Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-cf9d5c678-p4zth Total loading time: 0.566 Render date: 2021-07-31T23:16:45.900Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Bridging gaps between concepts through GAPS

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 February 2010

Lars-Göran Nilsson
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Umei, S-902 47 Umei, Sweden

Abstract

Image of the first page of this article. For PDF version, please use the ‘Save PDF’ preceeding this image.
Type
Open Peer Commentary
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1984

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Albert, M. S., Butters, N. & Levin, J. (1979) Memory for remote events in chronic alcoholics and alcoholic Korsakoff patients. In: Alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, ed. Begleiter, H. & Kissen, B.. Plenum Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Allen, G. A., Mahler, W. A. & Estes, W. K. (1969) Effects of recall tests on long-term retention of paired associates. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8:463–70. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1976) Language, memory, and thought. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1978) Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychological Review 85:249–77. [Gd'Y]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1979) Further arguments concerning representations for mental imagery: A response to Hayes-Roth and Pylyshyn. Psychological Review 86:395406. [Gd'Y]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. (1983) The architecture of cognition. Harvard University Press. [Gd'Y]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Bower, G. H. (1972) Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall. Psychological Review 79:97123. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Bower, G. H. (1973) Human associative memory. V. H. Winston. [taET]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Bower, G. H. (1974) A prepositional theory of recognition memory. Memory and Cognition 2:406–12. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Reder, L. M. (1979) An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Anderson, J. R. & Ross, B. H. (1980) Evidence against a semantic-episodic distinction, journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:441–65. [taET]Google Scholar
Anderson, R. C. & Pichert, J. W. (1978) Recall of previously unrecallable information following a shift in perspective. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:112. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, R. C., Pichert, J. W., Goetz, E. T., Schallert, D. L., Stevens, K. V. & Trollip, S. R. (1976) Instantiation of general terms. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 15:667–79. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anglin, J. M. (1977) Word, object, and conceptual development. W. H. Norton. [taET]Google Scholar
Anisfeld, M. & Knapp, M. (1968) Association, synonymity, and directionality in false recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77:171–79. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arbuckle, T. Y. & Katz, W. A. (1976) Structure of memory traces following semantic and nonsemantic orientation tasks in incidental learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 2:362–69. [taET]Google Scholar
Atkinson, R. C., Herrmann, D. J. & Wescourt, K. T. (1974) Search processes in recognition memory. In: Theories in cognitive psychology: The Loyola Symposium, ed. Solso, R. L.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Atkinson, R. C. & Juola, J. F. (1974) Search and decision processes in recognition memory. In: Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology, ed. Krantz, D. H., Atkinson, R. C., Luce, R. D. & Suppes, P.. Freeman. [taET]Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D. (1982a) Amnesia: A minimal model and an interpretation. In: Human memory and amnesia, ed. Cermak, L.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [ADB]Google Scholar
Baddeley, A. D. (1982b) Domains of recollection. Psychological Review 89:708–29. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baddeley, A. & Wilson, B. (in press) Differences among amnesia and between amnesics: The role of single ease methodology in theoretical analysis and practical treatment. Paper presented at Princeton Symposium on Amnesia, 1983. [ADB]Google Scholar
Bahrick, H. P. (1969) Measurement of memory by prompted recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79:213–19. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahrick, H. P. (1970) Two-phase model for prompted recall. Psychological Review 77:215–22. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bahrick, H. P. & Bahrick, P. O. (1964) A re-examination of the interrelations among measures of retention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:318–24. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baker, L. & Santa, J. L. (1977). Context, integration, and retrieval. Memory and Cognition 5:308–14. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Balota, D. A. & Neely, J. H. (1980) Test-expectancy and word-frequency effects in recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:576–87. [HLR]Google Scholar
Barnes, J. M. & Underwood, B. J. (1959) “Fate” of first-list associations in transfer theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58:97105. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barrett, M. D. (1983) The course of early lexical development: A review and on interpretation. Early Child Development and Care 11:1932. [JM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartlett, F. C. (1932) Remembering: A study in experimental and social psychology. Cambridge University Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Bartlett, J. C. & Tulving, E. (1974) Effects of temporal and semantic encoding in immediate recall upon subsequent retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13:297309. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bartling, C. A. & Thompson, C. P. (1977) Encoding specificity: Retrieval asymmetry in the recognition failure paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3:690700. [taET]Google ScholarPubMed
Begg, I. (1979) Trace loss and the recognition failure of unrecalled words. Memory and Cognition 7:113–23. [LGN, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bekerian, D. A. & Bowers, J. M. (1983) Eyewitness testimony: Were we misled? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 9:139–45. [EFL, JM, wET]Google Scholar
Bergson, H. (1911) Matter and memory. Allen & Unwin. [taET]Google Scholar
Bernbach, H. A. (1975) Rate of presentation in free recall: A problem for two-stage memory theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 104:1822. [GW]Google Scholar
Bjork, R. A. (1975) Retrieval as a memory modifier: An interpretation of negative recency and related phenomena. In: Information processing and cognition, ed. Solso, R. L.. Wiley. [taET]Google Scholar
Boring, E. G., Langfeld, H. S. & Weld, H. P. (1948) Foundations of psychology. Wiley. [taET]Google Scholar
Bower, G. H. (1967) A multicomponent theory of the memory trace. In: The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 1, ed. Spence, K. W. & Spence, J. T.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Bower, G. H. (1972) Stimulus-sampling theory of encoding variability. In: Coding processes in human memory, ed. Melton, A. W. & Martin, E.. Winston. [taET, GW]Google Scholar
Bower, G. H. & Gilligan, S. (1979) Remembering information relating to one's self. Journal of Research in Personality 13:420–32. [JM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bower, G. H. & Karlin, M. B. (1974) Depth of processing pictures of faces and recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103:751–57. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowers, J. M. & Bekerian, D. A. (1984) When will post-event information distort eyewitness testimony? Journal of Applied Psychology, in press. [JM]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowyer, P. A. & Humphreys, M. S. (1979) Effect of a recognition test on a subsequent cued-recall test. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 5:348–59. [taET]Google Scholar
