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An Outstanding Claim: The Ryukyu/Okinawa Peoples’ Right to Self-Determination under International Human Rights Law

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  28 April 2022

Ai ABE*
Affiliation:
The Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Japan

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the legitimacy of Ryukyuans/Okinawans’1 right to self-determination (RSD) under international human rights law. To this end, it first details the evolution of the RSD from the traditional right to independence for colonial peoples, to the continuing right to self-governance for wider groups of peoples, which is followed by an analysis of holders of the RSD. The paper then turns to Ryukyu/Okinawa to discuss the RSD of its peoples. Three historical events, the Disposition of Ryukyu, the Treaty of San Francisco, and the reversion of Okinawa to Japan, are analysed from a legal perspective, followed by an examination of the peoplehood of Ryukyuans/Okinawans. These lead to the conclusion that the Ryukyuans/Okinawans may legitimately claim that they possess the “unexercised” RSD as a quasi-non-self-governing people, and that they are entitled to claim the RSD as a “people” under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, and other United Nations declarations.

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Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Footnotes

1

Please note that Ryukyu is also spelled as Ryūkyū or Lew Chew. This paper uses the “Ryukyu” spelling, which is more widely used in academic writings and reports of civil society organizations and of UN human rights bodies. Also, drawing from the existence of linguistic minorities with diverse historical backgrounds within Ryukyu/Okinawa, “peoples”, a plural form of people, is used in addressing the Ryukyuans/Okinawans. Civil society organizations such as the Association of Comprehensive Studies for Independence of the Lew Chewans (ACSILs) and Association of the Indigenous Peoples in the Ryukyus (AIPR) also use a plural form. Therefore, this paper also uses a plural form; however, please note that when claiming the right Ryukyuans/Okinawans have done so collectively as one group, in contrast to the Yamatonchu or mainland Japanese.

References

2 ONAGA Takeshi, “Oral Statement at the United Nations Human Rights Council by the Governor of Okinawa” (21 September 2015), online: Okinawa Prefecture <http://www.pref.okinawa.lg.jp/site/chijiko/henoko/documents/unoralstatement.pdf>.

3 “Henoko ga Yuiitsu no Kaiketusaku. Seifu ga Chiji ni Hanron” [translated by Ai Abe: “Henoko is the Only Solution. Government Objected Governor”] Okinawa Times (23 September 2015), online: Okinawa Times <http://www.okinawatimes.co.jp/articles/-/18994>. See also, “Item: 4 General Debate – 17th Meeting 30th Regular Session of Human Rights Council” UN Web TV (21 September 2015), online: UN Web TV <https://media.un.org/en/asset/k10/k106z5ir4c>.

4 Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, GA Res. 1514 (XV), UN Doc. A/RES/1514(XV) (1960) [The Declaration].

5 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 19 December 1966, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, 6 ILM 368 (entered into force 23 March 1976) [ICCPR].

6 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 16 December 1966, 993 U.N.T.S. 3, 6 ILM 360 (entered into force 3 January 1976) [ICESCR].

7 Milena STERIO, The Right to Self-Determination under International Law: “Selfistans”, Secession, and the Rule of the Great Powers (London: Routledge, 2013) at 9.

8 Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276, Advisory Opinion, [1970] ICJ Rep. 16 at 31–2.

9 Case Concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), [1995] ICJ Rep. 90 at 102.

10 Ibid.

11 Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, [2004] ICJ Rep. 136 at para. 118.

12 Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, Separate Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade, [2010] ICJ Rep. 403 at 593.

13 Charter of the United Nations, 26 June 1945, 1 UNTS XVI (entered into force 24 October 1945) [UN Charter].

14 Antonio CASSESE, Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995) at 43.

15 Ibid. at 42.

16 Ibid.

17 Elizabeth RODRÍGUEZ-SANTIAGO, “The Evolution of Self-Determination of Peoples in International Law” in Fernando R. TESÓN, ed., The Theory of Self-Determination (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 201 at 218.

18 V.I. LENIN, “Lenin's Marginal Notes on a Letter from G.V. Chicherin (10 March 1922)” in V.I. LENIN, On the Foreign Policy of the Soviet State (Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1968), 421, as cited in Cassese, supra note 14 at 15.

