A. (2006) Trust in testimony: How children learn about science and religion. Child Development 77:505–24. [EME]Google Scholar
Harrison, S. (1993) The mask of war: Violence, ritual, and the self in Melanesia. Manchester University Press. [HW]Google Scholar
Haselton, M. G. & Buss, D. M. (2003) Biases in social judgment: Design flaws or design features? In: Responding to the social world: Implicit and explicit processes in social judgments and decisions, ed. Forgas, J., Williams, K., & von Hippel, B.. Cambridge University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Hassan, N. (2001) Talking to the “human bombs.” The New Yorker, November 19, 2001. Retrieved November 7, 2004, from http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?011119fa_FACT1. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Henrich, J. (2006) Cooperation, punishment, and the evolution of human institutions. Science 312:6061. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Hiadt, J. (2005) The happiness hypothesis. Basic Books. [KRL]Google Scholar
Hilton, D. J. (1995) The social context of reasoning: Conversational inference and rational judgment. Psychological Bulletin 118:248–71. [BMH]Google Scholar
Hilton, J. L., Fein, S. & Miller, D. T. (1993) Suspicion and dispositional inference. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 19:501–12. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Hinde, R. A. (1999) Why gods persist: A scientific approach to religion. Routledge. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Hirsch, E. (1982) The concept of identity. Oxford University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Homans, G. C. (1974) Social behavior: Its elementary forms. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. [WSB]Google Scholar
Humphrey, N. (2006) Seeing red: A study in consciousness, pp. 124–29. Belknap. [DK]Google Scholar
Irwin, H. J. (1985) Flight of mind: A psychological study of the out-of-body experience. Scarecrow Press. [DK]Google Scholar
James, W. (1902/1961) The varieties of religious experience: A study in human nature. (The Gifford Lectures on Natural Religion delivered at Edinburgh in 1901–1902). Longman's Green/Collier. [BB-H, MF]Google Scholar
Jansen, V. A. A. & van Baalen, M. (2006) Altruism through beard chromodynamics. Nature 440:663–66. [BMH]Google Scholar
Johnson, C. N. (2000) Putting different things together: The development of metaphysical thinking. In: Imagining the impossible: Magical, scientific, and religious thinking in children, ed. Rosengren, K., Johnson, C. N. & Harris, P.. Cambridge University Press. [CNJ]Google Scholar
Johnson, C. N. & Wellman, H. M. (1982) Children's developing conceptions of the mind and brain. Child Development 53:222–34. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Johnson, D. D. P. (2005) God's punishment and public goods: A test of the supernatural punishment hypothesis in 186 world cultures. Human Nature 16:410–46. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Johnson, D. D. P. & Bering, J. M. (2006) Hand of God, mind of man: Punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation. Evolutionary Psychology 4:219–33. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Johnson, D. D. P. & Krüger, O. (2004) The good of wrath: Supernatural punishment and the evolution of cooperation. Political Theology 5:159–76. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Jonas, E. & Fischer, P. (in press) Terror management and religion – Evidence that intrinsic religiousness mitigates worldview defense following mortality salience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. [JG]Google Scholar
Jung, C. G. (1934) Archetypes of the collective unconscious. In: The archetype and the collective unconscious. Collected works, 9 I. Princeton University Press. [DC]Google Scholar
Kanazawa, S. (2004) General intelligence as a domain-specific adaptation. Psychological Review 111:512–23. [KRL]Google Scholar
Kelemen, D. (2004) Are children “intuitive theists”? Reasoning about purpose and design in nature. Psychological Science 15:295301. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Kelemen, D. & DiYanni, C. (2005) Intuitions about origins: Purpose and intelligence in children's reasoning about nature. Journal of Cognition and Development 6:331. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Kenrick, D. T. (2006) Evolutionary psychology: Resistance is futile. Psychological Inquiry 17:102108. [ABC]Google Scholar