Bransford, J. D. & Franks, J. J. (1971) The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology 2:331–50. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bruce, D. & Cofer, C. N. (1967) An examination of recognition and free recall as measures of acquisition and long-term retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75:283–89. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bruce, V. (1982) Changing faces: Visual and non-visual coding processes in face recognition. British Journal of Psychology 73:105–16. [GT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brutsche, J., Cisse, A., Deleglise, D., Finet, A., Sonnet, P. & Tiberghien, G. (1981) Effets de contexte dans la reconnaissance de visages non familiers. Cahiers de Psychologic Cognitive 1:8590. [GT]Google Scholar
Buschke, H. (1974) Spontaneous remembering after recall failure. Science 184:579–81. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Caine, E. D., Ebert, M. H. & Weingartner, H. (1977) An outline of the analysis of dementia. Neurology 27:1087–92. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cantor, N. & Kihlstrom, J. F. (1982) Cognitive and social processes in personality. In: Contemporary behavior therapy, ed. Wilson, G. T. & Franks, C. M.. Guilford. [JKK]Google Scholar
Cermak, L. S. & O'Connor, M. (1983) The anterograde and retrograde retrieval ability of a patient with amnesia due to encephalitis. Neuropsychologia 21:213–34. [ADB, rET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Christiaansen, R. E. & Ochalek, K. (1983) Editing misleading information from memory: Evidence for the coexistence of original and postevent information. Memory and Cognition 11:467–75. [EFL]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Church, R. M. (1978) The internal clock. In: Cognitive processes in animal behavior, ed. Hulse, S. H., Fowler, H. & Honig, W. K.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [DSO]Google Scholar
Claparède, E. (1911) Reconnaissance et moiite. Archives de Psychologic 11:7990. (1951) Recognition and “me-ness.” In: Organization and pathology of thought, ed. D. Rapaport. Columbia University Press.] [taET]Google Scholar
Cohen, N. J. & Squire, L. R. (1980) Preserved learning and retention of pattern analyzing skill in amnesia: Dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 210:207–09. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Collins, A. M. & Loftus, E. F. (1975) A spreading-aetivation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review 82:407–28. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collins, A. M. & Qnillian, M. R. (1972) How to make a language user. In: Organization of memory, ed. Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. (1973) A “levels of analysis” view of memory. In: Communication and affect: Language and thought, ed. Pliner, P., Kramer, L. & Alloway, T.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. (1979a) Human memory. Annual Review of Psychology 30:63102. [CW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. (1979b) Levels of processing: Overview and closing comments. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. & Lockhart, R. S. (1972) Levels of processing: A framework for memory research, journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:671–84. [Gd'Y, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. & Tulving, E. (1975) Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104:268–94. [Cd'Y, taET, GW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I. M. & Watkins, M. J. (1973) The role of rehearsal in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12:599607. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dannenbaum, G. L. & Briand, K. (1982) Semantic priming and the word repetition effect in lexical decision task. Canadian Journal of Psychology 36:435–44. [NO]Google Scholar
Darley, C. F. & Murdock, B. B. (1971) Effects of prior free-recall testing on final recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91:6673. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Davies, G. & Milne, A. (1983a) Eyewitness recall and recognition of persons in and out of context. University of Aberdeen. [GT]Google Scholar
Davies, G. & Milne, A. (1983b) Recognizing faces in and out of context. University of Aberdeen. [GT]Google Scholar
de Schonen, S. (1968) Etude de différents modes d'indexation. L'Année Psychologique 2:117. [taET]Google Scholar
Donaldson, W. (1981) Context and repetition effect in recognition memory. Memory and Cognition 9:308–16. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dong, T. (1972) Cued partial recall of categorized words. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93:123–29. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drachman, D. A. & Leavitt, J. (1972) Memory impairment in the aged: Storage versus retrieval deficit. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93:302–08. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dretske, F. (1982) The informational character of representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:376–77. [rET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Earhard, M. (1977) Retrieval failure in the presence of retrieval cues: A comparison of three age groups. Canadian Journal of Psychology 31:139–50. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ehrlich, S. (1979) Semantic memory: A free-elements system. In: Memory organization and structure, ed. Puff, C. R.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Eich, J. E. (1980) The cue-dependent nature of state-dependent retrieval. Memory and Cognition 8:157–73. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eich, J. E., Weingartner, H., Stillman, R. C. & Gillin, J. C. (1975) State-dependent accessibility of retrieval cues in the retention of a categorized list. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14:408–17. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erdelyi, M. H. & Becker, J. (1974) Hypermnesia for pictures: Incremental memory for pictures but not words in multiple free recall trials. Cognitive Psychology 6:159–71. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1959) The statistical approach to learning theory. In: Psychology: A study of a science, Vol. 2, ed. Koch, S.. McGraw-Hill. [taET]Google Scholar
Estes, W. K. (1960) Learning theory and the new “mental chemistry.” Psychological Review 67:207–23. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Estes, W. K. (1976) The structure of human memory. In: 1977 Yearbook of science and the future, ed. Calhoun, D.. Encyclopedia Britannica. [taET]Google Scholar
Evans, F. J. & Thorn, W. A. F. (1966) Two types of posthypnotic amnesia: Recall amnesia and source amnesia. International Journal of Clinical ard Experimental Hypnosis 14:162–79. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eysenck, M. W. (1979) Depth, elaboration, and distinctiveness. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Fisher, R. P. & Craik, F. I. M. (1977) The interaction between encoding and retrieval operations in cued recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3:701–11. [HLR, taET]Google Scholar
Flexser, A. J. & Tulving, E. (1978) Retrieval independence in recognition and recall. Psychological Review 85:153–71. [GVJ, LgN, JGWR, HLR, tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Flexser, A. J. & Tulving, E. (1982) Priming and recognition failure. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21:237–48. [rET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Furlong, E. J. (1951) A study in memory. Nelson. [JgS]Google Scholar