19 The Right of Peoples and Nations to Self-Determination, GA Res. 637 (VII), UN Doc. A/RES/637 (1952).

20 Rodríguez-Santiago, supra note 17 at 222.

21 Dipesh CHAKRABARTY, “The Legacies of Bandung: Decolonization and the Politics of Culture” in Christopher J. LEE, ed., Making a World after Empire: The Bandung Moment and its Political Afterlives (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2010), 45 at 48–9.

22 The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia, “Final Communiqué of the Asian-African Conference of Bandung (24 April 1955)”, Asia-Africa Speak from Bandung, Jakarta (24 April 1955), online: CVCE <https://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/1997/10/13/676237bd-72f7-471f-949a-88b6ae513585/publishable_en.pdf> at 5.

23 Ibid.

24 SENARATNE, Kalana, Internal Self-Determination in International Law: History, Theory, and Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021)CrossRefGoogle Scholar at 36.

25 Principle Which Should Guide Members in Determining Whether or Not an Obligation Exists to Transmit the Information Called for under Article 73e of the Charter, GA Res. 1541 (XV), UN Doc. A/RES/1541(XV) (1960) [Resolution 1541 (XV)].

26 The Declaration, supra note 4.

27 Jean SALMON, “Internal Aspect of the Right to Self-Determination: Towards a Democratic Legitimacy Principle?” in Christian TOMUSCHAT, ed., Modern Law of Self-Determination (Dordrecht/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff, 1993), 253 at 255.

28 Senaratne, supra note 24 at 37.

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31 Ibid.

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33 HANNUM, Hurst, Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990)Google Scholar at 45–7.

34 Ibid.

35 Churchill, supra note 30 at 18.

36 Ibid.

37 Principle Which Should Guide Members in Determining Whether or Not an Obligation Exists to Transmit the Information Called for under Article 73e of the Charter, supra note 25 at Principle IV.

38 Kelly DIETZ, “Demilitarizing Sovereignty: Self-Determination and Anti-Military Base Activism in Okinawa, Japan” in Philip MCMICHAEL, ed., Contesting Development: Critical Struggles for Social Change (New York: Routledge, 2010), 182 at 187.

39 Ibid.

40 Sterio, supra note 7 at 15.

41 SUMMERS, James, “The Rights of Peoples to Self-Determination in Article 1 of the Human Rights Covenants as a Claimable Right” (2019) 31(2) New England Journal of Public Policy 1Google Scholar at 2, online: ScholarWorks <https://scholarworks.umb.edu/nejpp/vol31/iss2/5>.

42 ICCPR, supra note 5. See also ICESCR, supra note 6.

43 Cassese, supra note 14 at 54.

44 James CRAWFORD, “The Rights of Peoples: Some Conclusions” in James CRAWFORD, ed., The Rights of Peoples (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 159 at 169.

45 Sterio, supra note 7 at 11.

46 PENTASSUGLIA, Gaetano, “State Sovereignty, Minorities and Self-Determination: A Comprehensive Legal View [Article]” (2002) 9(4) International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 303CrossRefGoogle Scholar at 305.

47 Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Co-Operations among States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, GA Res. 2625 (XXV), UN Doc. A/RES/25/2625 (1970).

48 Salmon, supra note 27 at 257.

49 Senaratne, supra note 24 at 39.

50 Sterio, supra note 7 at 15.

51 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), “Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe Final Act: Helsinki 1975” (1975), online: OSCE <https://www.osce.org/files/f/documents/5/c/39501.pdf> at 7 [1975 Helsinki Final Act].

52 Senaratne, supra note 24 at 41.

53 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 13 September 2007, GA Res. 61/295, UN Doc. A/RES/61/295 (2007).

54 Reference re Secession of Quebec [1998] 2 S.C.R. 217, Judgment of the Supreme Court of Canada at para. 130.

55 Cassese, supra note 14 at 59.

56 Republic of Cyprus, “Written Statement Submitted by the Republic of Cyprus” (17 April 2009), online: ICJ <https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/141/15609.pdf> at paras. 129–39.