Kenrick, D. T., Maner, J. K., Butner, J., Li, N. P., Becker, D. V. & Schaller, M. (2002) Dynamic evolutionary psychology: Mapping the domains of the new interactionist paradigm. Personality and Social Psychology Review 6:347–56. [ABC]Google Scholar
Koenig, H. G. & Cohen, H. J., eds. (2002) The link between religion and health: Psychoneuroimmunology and the faith factor. Oxford University Press. [KRL]Google Scholar
Koocher, G. (1973) Childhood, death, and cognitive development. Developmental Psychology 9:369–75. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Kripke, S. (1980) Naming and necessity. Harvard University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Kriwaczek, P. (2002) In search of Zarathustra. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. [JG]Google Scholar
Kuhlmeier, V. A., Bloom, P. & Wynn, K. (2004) Do 5-month-old infants see humans as material objects? Cognition 94:95103. [aJMB, KRL]Google Scholar
Kuran, T. (1998) Ethnic norms and their transformation through reputational cascades. Journal of Legal Studies 27(2):623–59. [PB]Google Scholar
Kurzban, R. & Leary, M. R. (2001) Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion. Psychological Bulletin 127(2):187208. [PB]Google Scholar
Lackner, J. R. (1992) Sense of body position in parabolic flight. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 656:329–39. [DK]Google Scholar
Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. Basic Books. [SF]Google Scholar
Landman, J. (2001) The crime, punishment, and ethical transformation of two radicals: Or how Katherine Power improves on Dostoyevsky. In: Turns in the road: Narrative studies of lives in transition, ed. McAdams, D. P., Josselson, R., & Lieblich, A.. American Psychological Association. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Lerner, M. J. (1980) The belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. Plenum. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Lerner, M. J. & Miller, D. T. (1978) Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead. Psychological Bulletin 85:1030–51. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Lester, D., Aldridge, M., Aspenberg, C., Boyle, K., Radsniak, P. & Waldon, C. (2002) What is the afterlife like? Undergraduate beliefs about the afterlife. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 44:113–26. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Levy-Bruhl, L. (1910) Les fonctions mentales dans les sociétés inférieures. Presses Universitaires de France. [DC]Google Scholar
Levy-Bruhl, L. (1935) La mythologie primitive. Presses Universitaires de France. [DC]Google Scholar
Livingston, K. (2002) Reason, faith, and the good life. Free Inquiry 22:4247. [KRL]Google Scholar
Livingston, K. (2005) Religious practice, brain, and belief. Journal of Cognition and Culture 5:75117. [KRL]Google Scholar
Locke, J. (1689/1975) An essay concerning human understanding. Oxford University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Luria, L. K. (2001) Separated by death? Burials, cemeteries, and confessional boundaries in seventeenth-century France. French Historical Studies 24:185222. [aJMB]Google Scholar
MacIntyre, F. (2004) Was religion a kinship surrogate? Journal of the American Academy of Religion 72(3):653–94. [IP]Google Scholar
Malinowski, B. (1916) Baloma: The spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 46:353430. [MB]Google Scholar
Malinowski, B. (1935) The foundations of faith and morals: An anthropological analysis of primitive belief and conduct with special reference to the fundamental problem of religion and ethics. Oxford University Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
May, H. (2000) “Murderers’ relatives”: Managing stigma, negotiating identity. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 29:198221. [rJMB]Google Scholar
McAdams, D. P. (2001) The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology 5:100–22. [arJMB]Google Scholar
McCauley, R. N. (2000) The naturalness of religion and the unnaturalness of science. In: Explanation and cognition, ed. Keil, F. C. & Wilson, R. W.. MIT Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
McClosky, M., Caramazza, A. & Green, B. (1980) Curvilinear motion in the absence of external forces: Naïve beliefs about the motion of objects. Science 210:1139–41. [NLG]Google Scholar
McCulloch, W. H. (1992) A certain archway: Autoscopy and its companions seen in Western writing. History of Psychiatry 3:5978. [DK]Google Scholar
McGarrigle, J., Grieve, R. & Hughes, M. (1978) Interpreting inclusion: A contribution to the study of the child's cognitive and linguistic development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 26:528–50. [BMH]Google Scholar