Gaffan, D. (1974) Recognition impaired and association intact in the memory of monkeys after transection of the fornix. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 86:1100–09. [rET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardiner, J. M. & Tulving, E. (1980) Exceptions to recognition failure of recallable words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:194209. [LgN, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Geiselman, R. E. & Glenny, J. (1977) Effects of imagining speakers' voices an the retention of words presented visually. Memory and Cognition 5:499504. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gilhooly, K. J. & Gilhooly, M. L. (1979) Age-of-acquisition effects in lexical and episodic memory tasks. Memory and Cognition 7:214–23. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glanzer, M. (1969) Distance between related words in free recall: Trace of the STS. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8:105–11. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glanzer, M. (1972) Storage mechanisms in recall. In: The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory, ed. Bower, G. H.. Vol. 5 Academic Press. [HLR]Google Scholar
Glanzer, M. & Duarte, A. (1971) Repetition between and within languages in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 10:625–30. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godden, D. R. & Baddeley, A. D. (1975) Context-dependent memory in two natural environments: On land and underwater. British Journal of Psychology 66:325–31. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Godden, D. R. & Baddeley, A. D. (1980) When does context influence recognition memory? British Journal of Psychology 71:99104. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greenwald, A. G., (1981) Self and memory. In: Psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 15, ed. Bower, G. H.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Gregg, V. (1976) Word frequency, recognition and recall. In: Recall and recognition, ed. Brown, J.. Academic Press. [HLR]Google Scholar
Grice, H. P. (1941) Personal identity. Mind 50:340. [taET]Google Scholar
Hashtroudi, S., Parker, E. S., Delisi, L. E. & Wyatt, R. J. (in press) Intact retention in acute alcohol amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. [rET]Google Scholar
Hastie, R. & Carlston, D. L. (1980) Theoretical issues in person memory. In: Person memory: The cognitive basis of social perception, ed. Hastie, R., Ostrom, T. M., Ebbesen, E. B., Wyer, R. S., Hamilton, D. L., & Carlston, D. L.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [JFK]Google Scholar
Hayes-Roth, F. (1979) Distinguishing theories of mental representation: A critique of Anderson's “Arguments Concerning Mental Imagery.” Psychological Review 86:376–82. [Gd'Y]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hearst, E., ed. (1979) The first century of experimental psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [Gd'Y]Google Scholar
Herrmann, D. J. & Harwood, J. R. (1980) More evidence for the existence of separate semantic and episodic stores in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 6:467–78. [taET]Google Scholar
Herrmann, D. J. & McLaughlin, J. P. (1973) Effects of experimental and preexperimental organization on recognition: Evidence for two storage systems in long-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99:174–79. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hertel, P. T. (1982) Remembering reactions and facts: The influence of subsequent information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 8:513–29. [EFL]Google Scholar
Hilgard, E. R. (1956) Theories of learning. 2nd ed.Appleton-Century-Crofts. [JFK]Google Scholar
Hintzman, D. L. (1978) The psychology of learning and memory. W. H. Freeman & Co. [DLH]Google Scholar
Hintzman, D. L. (1983) “Schema abstraction” in a multiple-trace memory model. Paper presented at the Conference on the Priority of the Specific: Elora, Ontario, June 1983. [DLH]Google Scholar
Hollingworth, H. L. (1913) Characteristic differences between recall and recognition. American Journal of Psychology 24:532–44. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holton, G. & Brush, S. G. (1973) Introduction to concepts and theories of physical science. Addison-Wesley. [rET]Google Scholar
Hoppe, R. B. & Dahl, P. R. (1978) Hypennncsia for words in serial learning. Psychological Record 28:219–29. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hull, C. L. (1943) Principles of behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [DLH]Google Scholar
Humphreys, M. S. (1978) Item and relational information: A case for context independent retrieval. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:175–88. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Humphreys, M. S. & Bowyer, P. A. (1980) Sequential testing effects and the relationship between recognition and recognition failure. Memory and Cognition 8:271–77. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Humphreys, M. S. & Galbraith, R. C. (1975) Forward and backward associations in cued recall: Predictions from the encoding specificity principle. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 1:702–10. [taET]Google Scholar
Hunt, R. R. & Einstein, G. O. (1981) Relational and item-specific information in memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 20:497–5 14. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyde, T. S. & Jenkins, J. J. (1969) Differential effects of incidental tasks on the organization of recall of a list of highly associated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82:472–81. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
lndow, T. (1980) Some characteristics of word sequences retrieved from specified categories. In: Attention and performance VIII, ed. Nickerson, R. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. (1973) Test-appropriate strategies in retention of categorized lists. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12:675–82. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. (1974) The role of mental contiguity in memory: Registration and retrieval effects. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13:483–96. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. (1983a) Perceptual enhancement: Persistent effects of an experience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 9:2138. [HLR]Google ScholarPubMed
Jacoby, L. L. (1983b) Remembering the data: Analyzing interactive processes in reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 22:458508. [HLR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. & Craik, F. I. M. (1979) Effects of elaboration of processing at encoding and retrieval: Trace distinctiveness and recovery of initial context. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Jacoby, L. L. & Dallas, M. (1981) On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110:306–40. [HLR, taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jacoby, L. L. & Witherspoon, D. (1982) Remembering without awareness. Canadian Journal of Psychology 36:300–24. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jaynes, J. (1976) The origin of consciottsness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Houghton Mifflin. [JgS, taET]Google Scholar
Jenkins, J. J. (1974) Remember that old theory of memory? Well, forget it! American Psychologist 29:785–95. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, M. K. & Raye, C. L. (1981) Reality monitoring. Psychological Review 88:6785. [RLK]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson-Laird, P. N., Gibbs, G. & de Mowbray, J. (1978) Meaning, amount of processing, and memory for words. Memory and Cognition 6:372–75. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1976) A fragmentation hypothesis of memory: Cued recall of pictures and of sequential position. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 105:277–93. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1978) Recognition failure and dual mechanisms in recall. Psychological Review 85:464–69. [GVJ, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1979) Analyzing memory by cuing: Intrinsic and extrinsic knowledge. In: Tutorial essays in psychology: A guide to recent advances, vol. 2, ed. Sutherland, N. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [GVJ, taET]Google Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1980) Interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic knowledge in sentence recall. In Attention and performance VIII, ed. Nickerson, R. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1982) Tests of the dual-mechanism theory of recall. Acta Psychologica 50:6172. [CT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jones, G. V. (1983) Structure of the recall process. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 302B:373–85. Reprinted in: Functional aspects of human memory, ed. D. E. Broadbent. Royal Society. [GVJ]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kail, R. (1979) The development of memory in children. Freeman. [JGS]Google Scholar