57 Russian Federation, “Written Statement by the Russian Federation” (16 April 2009), online: ICJ <https://www.icj-cij.org/public/files/case-related/141/15628.pdf> at para. 81.

58 Crawford, supra note 44 at 169.

59 Cassese, supra note 14 at 59–61.

60 Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, supra note 11 at para. 122.

61 Reference re Secession of Quebec, supra note 54 at para. 124.

62 International Meeting of Experts on Further Study of the Concept of the Rights of Peoples: Final Report and Recommendations, UNESCO Paris, 27–30 November 1989, UN Doc. SHS-89/CONF.602/7 (1990) at 7–8.

63 Michael P. SCHARF, “Earned Sovereignty: Juridical Underpinnings” (2002) 31(3) Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 373 at 380.

64 Ibid.

65 Ian BROWNLIE, “The Rights of Peoples in Modern International Law” in James CRAWFORD, ed., The Rights of Peoples (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), 1 at 5.

66 Separate Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade, supra note 12 at para. 228.

67 Ibid. at para. 229.

68 Senaratne, supra note 24 at 217.

69 Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Canada, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.105 (1999) at para. 8.

70 Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Norway, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.112 (1999) at para. 17.

71 Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Mexico, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, UN Doc. CCPR/C/79/Add.109 (1999) at para. 19.

72 Report of the Human Rights Committee Volume I, General Assembly Official Records Fifty-fifth Session Supplement No. 40, UN Doc. A/55/40 (Vol. I) (2000) at para. 506.

73 S. James ANAYA and Robert A. WILLIAMS, “Study on the International Law and Policy Relating to the Situation of the Native Hawaiian People”, Indigenous Peoples Law and Policy Program, James E. Rogers College of Law, The University of Arizona, June 2015, online: OHA <https://www.oha.org/wp-content/uploads/OHA-IPLP-Report-FINAL-09-09-15.pdf>.

74 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Indigenous People, S. James Anaya, Promotion and Protection of All Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development, UN Doc. A/HRC/9/9 (2008) at para 41.

75 The Declaration, supra note 4.

76 Principle Which Should Guide Members in Determining Whether or Not an Obligation Exists to Transmit the Information Called for under Article 73e of the Charter, supra note 25.

77 TOSHIAKI Furuki, “Considering Okinawa as a Frontier” in Glen D. HOOK and Richard SIDDLE, eds., Japan and Okinawa: Structure and Subjectivity (London; New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003), 21 at 25.

78 Ibid.

79 UEMURA, Hideaki, “The Colonial Annexation of Okinawa and the Logic of International Law: The Formation of an ‘Indigenous People’ in East Asia” (2003) 23(2) Japanese Studies 114CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

80 Ibid. at 113.

81 SHIITADA, Atsushi, “Reconsidering the ‘Ryukyu Shobun’: Structure of Grounds and Decrees Justifying the ‘Ryukyu-han Shobun’” (2011) 8 Okinawa Christian University Review 13Google Scholar at 19–20.

82 Uemura, supra note 79 at 115.

83 Ibid.

84 RYUKYUSHIMPOSHA and Tsuyoshi ARAKAKI, eds., Okinawa No Jiko-Ketteiken: Sono Rekishiteki Konkyo to Kinmirai No Tenbou [translated by Ai Abe: “The Self-Determination of Okinawa: Its Historic Ground and Future Prospect”] (Tokyo: Koubunken, 2015) at 51.

85 Uemura, supra note 79 at 113.

86 NISHIZATO, Kiko, “The Deprivation of the Sovereignty of the Ryukyu Kingdom in the East Asia History” (2009) 13 Study of Economic History 67Google Scholar at 90.

87 Ibid.

88 Uemura, supra note 79 at 121.

89 Ryukyushimposha and Arakaki, supra note 84 at 77.

90 Ibid. at 78.

91 Nishizato, supra note 86 at 103.

92 Uemura, supra note 79 at 122.

93 Ibid.

94 Ryukyushimposha and Arakaki, supra note 84 at 72–4.

95 Nishizato, supra note 86 at 98.

96 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 23 May 1969, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331 (entered into force 27 January 1980) [VCLT].

97 KIM, Young-Koo, “The Validity of Some Coerced Treaties in the Early 20th Century: A Reconsideration of the Japanese Annexation of Korea in Legal Perspective” (2002) 33(4) Korea Observer 637Google Scholar at 647.

98 James CRAWFORD, The Creation of States in International Law, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) at 520.

99 Van DYKE, Jon M., “Reconciliation between Korea and Japan” (2006) 5(1) Chinese Journal of International Law 215CrossRefGoogle Scholar at 217.

100 Ian BROWNLIE, International Law and the Use of Force by States (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963) at 20.

101 United States Congress, “Joint Resolution: To Acknowledge the 100th Anniversary of the 17 January 1893 Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to Offer an Apology to Native Hawaiians on Behalf of the United States for the Overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii”, Public Law 103–50 103rd Congress, S.J. Res 19 (23 November 1993), online: Congress.Gov <https://www.congress.gov/103/statute/STATUTE-107/STATUTE-107-Pg1510.pdf> at 1513.

102 Ibid. at 1511.

103 Ibid. at 1513

104 Max HUBER and Michiels van VERDUYNEN, “Rendered in Conformity with the Special Agreement Concluded on 23 January 1925 between the United States of America and the Netherlands Relating to the Arbitration of Differences Respecting Sovereignty over the Island of Palmas (or Miangas)” 2 RIAA, 829 (4 April 1928), reprinted in 22(4) American Journal of International Law 867.

105 Dyke, supra note 99 at 225.

106 Ibid. at 226.

107 VCLT, supra note 96 at Article 51.

108 UN Charter, supra note 13.

109 Mark E. CAPRIO, Japanese Assimilation Policies in Colonial Korea, 1910–1945 (Seattle; London: University of Washington Press, 2009) at 67.

110 Ibid. at 64–5.

111 Furuki, supra note 77 at 29.

112 TAOKA, Ryoichi, “Legal Status of Okinawa: Present and Future Note” (1958) 2 Japanese Annual of International Law 98Google Scholar at 100.

113 Ibid.

114 Treaty of Peace with Japan, 8 September 1951, Shuyo-Joyakushu, Japan's Foreign Relations Basic Documents Vol. 1 (entered into force 28 April 1952) at 419–39.

115 NAKACHI, Kiyoshi, “United Nations-Okinawa Relations: From Viewpoints of Human Rights, Indigenous People and Self-Determination” (2015) 16, The Institute of Regional Studies, Okinawa University Regional Studies 179Google Scholar at 182.

116 Taoka, supra note 112 at 99.

117 Shōichi KOSEKI and Narahiko TOYOSHITA, Okinawa Kenpō Naki Sengo: Kōwa Jōyaku Sanjō to Nihon no Anzen Hoshō [translated by Ai Abe: “Okinawa: Post War without Constitution: Article 3 of the Peace Treaty and Japan's security”] (Tokyo: Misuzu Shobou, 2018) at 123.

118 Ibid. at 116–18.

119 Ibid. at 125.

120 Ibid. at 200.

121 Ibid., at 202.

122 Declaration on the Grant of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples, Submitted by Mr. N.S. Khrushchev, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Chairman of the USSE Delegation, on 23 September 1960 for Consideration by the United Nations General Assembly at its Fifteenth Session, UN Doc. A/4502 (1960).

123 Ibid. at 10.

124 Koseki and Toyoshita, supra note 117 at 228.

125 Legislature of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands, “Shiseiken Henkan Ni Kansuru Yousei Ketsugi” [translated by Ai Abe “Resolution of Request on Return of Administrative Rights”], Nineteenth Regular Session No. 1 (1 February 1962), online: Okinawa Prefectural Archives <https://www3.archives.pref.okinawa.jp/RDA/ryusei/R00156478B/index.html?page=10>.

126 Ibid.

127 Koseki and Toyoshita, supra note 117 at 239–40.

128 National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), “Nihon Seifu Kenkai” [translated by Ai Abe: “Governmental Opinion”] (2 February 1962), online: GRIPS <https://worldjpn.grips.ac.jp/>. See also Koseki and Toyoshita, supra note 117 at 239.

129 Principle Which Should Guide Members in Determining Whether or Not an Obligation Exists to Transmit the Information Called for under Article 73e of the Charter, supra note 25 at Principles IV and V.

130 Ibid.

131 Ibid.

132 Ibid. at Principles VIII and IX.

133 Ibid. at Principle VIII.

134 Washington Secretary of State, “Strategy Paper on Okinawa Negotiations” (3 July 1969), online: Okinawa Prefectural Archives <https://www.archives.pref.okinawa.jp/wp-content/uploads/104-Okinawa-Negotiating-Strategy.pdf>.

135 Government of the Ryukyu Islands, “Fukki Sochi Ni Kansuru Kengisho” [translated by Ai Abe: “Proposal Document on the Reversion Procedure”] (18 January 1971), online: Okinawa Prefectural Archives <http://www.archives.pref.okinawa.jp/wp-content/uploads/R00001217B-1-1.pdf>.

136 Ibid. at 4.

137 Ibid.

138 Brownlie, supra note 65 at 5.

139 Separate Opinion of Judge Cançado Trindade, supra note 12 at paras. 228–9.

140 Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169) Concerning Indigenous and Tribal People in Independent Countries, 27 June 1989, 1650 U.N.T.S. 383 (entered into force 5 September 1991) [ILO Convention No. 169].

141 HEINRICH, Patrick, “Hōgen Ronsō: The Great Ryukyuan Languages Debate of 1940” (2013) 25(2) Contemporary Japan 167CrossRefGoogle Scholar at 168.

142 MAJEWICZ, Alfred F., “Ryukyuan—Linguistic Status, Prestige, Endangerment and Data Availability” (2011) 12 Folia Scandinavica Posnaniensia 155Google Scholar at 161.

143 European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, 4 November 1992, European Treaty Series No. 148, Strasbourg, 5.XI.1992 (entered into force 1 March 1998), online: Council of Europe <https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680695175>.

144 Majewicz, supra note 142 at 159.

145 Concluding Observations on the Sixth Periodic Report of Japan, UN Human Rights Committee, UN Doc. CCPR/C/JPN/CO/6 (2014) at para. 26.

146 Concluding Observations on the Combined Seventh to Ninth Periodic Reports of Japan, UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, UN Doc. CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9 (2014) at para. 21.

147 International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 21 December 1965, 660 U.N.T.S. 195 (entered into force 4 January 1969) [ICERD].

148 Heinrich, supra note 141 at 168.

149 KONDO, Kenichirou, “Gakkou Ga ‘Yamatoya’ to Yobareta Koro: Ryukyu Shobun Chokugo No Okinawa Ni Okeru Gakkou” [“A Study on the Schools in Okinawa Immediately after the Close of the Ryukyu Court”] (1993) 6 The Annual Reports on Educational Science 105Google Scholar at 113.

150 Caprio, supra note 109 at 64.

151 Kondo, supra note 149 at 135.

152 Heinrich, supra note 141 at183.

153 KONDO, Kenichirou, “Kindai Okinawa Ni Okeru Hougen Huda No Jittai: Kinjirareta Kotoba” [“The Actual Condition on the Dialect Punishment Board in Modern Okinawa”] (2005) 53 Bulletin of the Faculty of Letters, Aichi Prefectural University 3Google Scholar at 8.

154 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), “Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger”, online: UNESCO <http://www.unesco.org/languages-atlas/index.php>.

155 See for example Tenth and Eleventh Combined Periodic Report by the Government of Japan under Article 9 of the ICERD, UN Doc. CERD/C/JPN/10-11 (2017) at para. 30.

156 Alan S. CHRISTY, “The Making of Imperial Subjects in Okinawa” in Michael WEINER, ed., Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and Imaginary Minorities, Volume III (London; New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004), 173 at 175.

157 Ibid.

158 Michael WEINER, “Discourses of Race, Nation and Empire in Pre-1945 Japan” in Michael WEINER, ed., Race, Ethnicity and Migration in Modern Japan: Imagined and Imaginary Minorities, Volume I (London; New York: Routledge Curzon, 2004), 217 at 225.

159 Ibid. at 233.

160 Christy, supra note 156 at 178.

161 Ibid.

162 Arnaud NANTA, “Colonial Expositions and Ethnic Hierarchies in Modern Japan” in Pascal BLANCHARD, ed., Human Zoos: Science and Spectacle in the Age of Colonial Empires (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008), 248 at 250.

163 Ibid. at 249.

164 Ibid. at 251.

165 Ibid. at 255.

166 Christy, supra note 156 at 180.

167 Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and All Forms of Discrimination, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Addendum, Mission to Japan, prepared by Doudou DIÈNE, UN Doc. E/CN.4/2006/16/Add.2 (2006) at para. 69.

168 Ibid. at paras. 51–2.

169 Ibid. at para. 88.

170 Moriteru ARASAKI, Nihon Ni Totte Okinawa Toha Nanika [translated by Ai Abe: “What Is Okinawa to Japan?”] (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 2016) at 34–7.

171 Richard SIDDLE (1998) as cited in Glen D. HOOK and Richard SIDDLE, “Introduction: Japan? Structure and Subjectivity in Okinawa” in Glen D. HOOK and Richard SIDDLE, eds., Japan and Okinawa: Structure and Subjectivity (London; New York: Routledge Curzon, 2003), 1 at 9.

172 Richard SIDDLE, “Return to Uchina ̄: The Politics of Identity in Contemporary Okinawa” in Hook and Siddle. Ibid. at 136.

173 Ibid.

174 Dietz, supra note 38 at 188.

175 Ibid.

176 Ibid. at 184.

177 Siddle, supra note 172 at 136.

178 Ibid.

179 Dietz, supra note 38 at 195.

180 Ibid.

181 Ibid. at 196.

182 Takeshi ONAGA, “Dairokkai Sekai No Uchinanchu Taikai Kaikai Siki Aisatsu” [translated by Ai Abe: “Opening Address of the Sixth World Wide Uchinanchu Festival”] (27 October 2017), online: Okinawa Prefectural Archives <http://www.pref.okinawa.jp/site/chijiko/hisho/hpchijimessage/20161027utinanchu.html>.

183 KATOH, Junzo et al. ., “A Study on Okinawa Identity and Uchina Network among Okinawans: In Conjunction with Basic Analysis of the ‘6th Worldwide Uchinanchu Festival’” (2018) 14 Immigration Studies 1Google Scholar at 13, online: University of the Ryukyus Repository <http://ir.lib.u-ryukyu.ac.jp/bitstream/20.500.12000/42346/1/No14p1.pdf>.

184 “Kenmin dearukoto hokorini omou 74%” [Translated by Ai Abe: “Feel Proud of Being Okinawan: 74%”] Ryukyu Shimpo (8 January 2022), online: Ryukyu Shimpo <https://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/entry-1451275.html>.

185 Study of the Problem of Discrimination against Indigenous Populations, Report of the Special Rapporteur of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities, Volume V: Conclusions, Proposals and Recommendations, prepared by José R. MARTÍNEZ COBO, UN Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1986/7/Add.4 (1987) at para. 379.

186 Uemura, supra note 79 at 107.

187 Opinion Statement of the City Council of Tomigusuku of Okinawa Prefecture, as cited in Tenth and Eleventh Combined Periodic Report, supra note 155 at para. 35.

188 Consultation on the Situation of Indigenous Peoples in Asia, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, prepared by James ANAYA, UN Doc. A/HRC/24/41/Add.3 (2013) at para. 32.

189 “Henoko Hantai Nezuyoku Okinawa Chijisen Yuruganu Minni Shimesu” [translated by Ai Abe: “Firm Objection to Henoko: Will of People Expressed in the Election”] Ryukyu Shimpo (1 October 2018), online: Ryukyu Shimpo <https://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/entry-811533.html>. Note that Uchinanchu is the term the people of Ryukyu/Okinawa use to refer to themselves.

190 Reference re Secession of Quebec, supra note 54 at para. 124.

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