McGinn, C. (1991) The problem of consciousness. Blackwell. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Mealey, L. (1995) The sociobiology of sociopathology: An integrated evolutionary model. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20:523–99. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Melser, D. (2004) The act of thinking. MIT Press. [SF]Google Scholar
Merricks, T. (2001) Objects and persons. Oxford University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Mesoudi, A., Whiten, A. & Laland, K. N. (in press) Towards a unified science of cultural evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29(4):329–47. [JH]Google Scholar
Metzinger, T. (2003) Being no one: The self-model theory of subjectivity. MIT Press. [DK]Google Scholar
Metzinger, T. (2005) Out-of-body experiences as the origin of the concept of a “soul.” Mind and Matter 3:5784. [DK]Google Scholar
Milinski, M., Semmann, D. & Krambeck, H. J. (2002) Donors to charity gain in both indirect reciprocity and political reputation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 269:881–83. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Mithen, S. (1996) The prehistory of the mind. Thames and Hudson. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Mittelstaedt, H. & Glasauer, S. (1993) Illusions of verticality in weightlessness. Clinical Investigations 71:732–39. [DK]Google Scholar
Mohr, C. & Blanke, O. (2005) The demystification of autoscopic phenomena: Experimental propositions. Current Psychiatry Reports 7:189–95. [DK]Google Scholar
Mohr, D. (1978) Development of attributes of personal identity. Developmental Psychology 14:427–28. [SN]Google Scholar
Montemayor, R. & Eisen, M. (1977) The development of self-conceptions from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Psychology 13:314–19. [SN]Google Scholar
Nagel, T. (1974) What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review 82:435–50. [PR]Google Scholar
Neiman, S. (2004) Evil in modern thought. Princeton University Press. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Nemeroff, C. & Rozin, P. (1994) The contagion concept in adult thinking in the United States: Transmission of germs and interpersonal influence. Ethos 22:158–86. [rJMB, NLG]Google Scholar
Nesse, R. M. (2000) Strategic subjective commitment. Journal of Consciousness Studies 7(1-2):326–30. [PB]Google Scholar
Nettle, D. (2004) Adaptive illusions: Optimism, control and human rationality. In: Emotion, evolution and rationality, ed. Evans, D. & Cruse, P.. Oxford University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Nichols, S. (in press) Imagination and immortality. Synthèse. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Nowak, M. A., Sasaki, A., Taylor, C. & Fudenberg, D. (2004) Emergence of cooperation and evolutionary stability in finite populations. Nature 428(6983):646–50. [IP]Google Scholar
Nowak, M. A. & Sigmund, K. (1994) The alternating prisoner's dilemma. Journal of Theoretical Biology 168:219–26. [IP]Google Scholar
Nowak, M. A. & Sigmund, K. (1998) Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring. Nature 393:573–77. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Nowak, M. A. & Sigmund, K. (2005) Evolution of indirect reciprocity. Nature 437(7063):1291–98. [IP]Google Scholar
Nozick, R. (1981) Philosophical explanations. Harvard University Press. [GEN]Google Scholar
Nunn, C. Z. (1964) Child control through a “coalition with God.” Child Development 35:417–32. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Ohtsuki, H., Hauert, C., Lieberman, E. & Nowak, M. A. (2006) A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 441:502505. [BB-H]Google Scholar
Olson, E. T. (1997) The human animal: Personal identity without psychology. Oxford University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
O’Neill, D. K. & Chong, S. C. F. (2001) Preschool children's difficulty understanding the types of information obtained through the five senses. Child Development 72:803–15. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Orians, G. H. (1969) On the evolution of mating systems in birds and mammals. American Naturalist 103:589603. [ABC]Google Scholar
Ottenberg, P. (1958/1980) Marriage relationships in the double descent system of the Afikpo Igbo of southeastern Nigeria. University Microfilms. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Owen, P. (2002) Soldier leaves behind wife, 4 children. The Oklahoman, May 30, 2002, p. 3-A. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Papineau, D. (2002) Thinking about consciousness. Oxford University Press. [SF]Google Scholar
Parfit, D. (1971) Personal identity. The Philosophical Review 80(1):3–27. [NJB]Google Scholar
Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and persons. Oxford University Press. [NJB, GEN]Google Scholar
Parker, S. T. (1998) A social selection model for the evolution and adaptive significance of self-conscious emotions. In: Self-awareness: Its nature and development, ed. Ferrari, M. & Sternberg, R. J., pp. 108–34. Guilford Press. [MF]Google Scholar
Pargament, K. I. (1997) The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. Guilford Press. [JG]Google Scholar
Parsons, T., Shils, E. A. & Tolman, E. C., eds. (1951) Toward a general theory of action. Harvard University Press. [WSB]Google Scholar
Pepitone, A. & Saffioti, L. (1997) The selectivity of nonmaterial beliefs in interpreting life events. European Journal of Social Psychology 27:2335. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Perry, J. (2001) Reference and reflexivity. CSLI Publications. [NJB]Google Scholar
Pettazzoni, R. (1955) On the attributes of God. Numen 2:127. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1923) La psychologie et les valeurs religieuses. In: Sainte-Croix 1922, ed. L’association chrétienne d’étudiants de la Suisse Romande. La Concorde. [MF]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1928) L’Immanence. In: Deux types d’attitudes religieuses: Immanence et transcendance, ed. Piaget, J. & de la Harpe, J.. Editions de L’Association Chretienne d’Etudiants de la Suisse Romande. Dépôt Central. [MF]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1930) Immanentisme et foi religieuse. Librarie H. Robert. [MF]Google Scholar
Piaget, J. (1932/1965/1978) The moral judgment of the child. Free Press. (1932/1978 French edition, Le jugement moral chez l’enfant. Presses Universitaires de France.) [aJMB, MF]Google Scholar
Plato, (c.350 bce/1997) Phaedo. In: Plato: Complete works, ed. Cooper, J. M. & Hutchinson, D. S.. Hackett. [MF]Google Scholar
Poling, D. A. & Evans, E. M. (2004) Are dinosaurs the rule or the exception? Developing concepts of death and extinction. Cognitive Development 19:363–83. [EME]Google Scholar
Povinelli, D. J. & Bering, J. M. (2002) The mentality of apes revisited. Current Directions in Psychological Science 11:115–19. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Previc, F. H. (in press) The role of the extrapersonal brain systems in religious activity. Consciousness and Cognition. [DK]Google Scholar
Pronin, E., Wegner, D. M.,McCarthy, K. & Rodriguez, S. (2006) Everyday magical powers: The role of apparent mental causation in the overestimation of personal influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:218–31. [JP]Google Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (1989) The role of location indexes in spatial perception: A sketch of the FINST spatial-index model. Cognition 32(1):6597. [NJB]Google Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z.W. (2003) Seeing and visualizing: It's not what you think. MIT Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Cather, C. & Gat, I. (1995) Defensive distancing from victims of serious illness: The role of delay. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 21:1320. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Pyysiäinen, I. (2001) How religion works: Towards a new cognitive science of religion. Cognition and Culture Book Series, vol. 1. Brill. [aJMB, IP]Google Scholar
Pyysiäinen, I. (2003) On the “innateness” of religion: A comment on Bering. Journal of Cognition and Culture 3(3):218–25. [IP]Google Scholar
Pyysiäinen, I. (2006) Amazing grace: Religion and the evolution of the human mind. In: Where God and science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion, I–III. Vol. I: The evolutionary psychology of religion: How evolution shaped the religious brain, ed. McNamara, P., Ch. 10. Greenwood. [IP]Google Scholar
Quine, W. V. O. (1960) Word and object. MIT Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Rank, O. (1931/1961) Psychology and the soul (Perpetua Edition). Ed. Barnes, A. S.. [JG]Google Scholar
Rehm, J., Steinleitner, M. & Lilli, W. (1987) Wearing uniforms and aggression: A field experiment. European Journal of Social Psychology 17:357–60. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Reid, T. (1785/1969) Essays on the intellectual powers of man, ed. Brody, B. MIT Press. [SN]Google Scholar
Reynolds, V. & Tanner, R. (1995) The social ecology of religion. Oxford University Press. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Richerson, P. J. & Boyd, R. (2005) Not by genes alone, how culture transformed human evolution. The University of Chicago Press. [NJB, JH, IP]Google Scholar