Kamil, A. C. & Sargent, T. D. (1981) Foraging behavior: Ecological, eihological, and psychological approaches. Garland STPM Press. [DSO]Google Scholar
Kihlstrom, J. F. (1980) Posthypnotic amnesia for recently learned material: Interactions with “episodic” and “semantic” memory. Cognitive Psychology 12:227–51. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kihlstrom, J. F. (1984) Conscious, subconscious, unconscious: A cognitive perspective. In: The unconscious: A reappraisal, ed. Bowers, K. S. & Meicheiibaum, D.. Wiley, in Press. [JFK]Google Scholar
Kihlstrom, J. F., & Cantor, N. (1984) Mental representations of the self. Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 17, ed. Berkowitz, L.. Academic Press, in press. [JFK]Google Scholar
Kinsbourne, M. & Wood, F. (1975) Short-term memory processes and the amnesic syndrome. In: Short-term memory, ed. Deutsch, D. & Deutsch, J. A.. Academic Press. [ADB, tarET]Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1968) Recognition and free recall of organized lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78:481–87. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1970) Models for free recall and recognition. In: Models of human memory, ed. Norman, D. A.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1972) Notes on the structure of semantic memory. In: Organization of memory, ed. Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1974) The representation of meaning in memory. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [tarET, GW]Google Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1978) More on recognition failure of recallable words: Implications for generation-recognition models. Psychological Review 85:470–73. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kintsch, W. (1980) Semantic memory: A tutorial. In: Attention and performance VIII, ed. Nickerson, R. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Kochevar, J. W. & Fox, P. W. (1980) Retrieval variables in the measurement of memory. American Journal of Psychology 93:355–66. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kolers, P. A. (1976a) Pattern analyzing memory. Science 191:1280–81. [Gd'Y]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kolers, P. A. (1976b) Reading a year later. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 5:554–65. [taET]Google Scholar
Kolers, P. A. & Roediger, H. L. (in press) Procedures of mind. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. [HLR]Google Scholar
Kuhn, T. S. (1971) The essential tension. University of Chicago Press. [rET]Google Scholar
Lachman, R. (1973) Uncertainty effects on time to access to the internal lexicon. Journal of Experimental Psychology 99:199208. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lachman, R. & Field, W. H. (1965) Recognition and recall of verbal material as a function of degree of training. Psychonomic Science 2:225–26. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lachman, R., Shaffer, J. P. & Hennrikus, D. (1974) Language and cognition: Effects of stimulus codability, name-word frequency, and age of acquisition on lexical reaction time. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13:613–25. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamon, M. (1982) The effects of context on recognition memory. M.A. thesis. University of Toronto. [GT]Google Scholar
LeCocq, P. & Tiberghien, G. (1981) Méimoirc et décision. Presses Universitaires de Lille. [taET, GT]Google Scholar
Leibowitz, H. & Dichgans, J. (1977) Zwei verschiedene Seh-Systemc: Neue Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Raumorientierung. Umschau 77:353–54. [rET]Google Scholar
Ley, R. (1977) Encoding specificity and unidirectional associates in cued recall. Memory and Cognition 5:523–28. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Light, L. L. (1972) Homonyms and synonyms as retrieval cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96:255–62. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Light, L. L., Kimble, G. A. & Pellegrino, J. W. (1975) Comments on Episodic memory: When recognition fails, by Watkins & Tulving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104:3036. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Locke, D. (1971) Memory. Doubleday & Co. [DLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lockhart, R. S., Craik, F. I. M. & Jacoby, L. (1976) Depth of processing, recognition and recall. In: Recall and recognition, ed. Brown, J.. Wiley. [taET]Google Scholar
Lockhart, R. S. & Murdock, B. B. (1970) Memory and the theory of signal detection. Psychological Bulletin 74:100–09. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loftus, E. F. (1975) Leading questions and the eyewitness report. Cognitive Psychology 7:560–72. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loftus, E. F. (1977) Shifting human color memory. Memory and Cognition 5:696–99. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loftus, E. F. (1983) Misfortunes of memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 302:413–21. [EFL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loftus, E. F. & Loftus, G. R. (1980) On the permanence of stored information in the human brain. American Psychologist 35:409–20. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loftus, E. F., Miller, D. G. & Burns, H. J. (1978) Semantic integration of verbal information into a visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4:1931. [JM, taET]Google ScholarPubMed
Loftus, E. F. & Palmer, J. C. (1974) Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13:585–89. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loftus, G. R. (1978) On interpretation of interactions. Memory and Cognition 6:312–19. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Luria, A. R. (1976) The neuropsychology of memory. Winston. [taET]Google Scholar
McClelland, A. G. R., Rawles, R. E. & Sinclair, F. E. (1981) The effects of search criteria and retrieval cue availability on memory for words. Memory and Cognition 9:164–68. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McCloskey, M. & Santee, J. (1981) Are semantic memory and episodic memory distinct systems? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 7:6671. [GW]Google Scholar
McCormack, P. D. (1972) Recognition memory: How complex a retrieval system? Canadian Journal of Psychology 26:1941. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDougall, R. (1904) Recognition and recall. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1:229–33. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGeoch, J. A. (1942) The psychology of human learning. Longmans Green & Co. [taET]Google Scholar
