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Actual knowledge

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 November 2021

Jonathan Phillips
Program in Cognitive Science, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences and Department of Philosophy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH03755,;
Wesley Buckwalter
Department of Philosophy, Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA22030,;
Fiery Cushman
Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA02138,;
Ori Friedman
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ONN2L 3G1,;
Alia Martin
School of Psychology, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington6012, New;
John Turri
Philosophy Department and Cognitive Science Program, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ONN2L 3G1,;
Laurie Santos
Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT06520,;
Joshua Knobe
Program in Cognitive Science, Department of Philosophy, Yale University, New Haven, CT06520, USA.;


This response argues that when you represent others as knowing something, you represent their mind as being related to the actual world. This feature of knowledge explains the limits of knowledge attribution, how knowledge differs from belief, and why knowledge underwrites learning from others. We hope this vision for how knowledge works spurs a new era in theory of mind research.

Authors’ Response
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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