Riggs, K. J. & Peterson, D. M. (2000) Counterfactual thinking in pre-school children: Mental state and causal inferences. In: Children's reasoning and the mind, ed. Mitchell, P. & Riggs, K. J., pp. 8799. Psychology Press. [BMH]Google Scholar
Rimbaud, A. (1873/1999) A Season in Hell and The Illuminations. Trafalgar Square Publishing. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Rips, L. J., Blok, S. & Newman, G. (2006) Tracing the identity of objects. Psychological Review 113:130. [GEN]Google Scholar
Roach, M. (2006) Spook: Science tackles the afterlife. Norton. [DK]Google Scholar
Robbins, P. & Jack, A. I. (2006) The phenomenal stance. Philosophical Studies 127:5985. [PR]Google Scholar
Roehlkepartain, E. C., King, P. E., Wagener, L. & Benson, P. L., eds. (2006) The handbook of spiritual development in childhood and adolescence. Sage. [CNJ]Google Scholar
Roes, F. L. & Raymond, M. (2003) Belief in moralizing gods. Evolution and Human Behavior 24:126–35. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Rorty, A. O., ed. (1976) The identities of persons. University of California Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Ross, L. T. & Kaplan, K. J. (1994) Life ownership orientation and attitudes toward abortion, suicide, doctor-assisted suicide, and capital punishment. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 28:1730. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Rosse, R. B., Collins, J. P. Jr.,, Fay-McCarthy, M., Alim, T. M., Wyatt, R. J. & Deutsch, S. I. (1994) Phenomenologic comparison of the idiopathic psychosis of schizophrenia and drug-induced cocaine and phencyclidine psychoses: A retrospective study. Clinical Neuropharmacology 17:359–69. [DK]Google Scholar
Rozin, P., Haidt, J. & McCauley, C. R. (1993) Disgust. In: Handbook of emotions, ed. Lewis, M. & Haviland, J. M.. Guilford Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Russell, B. (1912) Problems of philosophy. Williams and Norgate. [NJB]Google Scholar
Russell, B. (1918) Knowledge by acquaintance and knowledge by description, Mysticism and logic and other essays. Longmans, Green. [NJB]Google Scholar
Russell, B. (1956) Logic and knowledge; essays 1901–1950, ed. Marsh, R. C. George Allen & Unwin. [NJB]Google Scholar
Rutgers, A., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M., van Ijzendoorn, M. & van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. (2004) Autism and attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45:1123–34. [SF]Google Scholar
Ryle, G. (1949) The concept of mind. Hutchinson. [SF]Google Scholar
Sandelands, L. E. (2005) Man and nature in God. Transaction. [LES]Google Scholar
Sandin, B. & Sather, G. (1980) Iban adat and augury. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia for School of Comparative Social Sciences. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Sartre, J.-P. (1937/1969) The Wall: And other stories. New Directions. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Sartre, J.-P. (1946/1989) No Exit and other plays. Vintage. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Sartre, J.-P. (1957) Existentialism and human emotions. Philosophical Library. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Saxe, R., Jamal, N. & Powell, L. (2006) My body or yours? The effect of visual perspective on cortical body representation. Cerebral Cortex 16:178–82. [DK]Google Scholar
Schelling, T. C. (1960) The strategy of conflict. HarvardUniversity Press. [aJMB, PB]Google Scholar
Scholl, B. J. (2001) Objects and attention: The state of the art. Cognition 80:146. [GEN]Google Scholar
Schutz, A. (1967) The phenomenology of the social world. Northwestern University Press. [WSB]Google Scholar
Schutz, A. (1971) On multiple realities. In: Collected papers, vol. 1, pp. 207–59. Nijhoff. [WSB]Google Scholar
Selman, R. (1980) The growth of interpersonal understanding: Developmental and clinical analyses. Academic Press. [SN]Google Scholar
Shaver, P., Lenauer, M. & Sadd, S. (1980) Religiousness, conversion, and subjective well-being: The “healthy-minded” religion of modern American women. American Journal of Psychiatry 137:1563–68. [KRL]Google Scholar
Shiels, D. (1978) A cross-cultural study in out-of-body experiences, waking and sleeping. Journal of Social Psychological Research 49:697741. [DK]Google Scholar
Shoemaker, S. (1959) Personal identity and memory. The Journal of Philosophy 56(22):868–82. [NJB]Google Scholar
Shoemaker, S. (1999) Self, body, and coincidence. Supplement to the Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 73(1):287306. [NJB]Google Scholar
Sierra, M. & Berrios, G. E. (1998) Depersonalization: Neurobiological perspectives. Biological Psychiatry 44:898908. [DK]Google Scholar
Silke, A. (2003) Deindividuation, anonymity and violence: Findings from Northern Ireland. Journal of Social Psychology 143:493–99. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Slaughter, V., Jaakkola, K. & Carey, S. (1999) Constructing a coherent theory: Children's biological understanding of life and death. In: Children's understanding of biology, health, and ethics, ed. Siegal, M. & Peterson, C.. Cambridge University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Slaughter, V. & Lyons, M. (2003) Learning about life and death in early childhood. Cognitive Psychology 46:130. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Slone, D. J. (2004) Theological incorrectness: Why religious people believe what they shouldn’t. Oxford University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Smith, P. C., Range, L. M. & Ulmer, A. (1992) Belief in afterlife as a buffer in suicidal and other bereavement. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 24:217–25. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Solomon, S., Greenberg, J. & Pyszczynski, T. (1991) A terror management theory of social behavior: The psychological functions of self-esteem and cultural worldviews. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 24, ed. Zanna, M., pp. 91159. Academic Press. [JG]Google Scholar
Sosis, R. & Alcorta, C. (2003) Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology 12:264–74. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Soultanian, C., Perisse, D., Revah-Levy, A., Luque, R., Mazet, P. & Cohen, D. (2005) Cotard's syndrome in adolescents and young adults: A possible onset of bipolar disorder requiring a mood stabilizer? Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 15:706–11. [DC]Google Scholar
Sperber, D. & Hirschfeld, L. A. (2004) The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8(1):4046. [aJMB, GEN, IP]Google Scholar
Stark, R. (1996) Religion as context: Hellfire and delinquency one more time. Sociology of Religion 57:163–73. [WSB]Google Scholar
Sterelny, K. (2003) Thought in a hostile world: The evolution of human cognition. Blackwell. [IP]Google Scholar
Stone, V. E. & Gerrans, P. (2006) Does the normal brain have a theory of mind? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(1):34. [IP]Google Scholar
Strawson, P. F. (1959) Individuals: An essay in descriptive metaphysics, pp. 1820. Methuen. [NJB]Google Scholar
Subbotsky, E. V. (1997) Explanations of unusual events: Phenomenalistic causal judgments in children and adults. British Journal of Developmental Psychology 15:1336. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Subbotsky, E. V. (2001) Causal explanations of events by children and adults: Can alternative causal modes coexist in one mind? British Journal of Developmental Psychology 19:2346. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Suddendorf, T. & Whiten, A. (2001) Mental evolution and development: Evidence for secondary representation in children, great apes and other animals. Psychological Bulletin 127:629–50. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Suzuki, D. T. (1962/1972) What is Zen? Harper & Row/Perennial Library. [MF]Google Scholar
Tager-Flusberg, H. & Joseph, R. M. (2005) How language facilitates the acquisition of false belief understanding in children with autism. In: Why language matters for theory of mind, ed. Astington, J. & Baird, J.. Oxford University Press. [SF]Google Scholar
Tangney, J. P. (2003) Self-relevant emotions. In: Handbook of self and identity, ed. Leary, M. R. & Tangney, J. P.. Guilford Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Thalbourne, M. A. (1996) Belief in life after death: Psychological origins and influences. Personality and Individual Differences 21:1043–45. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Thomson, J. J. (1997) People and their bodies. In: Reading Parfit, ed. Dancy, J. Blackwell. [NJB]Google Scholar
Titchener, E. B. (1898) The feeling of being stared at. Science 8:895–97. [NLG]Google Scholar
Tomasello, M. & Call, J. (1997) Primate cognition. Oxford University Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Tooby, J. & Cosmides, L. (1992) The psychological foundations of culture. In: The adapted mind, Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture, ed. Barkow, J. H., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J.. Oxford University Press. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Vidal, F. (1994a) Piaget before Piaget. Harvard University Press. [MF]Google Scholar
Vidal, F. (1994b) Les mystères de la douleur divine. Une prière du Jean Piaget pour l’année 1916. Revue De Théologie et de Philosophie 126:97118. [MF]Google Scholar
Viennot, L. (1979) Spontaneous reasoning in elementary dynamics. European Journal of Science Education 1:205–21. [NLG]Google Scholar
Wall, P. D. (1999) The placebo and the placebo response. In: Textbook of pain, 4th edition, ed. Wall, P. D., pp. 1419–30. Churchill. [BMH]Google Scholar
Watson, P. (2005) Ideas: A history of thought and invention from fire to Freud. Harper Collins. [JG]Google Scholar
Watson, R. I. (1973) Investigation into deindividuation using a cross-cultural survey technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25:342–45. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Wedekind, C. & Braithwaite, V. A. (2002) The long-term benefits of human generosity in indirect reciprocity. Current Biology 12:1012–15. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Weeks, M. & Lupfer, M. B. (2000). Religious attributions and proximity of influence: An investigation of direct interventions and distal explanations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 39:348–62. [arJMB]Google Scholar
Wegner, D. M. (2005) Who is the controller of controlled processes? In: The new unconscious, ed. Hassin, R., Uleman, J. S. & Bargh, J. A., pp. 1936. Oxford University Press. [JP]Google Scholar
Wegner, D. M. & Sparrow, B. (2004) Authorship processing. In: The cognitive neurosciences, 3rd edition, ed. Gazzaniga, M., pp. 1201–209. MIT Press. [JP]Google Scholar
Wegner, D. M., Sparrow, B. & Winerman, L. (2004) Vicarious agency: Experiencing control over the movements of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86:838–48. [JP]Google Scholar
Wegner, D. M. & Wheatley, T. P. (1999) Apparent mental causation: Sources of the experience of will. American Psychologist 54:480–92. [JP]Google Scholar
Wellman, H. M. & Estes, D. (1986) Early understanding of mental entities: A reexamination of childhood realism. Child Development 57:910–23. [DE]Google Scholar
Whitehouse, H. (2004) Modes of religiosity: A cognitive theory of religious transmission. AltaMira Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
Wiesel, E. (1961). Legends of our time. Holt, Rinehart, Winston. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Wiesel, E. (1966) The gates of the forest. Holt, Rinehart, Winston. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Wiggins, D. (1997) Sortal concepts: A reply to Xu. Mind and Language 12(3/4):413–21. [NJB]Google Scholar
Wiggins, D. (2001) Sameness and substance renewed. Cambridge University Press. [NJB]Google Scholar
Wilder, T. (1927/1955) The bridge of San Luis Rey. Washington Square Press. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Wilkes, K. V. (1992) Psuché versus the mind. In: Essays on Aristotle's De Anima, ed. Nussbaum, M. C. & Rorty, A. O., pp. 109–27. Oxford University Press. [MF]Google Scholar
Williams, B. (1970) The self and the future. The Philosophical Review 79(2):161–80. [NJB]Google Scholar
Williams, G. C. (1966) Adaptation and natural selection. Princeton University Press. [JH]Google Scholar
Wittgenstein, L. (1953) Philosophical investigations. Blackwell. [SF]Google Scholar
Wojciszke, B., Bazinska, R. & Jaworski, M. (1998) On the dominance of moral categories in impression formation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24(12):1251–63. [PB]Google Scholar
Worthen, L. T. & Yeatts, D. E. (2001) Assisted suicide: Factors assessing public attitudes. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying 42:115–35. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Wright, R. (1994) The moral animal. Why we are the way we are: The new science of evolutionary psychology. Pantheon. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Yalom, I. D. (1980) Existential psychotherapy. Basic Books. [aJMB]Google Scholar
Yang, S. C. & Chen, S.-F. (2006) Content analysis of free-response narratives to personal meanings of death among Chinese children and adolescents. Death Studies 30:217–41. [KRL]Google Scholar
Zilboorg, G. (1943) Fear of death. Psychoanalytic Quarterly 12:465–75. [JG]Google Scholar
Zimbardo, P. G. (1969) The human choice: Individuation, reason and order, versus deindividuation, impulse and chaos. In: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, vol. 17, ed. Arnold, W. J. & Levine, D.. University of Nebraska Press. [rJMB]Google Scholar
10
Cited by