McKoon, G. & Ratcliff, R. (1979) Priming in episodic and semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:463–80. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Madigan, S. (1976) Reminiscence and item recovery in free recall. Memory and Cognition 4:233–36. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mandler, G. (1980) Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review 87:252–71. [taET, GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mandler, G. & Boeck, W. J. (1974) Retrieval processes in recognition. Memory and Cognition 2:613–15. [GT]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mandler, G., Pearlstone, Z. & Koopmans, H. S. (1969) Effects of organization and semantic similarity on recall and recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 8:410–23. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcel, A. J. (1983) Conscious and unconscious perception: An approach to the relation between phenomenal experience and perceptual processes. Cognitive Psychology 15:238300. [EFL]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marcel, A. J. & Steel, R. G. (1973) Semantic cueing in recognition and recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 25:368–77. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marslen-Wilson, W. D & Teuber, H.-L. (1975) Memory for remote events in anterograde amnesia: Recognition of public figures from news photographs. Neuropsychologia 13:353–64. [rET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, E. (1972) Stimulus encoding in learning and transfer. In: Coding processes in human memory, ed. Melton, A. W. & Martin, E.. Wiley. [GW]Google Scholar
Martin, E. (1975) Generation-recognition theory and the encoding specificity principle. Psychological Review 82:150–53. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Masson, M. E. J. (1979) Context and inferential cuing of sentence recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:173–86. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mathews, R. C. (1977) Semantic judgments as encoding operations: The effects of attention to particular semantic categories on the usefulness of interitem relations in recall. Journal of Experimental-Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3:160–73. [Gd'Y, taET]Google Scholar
Meck, W. H., Church, R. N. & Olton, D. S. (in press) Hippocampus, time, and memory. Behavioral Neuroscience. [DSO]Google Scholar
Meudell, P. & Mayes, A. (1982) Normal and abnormal forgetting: Some comments on the human amnesic syndrome. In Normality and pathology in cognitive function, ed. Ellis, A. W.. Academic Press. [DSO]Google Scholar
Meyer, D. E. (1973) Verifying affirmative and negative propositions: Effects of negation on memory retrieval. In: Attention and performance IV, ed. Kornblum, S.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Miller, G. A. (1969) A psychological method to investigate verbal concepts. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 6:169–91. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, G. A. (1972) Lexical memory. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 116:140–44. [taET]Google Scholar
Miller, G. A. & Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1976) Language and perception. Harvard University Press (Belknap Press). [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mishkin, M., Malamut, B. & Baehevalier, J. (in press) Memories and habits: Some implications for the analysis of learning and retention. In: The neurobiology of learning and memory, ed. McGaugh, J. L., Lynch, G. & Weinberger, N. M.. Guilford Press. [rET]Google Scholar
Mishkin, M., Spiegler, B. J., Saunders, R. C. & Malamut, B. L. (1982) An animal model of global amnesia. In: Alzheimer's disease: A report of progress, (Aging, vol. 19), ed. Corkin, S., Growdon, J. H., Davis, K. L., Usdin, E. & Wurtman, R. J.. Raven Press. [DSO]Google Scholar
Moeser, S. D. (1976) Inferential reasoning in episodic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 15:193212. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moeser, S. D. (1977) Recognition processes in episodic memory. Canadian Journal of Psychology 31:4170. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, C. D. (1978) Acquisition-test interactions between different dimensions of encoding. Memory and Cognition 6:354–63. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, C. D., Bransford, J. D. & Franks, J. J. (1977) Levels of processing versus transfer appropriate processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16:519–34. [HLR]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morton, J. (1979) Facilitation in word recognition: Experiments concerning change in the logogen model. In: Processing of visible language, vol. 1, ed. Kolers, P. A., Wrolstad, M. E. & Bouma, H.. Plenum Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Morton, J., Hammersley, R. & Bekerian, D. A. (1980) Headed records. Paper delivered to Experimental Psychology Society, Cambridge, June 1980. [JM]Google Scholar
Moscovitch, M. (in press) The sufficient conditions for demonstrating preserved memory in amnesia: A task analysis. In: The neuropsychology of memory, ed. Butters, N. & Squire, L. R.. [rET]Google Scholar
Munsat, S. (1966) The concept of memory. Random House. [taET]Google Scholar
Murdock, B. B. Jr (1974) Human memory: Theory and data. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Murdock, B. B. Jr (1982) A theory- for the storage and retrieval of item and associative information. Psychological Review 89:609–26. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murdock, B. B. Jr & Anderson, R. E. (1975) Encoding, storage, and retrieval of item information. In: Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium, ed. Solso, R. L.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Muter, P. (1978) Recognition failure of recallable words in semantic memory. Memory and Cognition 6:912. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Naus, M. J. & Halasz, F. G. (1979) Developmental perspectives on cognitive processing and semantic memory. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [RL, taET]Google Scholar
Neely, J. H. & Payne, D. G. (1983) A direct comparison of recognition failure rates for recallable names in episodic and semantic memory tests. Memory and Cognition 11:161–71. [HLR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neisser, U. (1967) Cognitive psychology. Appleton-Century-Crofts. [taET]Google Scholar
Neisser, U., Novick, R. & Lazar, R. (1963) Searching for ten targets simultaneously. Perceptual and Motor Skills 17:955–61. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, D. L. (1979) Remembering pictures and words: Appearance, significance, and name. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET, GW]Google Scholar
Nilsson, L.-G. & Shaps, L. P. (1980) A functional view of memory. In: Cognition and memory: Interdisciplinary research of human memory activities, ed. Klix, F. & Hoffman, J.. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. [LGN]Google Scholar
Nilsson, L.-G. & Shaps, L. P. (1981) A reconstructive processing interpretation of the recognition failure phenomenon. Acta Psychologica 47:2537. [LgN, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Norman, D. A. & Bobrow, D. G. (1979) Descriptions: An intermediate stage in memory retrieval. Cognitive Psychology 11:107–23. [JM, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ogilvie, J. C., Tulving, E., Paskowitz, S. & Jones, G. V. (1980) Three-dimensional memory traces: A model and its application to forgetting. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:405–15. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ojemann, G. A. (1978) Organization of short-term verbal memory in language areas of human cortex: Evidence from electrical stimulation. Brain and anguage 5:331–40. [taET]Google ScholarPubMed
Olton, D. S. (in press) Memory function and the hippocampus. In: Neurobiology of the hippocampus, ed. Seifert, W.. Academic Press. [DSO]Google Scholar
Olton, D. S., Becker, J. T. & Handelmann, G. E. (1979) Hippocampus, space, and memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:313–65. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olton, D. S., Becker, J. T. & Handelmann, G. E. (1980) Hippocampal function: Working memory or cognitive mapping? Physiological Psychology 8:239–46. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olton, D. S. & Papas, B. C. (1979) Spatial memory and hippocampal function. Neuropsychologia 17:669–82. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ozier, M. (1978) Access to the memory trace through orthographic and categoric information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4:469–85. [taET]Google Scholar
Parker, E. S., Schoenberg, R., Schwartz, B. S. & Tulving, E. (1983) Memories on the rising and falling blood alcohol curve. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 21:363. [rET]Google Scholar
Penfield, W. & Perot, P. (1963) The brain's record of auditory and visual experience. Brain 86:595695. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peris, J.-L. (1983) A la poursuite des effets de contexte. Thesis for the Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies. University of Grenoble. [GT]Google Scholar
Peris, J.-L. & Tiberghien, G. (1984) Effet de contexte et recherche conditionnelle dans la reconnaissance de visages non familiers. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, in press. [CT]Google Scholar
Peterson, L. R. (1969) Concurrent verbal activity. Psychological Review 76:376–86. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peterson, L. R., Saltzman, D., Hillner, K. & Land, V. (1962) Recency and frequency in paired-associate learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63:396403. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petrey, S. (1977) Word associations and the development of lexical memory. Cognition 5:5771. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pezdek, K. (1977) Cross-modality semantic integration of sentence and picture memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3:515–24. [taET]Google Scholar
Posner, M. I. & Warren, R. E. (1972). Traces, concepts, and conscious constructions. In: Coding processes in human memory, ed. Melton, A.W. & Martin, E.. Wiley. [GN]Google Scholar
Postman, L. (1975a) Tests of the generality of the principle of encoding specificity. Memory and Cognition 3:663–72. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Postman, L. (1975b) Verbal learning and memory. Annual Review of Psychology 26:291335. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Postman, L., Jenkins, W. O. & Postman, D. L. (1948) An experimental comparison of active recall and recognition. American Journal of Psychology 61:511–19. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Postman, L., Keppel, G. & Stark, K. (1965) Unlearning as a function of the relationship between successive response classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 69:111–18. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Postman, L., Thompkins, B. A. & Gray, W. D. (1978) The interpretation of encoding effects in retention. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:681705. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1979) Validating computational models: A critique of Anderson's indeterminacy of representation claim. Psychological Review 86:383–94. [Gd'Y]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quillian, M. R. (1966) Semantic memory. Ph.D. dissertation, Carnegie Institute of Technology. Also in: Semantic information processing, ed. M. Minsky. MIT Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Raaijmakers, J. G. W. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1980) SAM: A theory of probabilistic search of associative memory. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 14, ed. Bower, G. H.. Academic Press. [JGWR]Google Scholar
Raaijmakers, J. G. W. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1981) Search of associative memory. Psychological Review 88:93134. [JGWR, taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabinowitz, J. C., Mandler, G. & Barsalou, L. W. (1977) Recognition failure: Another ease of retrieval failure. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 16:639–63. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabinowitz, J. C., Mandler, G. & Barsalou, L. W. (1979) Generation-recognition as an auxiliary retrieval strategy. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:5772. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabinowitz, J. C., Mandler, G. & Patterson, K. E. (1977) Determinants of recognition and recall: Accessibility and generation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106:302–29. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ratcliff, R. (1978) A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review 85:59108. [taET, GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ratcliff, R. & Murdock, B. B. Jr, (1976) Retrieval processes in recognition memory. Psychological Review 83:190214. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reder, L. M., Anderson, J. R. & Bjork, R. A. (1974) A semantic interpretation of encoding specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102:648–56. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reed, G. (1979) Everyday anomalies of recall and recognition. In: Functional disorders of memory, ed. Kihlstrom, J. F. & Evans, F. J.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [rET]Google Scholar
Reiff, R. & Seheerer, M. (1959) Memory and hypnotic age regression. International Universities Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Roediger, H. L. III, & Adelson, B. (1980) Semantic specificity in cued recall. Memory and Cognition 8:6574. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roitblat, H. L. (1982) The meaning of representation in animal memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5:353–72. [DSO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rozin, P. (1976) The psychobiological approach to human memory. In: Neural mechanisms of learning and memory, ed. Rosenzweig, M. R. & Bennett, E. L.. MIT Press. [DSO, tarET]Google Scholar
Rubenstein, H., Garfield, L. & Millikan, J. A. (1970) Homographic entries in the internal lexicon. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 9:487–94. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumelhart, D. E., Lindsay, P. H. & Norman, D. A. (1972) A process model for long-term memory. In: Organization of memory, ed. Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Rundus, D. (1971) Analysis of rehearsal processes in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89:6377. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Russell, P. N. & Beekhuis, M. E. (1976) Organization in memory: A comparison of psychotics and normals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 85:527–34. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salzberg, P. M. (1976) On the generality of encoding specificity. Journal of Experimental Psychology 2:586–96. [taET]Google Scholar
Sanquist, T. F., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Syndulko, K. & Lindsley, D. B. (1980) Electrocortical signs of levels of processing: Perceptual analysis and recognition memory. Psychophysiology 17:568–76. [rET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santa, J. L. & Lamwers, L. L. (1974) Encoding specificity: Fact or artifact? Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13:412–23. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Santa, J. L. & Lamwers, L. L. (1976) Where does the confusion lie? Comments on the Wiseman and Tulving paper. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 15:5357. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schachtel, E. G. (1947) On memory and childhood amnesia. Psychiatry 10:126. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schacter, D. L. (1982) Stranger behind the engram: Theories of memory and the psychology of science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [DLH]Google Scholar
Schaeter, D. L., Eich, J. E. & Tulving, E. (1978) Richard Semon's theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:721–43. [DLH]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schacter, D. L. & Tulving, E. (1982) Memory, amnesia, and the episodic/semantic distinction. In: Expression of knowledge, ed. Isaacson, R. L. & Spear, N. E.. Plenum Press. [DSO, tarET]Google Scholar
Schacter, D. L., Wang, P. L., Tulving, E. & Freedman, M. (1982) An experimental analysis of functional retrograde amnesia. Neuropsychologia 20:523–32. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schank, R. C. (1975) The structure of episodes in memory. In: Representation and understanding, ed. Bobrow, D. G. & Collins, A. M.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Schank, R. C. & Kolodner, J. (1979) Retrieving information from an episodic memory, or, why computers' memories should be more like people's. Yale University, Department of Computer Science, Research Report #159. [taET]Google Scholar
Schooler, J. W. & Loftus, E. F. (1983) Consequences of recollection. Unpublished manuscript. University of Washington. [EFL]Google Scholar
Seamon, J. G. (1980) Memory and cognition: An introduction. Oxford University Press. [JgS]Google Scholar
Semon, R. (1904) Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Gesechehens. Leipzig: William Engelmann. [(1921) The mncme. London: Allen & Unwin.] [taET]Google Scholar
Semon, R. (1923) Mnemic psychology, tr. Duffy, B.. Allen & Unwin. [DLH, rET]Google Scholar
Shepard, R. N. (1961) Application of a trace model to the retention of information in a recognition task. Psychometrika 26:185203. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shepard, R. N. & Chang, J.-J. (1963) Forced-choice tests of recognition memory under steady-state conditions. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 2:93101. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M. (1970) Memory search. In: Models of human memory, ed. Norman, D. A.. Academic Press. [ItaET]Google Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M. (1976) Capacity limitations in information processing, attention, and memory. In: Handbook of learning and cognitive processes: vol. 4. Memory processes, ed. Estes, W. K.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [GW]Google Scholar
Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977) Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84:127–90. [GW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shoben, E. J., Wescourt, K. T. & Smith, E. E. (1978) Sentence verification, sentence recognition, and the semantic-episodic distinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4:304–17. [taET]Google Scholar
Shoemaker, S. S. (1959) Personal identity and memory. Journal of Philosophy 56:868–82. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shulman, H. G. (1972) Semantic confusion errors in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:221–27. [GW]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sidman, M., Stoddard, L. T. & Hohr, J. P. (1968) Some additional quantitative observations of immediate memory in a patient with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia 6:245–54. [DSO]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Slamecka, N. J. (1966) Differentiation versus unlearning of verbal associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71:822–28. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, E. E. (1978) Theories of semantic memory. In: Handbook of learning and cognitive processes, vol. 6, ed. Estes, W. K.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Smith, E. E., Shoben, E. J. & Rips, L. J. (1974) Structure and process in semantic memory: A featural model for semantic decision. Psychological Review 81:214–41. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solso, R. L. (1974) Memory and the efficiency of cues or “Yes, I know” vs. “Why didn't I think of that?” In: Theories in cognitive psychology, ed. Solso, R. L.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [taET]Google Scholar
Squire, L. (1982) The neuropsychology of human memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience 5:241–73. [DSO]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stein, B. S. (1978) Depth of processing reexamined: The effects of the precision of encoding and test appropriateness. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:165–74. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sternberg, R. J. & Detterman, D. K. (1979) Human intelligence. Ablex. [taET]Google Scholar
Tajika, H. (1980) Retrieval attributes in recall and recognition memory. Japanese Journal of Psychology 51:259–66. [HT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Teasdale, J. & Russell, M. (1983) Differential effects of induced mood on the recall of positive, negative and neutral words. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 22:98113. [JM]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Thomson, D. M. (1972) Context effects in recognition memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11:497511. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomson, D. M., Robertson, S. L. & Vogt, R. (1982) Person recognition: The effect of context. Human Learning 1:137–54. [GT]Google Scholar
Thomson, D. M. & Tulving, E. (1970) Associative encoding and retrieval: Weak and strong cues. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86:255–62. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tiberghien, G. (1976) Reconnaissance à long terme: Pourquoi ne pas chercher? In: La mámoire semantique, ed. Ehrlich, S. & Tulving, E.. Paris: Bulletin de Psychologic [taET]Google Scholar
Tiberghien, G. (1981) Etude expérimentale de I'activité de recherche mnésique dans la reconnaissance à long terme. L'Année Psychologique 81:385408. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Till, R. E. & Walsh, D. A. (1980) Encoding and retrieval factors in adult memory for implicational sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:116. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Treisman, A. (1979) The psychological reality of levels of processing. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F.I. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [CW]Google Scholar
Tresselt, M. E. & Mayzner, M. S. (1960) A study of incidental learning. Journal of Psychology 50:339–47. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1962) Subjective organization in free recall of “unrelated” words. Psychological Review 69:344–54. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. (1964) Intra-trial and inter-trial retention: Notes towards a theory of free recall verbal learning. Psychological Review 71:219–37. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1968a) Theoretical issues in free recall. In: Verbal behavior and general behavior theory, ed. Dixon, T. B. & Horton, D. L.. Prentice-Hall. [JFK]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1968b) When is recall higher than recognition? Psychonomic Science 10:5354. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1970) Short- and long-term memory: Different retrieval mechanisms. In: Biology of memory, ed. Broadbent, D. E. & Pribran, K. H.. Academic Press. [JFK]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1972) Episodic and semantic memory. In: Organization of memory, ed. Tulving, E. & Donaldson, W.. Academic Press. [DLH, JFK, RLK, EFL, taET]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1974) Cue-dependent forgetting. American Scientist 62:7482. [JFK, SaET]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1976) Ecphoric processes in recall and recognition. In: Recall and recognition, ed. Brown, J.. Wiley. [JFK, HLR, taET, HT]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1979a) Memory research: What kind of progress? In: Perspectives on mneniory research, ed. Nilssois, L.-G.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [LgN]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1979b) Relation between encoding specificity and levels of processing. In: Levels of processing in human memory, ed. Cermak, L. S. & Craik, F. L. M.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [HLR]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. (1982) Synergistic ecphory in recall and recognition. Canadian Journal of Psychology 36:130–47. [rET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1983a) Ecphoric processes in episodic memory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. London, B 302:361–71. [rET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. (1983b) Elements of episodic memory. Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tulving, E. & Bower, G. H. (1974) The logic of memory representations. In: The psychology of learning and motivation, ed. Bower, G. H., vol. 8. Academic Press. [HLR]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. & Madigan, S. (1970) Memory and verbal learning. Annual Review of Psychology 21:437–84. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Osler, S. (1968) Effectiveness of retrieval cues in memory for words. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77:593601. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Patterson, R. D. (1968) Functional units and retrieval processes in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77:239–48. [HLR]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Pearlstone, Z. (1966) Availability versus accessibility of information in memory for words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5:381–91. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E., Schacter, D. L. & Stark, H. A. (1982) Priming effects in wordfragnsent completion are independent of recognition memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 8:336–42. [NO, HLR, tarET]Google Scholar
Tulving, E. & Tlsomson, D. M. (1971) Retrieval processes in recognition memory: Effects of associative context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87:116–24. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Tlsomson, D. M. (1973) Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review 80:352–73. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Watkins, M. J. (1975) Structure of memory traces. Psychological Review 82:261–7. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tulving, E. & Watkins, O. C. (1977) Recognition failure of words with a single meaning. Memory and Cognition 5:513–22. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tulving, E. & Wiseman, S. (1975) Relation between recognition and recognition failure of recallable words. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6:7982. [GVJ, JCWR, tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tversky, A. (1977) Features of similarity. Psychological Review 84:327–52. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Underwood, B. J. (1965) False recognition produced by implicit verbal response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70:122–29. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Underwood, B. J. (1969) Attributes of memory. Psychological Review 76:559–73. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Uisderwood, B. J., Boruch, R. F. & Malmi, R. A. (1978) Composition of episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 107:393419. [tarET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Van der Heijden, A. H. C. (1981) Short-term visual information forgetting. Routledge and Kegan Paul. [GW]Google Scholar
Vining, S. K. & Nelson, T. O. (1979) Some constraints on the generality and interpretation of the recognition failure of recallable words. American Journal of Psychology 92:257–76. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallace, W. P. (1970) Consistency of emission order in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 9:5868. [taETérCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wallace, W. P. (1978) Recognition failure of recallable words and recognizable words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4:441–52. [taET]Google ScholarPubMed
Warrington, E. K. (1975) The selective impairment of semantic memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 27:635–57. [rET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warrington, E. K. & Weiskrantz, L. (1968) New method of testing long-term retention with special reference to amnesic patients. Nature 217(5132):972–74. [ADB]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warrington, E. K. (1974) The effect of prior learning on subsequent retention in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia 12:419–28. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warrington, E. K. (1978) Further analysis of the prior learning effect in amnesic patients. Neuropsychologia 16:169–76. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warrington, E. K. (1982) Amnesia: A disconnection syndrome? Neuropsychologia 20:233–48. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Watkins, M. J. (1974) When is recall spectacularly higher than recognition? Journal of Experimental Psychology 102:161–63. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, M. J. (1979) Engrams as cuegrams and forgetting as cue overload: A cueing approach to the structure of memory. In: Memory organization and structure, ed. Puff, C. R.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Watkins, M. J. & Gardiner, J. M. (1979) An appreciation of generate-recognize theory of recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18:687704. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, M. J. & Tulving, E. (1975) Episodic memory: When recognition fails. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104:529. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Watkins, O. C. & Watkins, M. J. (1975) Build-up of proactive inhibition as a cue-overload effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 1:442–52. [taET]Google Scholar
Wickelgren, W. A. (1977) Learning and memory. Prentice-Hall. [GW]Google Scholar
Wickelgren, W. A. (1979) Chunking and consolidation: A theoretical synthesis of semantic networks, configuring in conditioning, S-R versus cognitive learning, normal forgetting, the amnesic syndrome, and the hippocampal arousal system. Psychological Review 86:4460. [GT]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wickens, D. D. (1970) Encoding categories of words: An empirical approach to meaning. Psychological Review 77:115. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Williams, M. & Smith, H. V. (1954) Mental disturbances in tuberculous meningitis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 17:173–82. [taET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Williamson, J. A., Johnson, H. J. & Eriksen, C. W. (1965) Some characteristics of posthypnotic amnesia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 70:123–31. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winnick, W. A. & Daniel, S. A. (1970) Two kinds of response priming in taehistoscopic recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84:7481. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winograd, E. (1971) Some issues relating animal memory to human memory. In: Animal memory, ed. Honig, W. K. & James, P. H. R.. Academic Press. [rET]Google Scholar
Winograd, E. & Rivers-Bulkeley, M. T. (1977) Effects of changing context on remembering faces. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3:397405. [GT]Google Scholar
Winograd, E. & Rivers-Bulkeley, M. T. (1975a) Computer memories: A metaphor for memory organization. In: The structure of human menwry, ed. Cofer, C. N.. Freeman. [JFK]Google Scholar
Winograd, E. & Rivers-Bulkeley, M. T. (1975b) Frame representations and the declarative/procedural controversy. In: Representation and understanding, ed. Bobrow, D. G. & Collins, A.. Academic Press. [taET]Google Scholar
Wiseman, S. & Tulving, E. (1975) A test of confusion theory of encoding specificity. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14:370–81. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wiseman, S. & Tulving, E. (1976) Encoding specificity: Relation between recall superiority and recognition failure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 2:349–61. [taET]Google Scholar
Wood, F., Ebert, V. & Kinsbourne, M. (1982) The episodic-semantic memory distinction in memory and amnesia: Clinical and experimental observations. In: Human memory and amnesia, ed. Cermak, L. S.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [tarET]Google Scholar
Wood, F., Taylor, B., Penny, R. & Stump, D. (1980) Regional cerebral blood flow response to recognition memory versus semantic classification tasks. Brain and Language 9:113–22. [ADB, tarET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woodward, A. E., Bjork, R. A. & Jongeward, R. H. (1973) Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 12:608–17. [taET]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zola-Morgan, S., Cohen, N. J. & Squire, L. (1983) Recall of remote episodic memory in amnesia. Neuropsychologia 21:487500. [ADB, rET]CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed