No CrossRef data available.
Published online by Cambridge University Press: 12 November 2019
Our research proposes ‘mixed legal transplant’ as a new concept in theories of legal transplantation. While the concept of legal transplantation is real, the phenomenon is much more complicated than what is often depicted and discussed by the academic community. In modern times, legal transplantation is often an informed reception by independent sovereign nations or people of two or more sets of rules from different jurisdictions, rather than a simplistic and passive reception of rules from one country to another. Using Vietnam as a case study, this article analyzes the deliberate consideration of two different models of precedent in the civil and common law traditions by Vietnamese lawmakers, and their choice of a mixed legal transplant in the hope that it would be best suited to the needs of a socialist country in transition. Its methods and results, however, are still in doubt and have been criticized as possibly creating uncertainty due to their structural incoherence. This article therefore concludes by proposing recommendations based on legal tradition to correct the misuse of the mixed legal transplant in Vietnam, and we hope that these recommendations can serve as a model for other countries.
Deputy Director, Institute for Social Development Studies, Vietnam; Lecturer, School of Law, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Researcher, Institute for Social Development Studies, Vietnam.
Researcher, Institute for Social Development Studies, Vietnam.
Declaration of funding: This research is funded by Vietnam National Foundation for Science and Technology Development (NAFOSTED) under grant number 505.01-2017.02.
The original version of this article was published without the Declaration of Funding information. An Addendum notice detailing this has been published and the error rectified in the online and print PDF and HTML copies.
1. Watson, Alan, Legal Transplants (Scottish Academic Press 1974) 21Google Scholar. See also Watson, Alan, ‘The Birth of Legal Transplants’ (2013) 41 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 605Google Scholar; Alan Watson, ‘Aspects of Reception of Law’  American Journal of Comparative Law 335; Alan Watson, ‘From Legal Transplants to Legal Formants’  43 American Journal of Comparative Law 469.
2. Cairns, John W, ‘Watson, Walton, and the History of Legal Transplants’ (2013) 41 Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law 637Google Scholar; Ewald, William, ‘Comparative Jurisprudence (II): The Logic of Legal Transplants’ (1995) 43 American Journal of Comparative Law 489CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Foster, Frances H, ‘American Trust Law in a Chinese Mirror’ (2010) 94 Minnesota Law Review 602Google Scholar.
3. Ajani, Gianmaria, ‘By Chance and Prestige: Legal Transplants in Russia and Eastern Europe’ (1995) 43 American Journal of Comparative Law 93CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kanda, Hideki & Milhaupt, Curtis J, ‘Re-Examining Legal Transplants: The Director's Fiduciary Duty in Japanese Corporate Law’ (2003) 51 American Journal of Comparative Law 887CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Ng, Michael HK, Legal Transplantation in Early Twentieth-Century China: Practicing Law in Republican Beijing (1910s–1930s) (Routledge 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Mattei, Ugo, ‘Efficiency in Legal Transplants: An Essay in Comparative Law and Economics’ (1994) 14 International Review of Law and Economics 3CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
4. Dupré, Catherine, Importing the Law in Post-Communist Transitions: The Hungarian Constitutional Court and the Right to Human Dignity (Bloomsbury Publishing 2003) 40–41Google Scholar.
6. Legrand, Pierre, ‘What “Legal Transplants”?’, in Nelken, David & Feest, Johannes (eds), Adapting Legal Cultures (Hart Publishing 2001) 63Google Scholar.
7. Watson, Alan, Legal Transplants: An Approach to Comparative Law (2nd edn, University of Georgia Press 1993) 21Google Scholar.
8. Alan Watson, ‘Legal Transplants and European Private Law’ (2000) 4.4 Electronic Journal of Comparative Law, VIII <https://www.ejcl.org/44/art44-2.html> accessed 17 Sep 2019.
11. Watson, Legal Transplants (n 1) 8; Milsom, SFC, Historical Foundations of the Common Law (Butterworth-Heinemann 1969) ixGoogle Scholar.
12. Watson, Legal Transplants (n 1) 30.
13. Watson, Alan, Society and Legal Change (2nd edn, Temple University Press 2001) 98–105Google Scholar.
14. Daniel Philpott, ‘Sovereignty’, The Stanford Encylopedia of Philosophy, Summer 2016 ed <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2016/entries/sovereignty/> accessed 18 Sep 2019.
15. Reich, Norbert, ‘Theoretical Issues on Legal Transplants: Theories, Phenomena, Trends and Relevant Factors’, in Office of the National Assembly (ed), Challenges and Practices of Legal Transplants in Vietnam: Sharing European Experiences (Hong Duc Publishing House 2016)Google Scholar.
16. Dupré (n 4) 42–47.
17. Gillespie, John Stanley, Transplanting Commercial Law Reform: Developing a ‘Rule of Law’ in Vietnam (Ashgate Publishing Ltd 2006)Google Scholar.
18. Gillespie, John & Nicholson, Pip (eds), Law and Development and the Global Discourses of Legal Transfers (Cambridge University Press 2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Gillespie, John, ‘Changing Concepts of Socialist Law in Vietnam’, in Gillespie, John & Nicholson, Pip (eds), Asian Socialism & Legal Change: The Dynamics of Vietnamese and Chinese Reforms (Australian National University Press 2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.
19. Dupré (n 4); Gillespie, ‘Changing Concepts of Socialist Law’ (n 18).
20. Reich (n 15); Gillespie, ‘Changing Concepts of Socialist Law’ (n 18); Son, Bui Ngoc, ‘The Global Origins of Vietnam's Constitutions: Text in Context’ (2017) 2 University of Illinois Law Review 525Google Scholar.
21. Before 2015, precedent was not mentioned in any provisions in codes or laws in Vietnam. It existed in an informal form, which was called ‘Summary report on trial experience of the Supreme People's Court’. Since the promulgation of new codes such as the 2015 Civil Code of Vietnam, the 2015 Law on Administrative Procedures, and the 2015 Code on Civil Procedure, precedent has been recognized as an official source of law.
22. Bộ luật Dân sự [Civil Code] (Law No 91/2015/QH13), art 6(2).
23. Ngo Huy Cuong, ‘Sự Ảnh Hưởng Của Pháp Luật Pháp Tới Luật Tư Việt Nam [The Influence of French Law on Private Law in Vietnam]’, in Arnaud de Raulin et al (eds), Ảnh hưởng của truyền thống pháp luật Pháp tới pháp luật Việt Nam [The influence of the French legal tradition on Vietnamese law] (Vietnam National University Press 2016) 97.
24. Thong, Vu Quoc, Pháp Chế Sử Việt Nam [The History of Law of Vietnam] (Saigon University Textbook 1971) 60Google Scholar.
25. Vu Van Mau, Cổ-Luật Việt Nam Thông-Khảo và Tư-Pháp Sử [Vietnamese Ancient Legal History], vol I (1974) 135.
29. Hai, Bui Xuan & Nunoi, Chihiro, ‘Corporate Governance in Vietnam - A System in Transition’ (2008) 42 Hitotsubashi Journal of Commerce and Management 45Google Scholar.
30. Ministry of Justice of Vietnam, Chế-Độ Tư-Pháp [Judicial System] (The Government of the Republic of Vietnam 1967) 18.
31. Bach, Nguyen Manh, Luật Dân Sự Lược Khảo [Brief Overview of Civil Law] (National Political Publishing House 2006) 26Google Scholar.
32. Mau, Vu Van, Dân-Luật Khái Luận [Overview of Civil Law] (2nd edn, Ministry of National Education 1961) 261Google Scholar.
34. Vu Quoc Thong (n 24) 28.
35. Dau, Nguyen Huy, Luật Dân-Sự Tố-Tụng [The Civil Procedure Law] (Ministry of Justice 1962) 162Google Scholar.
36. George Dürrwell, Droit annamite: Doctrine et jurisprudence en matière civile indigène [Annamese Law: Doctrine and Jurisprudence in Native Civil Matters] (Claude & C, Imprimeurs-Éditeurs 1900).
37. Than, Chau Hoang, ‘Cấu Trúc và Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam]’ (2016) 23 Prosecutorial Magazine 22Google Scholar.
38. Nguyen Manh Bach (n 31) 29–30.
39. Vu Van Mau (n 32) 300.
42. Nguyen Thi Hanh & Nguyen Thi An Na, ‘Án Lệ và Vai Trò Của Án Lệ Trong Đào Tạo Các Chức Danh Tư Pháp Của Học Viện Tư Pháp [The Role of Case Law in Training Legal Professionals at Judicial Academy]’  Tạp chí Nghề Luật [January Legal Professions Review] 89.
43. Joint Circular No 92-TC of the Ministry of Justice and the Supreme Court explains and defines specifically the assignment and authority of courts of appeal in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Vinh.
44. Nguyen Van Cuong, ‘Áp Dụng Án Lệ Của Tòa Án Nhân Dân Tối Cao [The Precedent Application of the Supreme People's Court]’ (Conference on ‘Precedent in Common Law and Civil Law: Suggestion for building and applying precedent in Vietnam’, Ho Chi Minh City, 25 Apr 2014).
46. As Lenin said, ‘We do not recognise anything “private”, and regard everything … as falling under public and not private law’: David, René & Brierley, John EC, Major Legal Systems in the World Today: An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Law (3rd edn, Stevens 1985) 286Google Scholar.
47. In this period, laws were promulgated in the form of governmental decrees or decisions of the Prime Minister, and many civil matters were not directly regulated, such as inheritance, intellectual property rights, etc: Thu, Phan Huu & Ha, Le Thu (eds), Giáo Trình Luật Dân Sự Việt Nam [Textbook on Civil Law of Vietnam] (The People's Public Security Publishing House 2007) 61Google Scholar.
48. Bogdan, Michael, Luật so Sánh [Comparative Law] (Hanh, Le Hong & Hien, Duong Thi trs, Kluwer Law and Taxation 2004) 194Google Scholar.
49. Gillespie, Transplanting Commercial Law Reform (n 17) 47.
50. Quinn, Brian JM, ‘Legal Reform and Its Context in Vietnam’ (2002) 15 Columbia Journal of Asian Law 219Google Scholar.
51. Luật đầu tư nước ngoài tại Việt Nam [Law on Foreign Investment in Vietnam] (Law No 4-HĐNN8); Luật Công ty [Law on Company] (Law No 47-LCT/HĐNN8); Luật Doanh nghiệp tư nhân [Law on Private Entreprise] (48-LCT/HĐNN8); Bộ luật dân sự [Civil Code].
52. Quinn (n 50).
53. According to this unofficial statistic, the average effective lifespan of an act in Vietnam is 11.9 years: Thu Vien Phap Luat, ‘Tuổi Thọ Của Các Luật, Bộ Luật ở Việt Nam [Life-Span of Written Laws and Codes in Vietnam]’ <http://danluat.thuvienphapluat.vn/tuoi-tho-cua-cac-luat-bo-luat-o-viet-nam-148978.aspx> accessed 26 Sep 2019.
54. John Gillespie, Transplanting Commercial Law Reform: Developing a Rule of Law in Vietnam (DPhil thesis, Australian National University 2005) 99–100.
55. Cuong, Ngo Huy, Góp Phần Bàn về Cải Cách Pháp Luật ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Contribution to the Debate on Legal Reform in Vietnam Today] (Judicial Publishing House 2006) 59Google Scholar.
57. Gillespie, Transplanting Commercial Law Reform: Developing a Rule of Law (n 54) 364; Ngo Huy Cuong, Contribution to the Debate on Legal Reform (n 55) 58–59.
58. Nghia, Pham Duy, ‘Confucianism and the Conception of the Law in Vietnam’, in Gillespie, John & Nicholson, Pip (eds), Asian Socialism and Legal Change: The Dynamics of Vietnamese and Chinese Reform (Asia Pacific Press 2005) 76Google Scholar; Ngo Huy Cuong, Contribution to the Debate on Legal Reform (n 55) 39.
59. Ricci, Jean-Claude, Introduction à l’étude Du Droit [Introduction to Law] (Tran Quang Hieu tr, La Maison du droit vietnamo-française 2002) 44–45Google Scholar.
60. Bui Tien Dat, ‘Áp Dụng Án Lệ: Nhu Cầu Tất Yếu Trong Điều Kiện Cải Cách Tư Pháp và Xây Dựng Nhà Nước Pháp Quyền ở Việt Nam [Applying Precedent – Indispensable Demand in the Context of Judicial Reform and Building the Rule of Law in Vietnam]’ (2009) 25 VNU Journal of Science: Legal Studies 195.
61. 2014 Law on Organization of the National Assembly, art 49.
62. David & Brierley (n 46) 194.
63. For example, the Vietnamese courts used to refuse to settle disputes concerning ‘hui’ – a folk form of capital mobilization – since there were no provisions regulating the matter: Nguyen Ngoc Dien, ‘Hoàn Thiện Pháp Luật Việt Nam Trong Bối Cảnh Toàn Cầu Hóa – Ảnh Hưởng Của Mô Hình Pháp [Improving the Law of Vietnam in the Context of Globalisation – the Influence of the French Model]', Hội thảo pháp luật Pháp và Việt Nam – Truyền thống và hiện đại [Seminar on French and Vietnamese Law – Traditional and Modern] (School of Law, Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, 12 May 2016).
64. Woodman, Sophia, ‘Legislative Interpretation by China's National People's Congress Standing Committee: A Power with Roots in the Stalinist Conception of Law’, in Fu, Hualing, Harris, Lison & Young, Simon NM (eds), Interpreting Hong Kong's Basic Law: The Struggle for Coherence (Palgrave MacMillan 2007) 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Constitution of the People's Republic of China, art 67: ‘The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress exercises the following functions and powers: (1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement; … (4) to interpret laws’.
65. The Guiding Cases System includes clustered judicial decisions which are selected nationwide and published periodically by the Supreme People's Court. Judges shall refer to these cases in adjudications, but they may not use the guiding case as the legal basis for their judgments. In fact, guiding cases are not precedent by nature, because lower court judges simply apply the same solution to the same case based on similar facts, and not based on arguments or reasoning which led to the solutions. See generally Zhang, Mo, ‘Pushing the Envelope: Application of Guiding Cases in Chinese Courts and Development of Case Law in China’ (2017) 26 Washington International Law Journal 269Google Scholar; Jia, Mark, ‘Chinese Common Law? Guiding Cases and Judicial Reform’ (2016) 129 Harvard Law Review 2213Google Scholar.
66. Zhang (n 65).
67. Provisions of the Supreme People's Court Concerning Work on Case Guidance (China), passed by the Adjudication Committee of the Supreme People's Court on 15 Nov 2010 and issued on 26 Nov 2010, art 7: ‘People's courts at all levels should refer to the Guiding Cases released by the Supreme People's Court when adjudicating similar cases’ (Stanford Law School, China Guiding Cases Project, 12 Jun 2015) <https://cgc.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/08/guiding-cases-rules-20101126-english.pdf> accessed 28 Sep 2019. Moreover, the ‘Detailed Implementing Rules’ on these Provisions, art 10 specifies the manner of applying this Article: ‘Where a people's court at any level refers to a Guiding Case when adjudicating a similar case, [it] should quote the Guiding Case as a reason for its adjudication, but not cite [the Guiding Case] as the basis of its adjudication’ (Stanford Law School, China Guiding Cases Project, 12 Jun 2015) <https://cgc.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/10/guiding-cases-rules-20150513-english.pdf> accessed 28 Sep 2019. See also Jia (n 65).
68. Hoang Thi Kim Que (ed), Giáo Trình Lý Luận Nhà Nước và Pháp Luật [Textbook on Theories of State and Law] (Vietnam National University Press 2015) 334.
69. Hien, Nguyen Van & Dzung, Hoang Cong, ‘Một Vài Vấn Đề về Pháp Luật, Bản Chất Pháp Luật và Nguồn Pháp Luật [Some Issues of Law, Nature and Source of Law]’, in Van Hien, Nguyen (ed), Bàn về hệ thống pháp luật [Discussions on the legal system] (National Politics Publishing House 2014) 31Google Scholar.
70. Bui Tien Dat (n 60).
71. Political Bureau of the Central Committee Communist Party of Vietnam, Resolution No 48-NQ/TW on the strategies for building and perfecting the legal system of Vietnam to 2010, with orientation to 2020; Political Bureau of the Central Committee Communist Party of Vietnam, Resolution No 49-NQ/TW on judicial reform strategy to 2020.
72. Binh, Truong Hoa, ‘Thực Hiện Tốt Nhiệm vụ Phát Triển Án Lệ, Bảo Đảm Áp Dụng Thống Nhất Pháp Luật Trong Hoạt Động Xét Xử Của Tòa Án Nhân Dân [Accomplishing the Task of Developing Case Law, of Ensuring the Uniform Application of Law in Judicial Activities of People's Courts]’ (2016) 12 The People's Court Journal 2Google Scholar.
73. Luật Tổ chức Quốc hội [Law on the Organization of People's Courts] (Law No 62/2014/QH13); Bộ luật Tố tụng dân sự [Code of Civil Procedure] (92/2015/QH13); Luật Tố tụng hành chính [Law on Administrative Procedure] (93/2015/QH13).
74. Resolution No 03/2015/NQ-HDTP of the Council of Justices of the Supreme People's Court on the process of selection, publication, and application of precedent.
75. Resolution No 48/2005/NQ-TW of the Politburo dated 24 May 2005 on the Strategy for improvement of the legal system through 2020; Resolution No 49/2005/NQ-TW of the Politburo dated 2 Jun 2005 on the Strategy for judicial reform through 2020.
76. According to the official web portal of the Supreme People's Court, the number now stays at 16: Án Lệ - Tòa án Nhân dân Tối cao [Supreme People's Court] <https://anle.toaan.gov.vn/webcenter/portal/anle/home> accessed 28 Sep 2019.
77. Hanh, Do Thi Mai, ‘Transplanting Common Law Precedents: An Appropriate Solution for Defects of Legislation in Vietnam (Part 1)’ (2015) 7 European Scientific Journal 82Google Scholar.
78. Gillespie, Transplanting Commercial Law Reform: Developing a Rule of Law (n 54) 45.
80. MacCormick, D Neil & Summers, Robert S, Interpreting Precedents: A Comparative Study (Taylor & Francis 1997) 1Google Scholar.
81. Garner, Bryan A (ed), Black's Law Dictionary (9th edn, West Publishing Co 2009) 1176Google Scholar.
82. Từ Điển Thuật Ngữ Pháp Luật Pháp – Việt [Dictionary of French – Vietnamese Legal Terminology] (Bach Khoa Dictionary Publishing House 2009) 492Google Scholar.
83. Terré, François and Molfessis, Nicolas, Introduction Générale Au Droit (Dalloz 2019) 396, 397Google Scholar.
84. Berman, Harold J & Reid, Charles J Jr, ‘The Transformation of English Legal Science: From Hale to Blackstone’ (1996) 45 Emory Law Journal 438Google Scholar.
85. Duxbury (n 79) 9.
87. Algero, Mary Garvey, ‘The Sources of Law and the Value of Precedent: A Comparative and Empirical Study of a Civil Law State in a Common Law Nation’ (2003) 65 Louisiana Law Review 775Google Scholar.
88. Fon & Parisi (n 86).
89. Montesquieu, Charles, The Spirit of the Laws (Cohler, Anne, Miller, Basia & Stone, Harold trs, Cambridge University Press 1989) 163Google Scholar.
90. Laurent Cohen-Tanugi, ‘Case Law in a Legal System Without Binding Precedent: The French Example’ (Stanford Law School China, Guiding Cases Project, 29 Feb 2016) <https://cgc.law.stanford.edu/commentaries/17-laurent-cohen-tanugi/> accessed 28 Sep 2019.
91. Fon & Parisi (n 86) 522.
92. Phillips, O Hood & Hudson, AH, A First Book of English Law (Sweet & Maxwell 1977) 9Google Scholar.
94. See eg Coronation Oath Act 1688; The 1689 Bill of Rights; The Claim of Right Act 1689.
95. For an explanation of parliamentary sovereignty see ‘Parliament's authority’ (UK Parliament) <http://www.parliament.uk/about/how/sovereignty/> accessed 28 Sep 2019: ‘Parliamentary sovereignty is a principle of the UK constitution. It makes Parliament the supreme legal authority in the UK, which can create or end any law. Generally, the courts cannot overrule its legislation and no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change’.
96. Phillips & Hudson (n 92) 9.
97. Eskridge, William N Jr, ‘Overruling Statutory Precedents’ (1988) 76 Georgetown Law Journal 1361Google Scholar.
100. Sauveplane, JG, Codified and Judge Made Law, The Role of Courts and Legislators in Civil and Common Law Systems (North-Holland 1982) 114Google Scholar.
101. Gearey, Adam & Morrison, Wayne, Common Law Reasoning and Institutions (University of London International Programs 2012) 45Google Scholar.
102. Garner, Bryan A, A Dictionary of Modern Legal Usage (Oxford University Press 2001) 827Google Scholar.
106. Duxbury (n 79) 26.
108. Solan, Lawrence M, ‘Precedent in Statutory Interpretation’ (2016) 94 North Carolina Law Review 1165Google Scholar.
110. González, Rodrigo Camarena, ‘From Jurisprudence Constante to Stare Decisis: The Migration of the Doctrine of Precedent to Civil Law Constitutionalism’ (2016) 7 Transnational Legal Theory 257, 261Google Scholar.
111. David Vong, ‘Binding Precedent and English Judicial Law-Making’ (1984–1985) 21 Jura Falconis 318 <https://www.law.kuleuven.be/apps/jura/public/art/21n3/vong.pdf> accessed 18 Sep 2019.
112. Dainow (n 98).
115. Sauveplane (n 100) 110.
116. Dainow (n 98).
118. González (n 110).
119. Fon and Parisi (n 86).
121. Code civil des Francais [French Civil Code] 1804, art 5: Judges are forbidden to decide cases submitted to them by way of general and regulatory provisions.
122. Dainow (n 98).
124. The procedure of référé législatif in French after the Revolution refers to instances when parliament can interpret its own laws by issuing an interpretive law, while in practice, this procedure was rarely executed due to its inefficiency: Ghestin, Jacques & Goubeaux, Gilles, Traité de Droit Civil, Introduction Générale [Treaty of Civil Law, General Introduction] (Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence 1990) 363Google Scholar.
125. Germain, Claire M, ‘Approaches to Statutory Interpretation and Legislative History in France’ (2003) 13 Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law 195Google Scholar.
127. Solan, Lawrence M, ‘Precedent in Statutory Interpretation’ (2016) 94 North Carolina Law Review 1163Google Scholar.
128. Germain (n 125).
130. Cohen-Tanugi (n 90).
131. See ‘L'appel et le double degré de juridiction [The appeal and the double degree of jurisdiction]’ (Ministère de la Justice, La République Française [Ministry of Justice, The Republic of France], 8 Feb 2007) for an explanation of the double degree of jurisdiction <www.justice.gouv.fr/organisation-de-la-justice-10031/les-fondements-et-principes-10032/lappel-et-le-double-degre-de-juridiction-12039.html> accessed 28 Sep 2019.
132. Pugh, Nina Nichols, ‘The Structure and Role of Courts of Appeal in Civil Law Systems’ (1975) 35 Louisiana Law Review 1163Google Scholar.
134. Trung, Do Thanh, ‘Vai Trò Tạo Lập Án Lệ Của Tòa Án [The Court's Role in Creating Precedents]’ (2016) 11 The People's Procuracy Journal 54Google Scholar.
135. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Thách Thức và Định Hướng Triển Khai Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam [Challenge of and Direction for the Application of Case Law in Vietnam]’  State and Law Review 11.
136. Resolution No 49/2005/NQ-TW (n 75).
137. Le Thi Nam Huong, ‘Case Management in Viet Nam: Striking the Balance between Judicial Accountability and Efficiency’ (ALA Conference, Feb 2012) <https://www.aseanlawassociation.org/11GAdocs/workshop2-vietnam.pdf > accessed 28 Sep 2019.
138. Nguyen Quang Loc, ‘Kỹ Năng Viết Bản Án Dân Sự Sơ Thẩm [Skill of Writing Civil Judgment of First Instance]’  The People's Court Journal 41.
139. Nguyen Quang Loc, ‘Phần Thứ Ba: Kỹ Năng Viết Bản Án Dân Sự Sơ Thẩm- Tiếp Theo Kỳ Trước và Hết [Part 3: Skill of Writing Civil Judgment of First Instance – The Next of the Previous Issue and the End]'  The People's Court Journal 39.
140. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Cấu Trúc và Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam]’ (n 37).
143. Zhang (n 65); Jia (n 65).
144. See eg The Incorporated Council of Law Reporting in England and Wales.
145. Mai, Mai Thi, ‘Lý Luận về Án Lệ Trong Hệ Thống Pháp Luật Các Nước Common Law, Civil Law và Những Vấn Đề Đặt Ra Cho Việt Nam [Discussion of Precedents in Legal Systems of Common Law, Civil Law and Questions for Vietnam]’ (2017) 5 Legislative Studies 56Google Scholar.
146. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Cấu Trúc và Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam]’ (n 37).
147. Uc, Dao Tri, ‘Án Lệ: Lịch Sử, Hiện Tại và Triển Vọng Phát Triển ở Việt Nam [Precedent: History, Present and Development Prospects in Vietnam]’ (2015) 10 Legislative Studies 16Google Scholar.
148. Van Dai, Do, ‘Nhận Diện Giá Trị Của Các Nội Dung Trong Quyết Định Tạo Lập Án Lệ [Recognizing the Value of Contents in the Case Law-Making Decision]’ (2016) 12 The People's Court Journal 44Google Scholar.
149. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Thách Thức và Định Hướng Triển Khai Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam [Challenge of and Direction for the Application of Case Law in Vietnam]’ (n 135).
150. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Cấu Trúc và Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam]’ (n 37).
151. Nguyen Van Nam, Lý Luận và Thực Tiễn về Án Lệ Trong Hệ Thống Pháp Luật Của Các Nước Anh, Mỹ, Pháp, Đức và Những Kiến Nghị Đối Với Việt Nam [Theory and Practice in the Legal System of the United Kingdom, United States, France, Germany and Recommendations for Vietnam] (The People's Public Security Publishing House 2012) 341.
153. Do Van Dai, ‘Tiếp Thu Kinh Nghiệm Từ Pháp và Thụy Sỹ Trong Pháp Điển Hóa Vấn Đề Án Lệ [To Learn Experiences from France and Switzerland in the Codification of Case Law]’ (2014) 20 Legal Studies 58.
155. Hoang Thi Kim Que (n 68) 324.
156. Nguyen Van Nam (n 151) 448.
157. Civil Code of Switzerland 1912, art 1: ‘In the absence of a provision, the court shall decide in accordance with customary law and, in the absence of customary law, in accordance with the rule that it would make as legislator.’
158. Fusihara Hirota, ‘Một Vài Nhận Định về Chế Độ Án Lệ ở Việt Nam [Some Comments on the Precedent in Vietnam]’ (Conference on ‘Precedent in Vietnam – The fact of application’, Hanoi, 17 Mar 2017).
160. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Cấu Trúc và Áp Dụng Án Lệ ở Việt Nam Hiện Nay [Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam]’ (n 37).
161. 2013 Constitution, art 74: ‘The Standing Committee of the National Assembly has the following duties and powers: 2. To enact ordinances on matters entrusted to it by the National Assembly; to interpret the Constitution, the law, and decree-laws.’
162. Dau Cong Hiep & Ha Thi Phuong Tra, ‘Quy Định về Án Lệ Trong Luật Tổ Chức Tòa Án Nhân Dân Năm 2014 – Nhìn Từ Góc Độ Bản Chất Của Án Lệ [Case Law under the Law on Organization of the People's Courts of 2014: From the Perspective of Nature of Case Law]’ (2016) 4 State and Law Review 9.
163. Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1936, art 121: ‘The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR shall: … 5. interpret the laws of the USSR.’
164. Luật Tổ chức Quốc hội [Law on the Organization of the National Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam] (57/2014/QH13), art 49: ‘Interpretation of the Constitution, laws and ordinances: … 2. Depending on the nature and content of the matter to be interpreted, the Standing Committee of the National Assembly shall assign the Government, the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuracy or the Ethnic Council or the Committee of the National Assembly to draft a resolution interpreting the Constitution, laws and ordinances to be submitted to the Standing Committee of the National Assembly for consideration and deciding.’
165. Vo Tri Hao, ‘Vai Trò Giải Thích Pháp Luật Của Tòa Án [The Court's Role of Interpreting Legislation]’ (Conference held at Ho Chi Minh City University of Law, 12 Nov 2008) <https://sites.google.com/site/ahdandthelaw/luat-hinh/bai/vai-tro-giai-thich-phap-luat-cua-toa-an> accessed 28 Sep 2019.
166. Huynh Thi Hien Sinh, ‘Giải Thích Pháp Luật ở Úc và Nhu Cầu Luật Hóa Hoạt Động Giai Thích Pháp Luật ở Việt Nam [Interpretation of Laws in Australia and the Need of Legalising Activities of Interpretation in Vietnam]’ (2014) 4 Legal Studies 57.
167. Yoomin Rah, ‘Án Lệ ở Hàn Quốc [Precedent in South Korea]’, in Kỷ yếu Hội thảo khoa học chuyên đề [Summary record of conferences on special subjects] (People's Public Security Publishing House 2015) 92.
170. Court Organisation Act 2014 of the Republic of Korea (Act No 8794), art 8: ‘Judgment in the trial of a higher court shall be subordinate to the case concerned.’
171. Resolution No 03/2015/NQ-HDTP (n 74), art 2: ‘Criteria for selecting precedents: Each precedent to be selected must satisfy all criteria below: 1. Containing arguments to clarify the provisions of the law which have differing interpretations, analyze and explain legal issues or events, and legal principles and guidelines to be followed in a specific situation; 2. Having normative value; 3. Ensuring the consistency of law in adjudication and the same settlement results from the two cases having the same facts or events.’
172. Huong, Tran Thi Dieu, ‘Án Lệ Trong Hệ Thống Pháp Luật Thông Luật Anh – Kinh Nghiệm Cho Việc Hoàn Thiện Quy Định về Án Lệ ở Việt Nam [Precedent in the English Common Law System and Experiences for Completion of Regulations on Precedent in Vietnam]’ (2017) 2 Democracy and Law Review 57Google Scholar.
173. Hanh, Do Thi Mai, ‘Transplanting Common Law Precedents: An Appropriate Solution for Defects of Legislation in Vietnam (Part 2)’ (2015) 7 European Scientific Journal 48Google Scholar: ‘The theories of legal transplants of Watson and Freund generally confirm possibility of successful transplants although this possibility requires different conditions according to each author. At least, this is a theoretical basis for anticipating success of applying precedents in the Vietnamese legal system. Furthermore, borrowing precedents can proceeded at an advantageous time, that is when Vietnam is in the process of judicial and legal reforms. For instance, it is quite possible for Vietnam to change its court structure and produce an effective reporting, both of which are required for the viability of Common Law precedents.’
174. Tuan, Nguyen Minh, Bình Luận Khoa Học Bộ Luật Dân Sự Việt Nam Năm 2015 [Scientific Commentaries on the 2015 Civil Code of Vietnam] (Judicial Publishing House 2016) 17Google Scholar.
175. 2013 Constitution, art 102: ‘The People's Courts are responsible for the protection of justice, human rights, citizen's rights, socialist regime, interests of the State and legal rights and interests of organisations and individuals.’
176. Nguyen Dang Dzung, ‘Quyền Lực Nhà Nước Luôn Thống Nhất Vào Hiến Pháp, Xuất Phát Từ Sự Phân Công, Phối Hợp và Kiểm Soát Giữa Các Quyền Lập Pháp, Hành Pháp và Tư Pháp [State Power is Always Integrated into the Constitution, Stemming from the Assignment, Coordination and Control of Legislative, Executive and Judicial Powers]’, in Pham Hong Thai et al (eds), Sửa đổi, bổ sung Hiến Pháp 1992: Những vấn đề lý luận và thực tiễn [Amendment and supplement to the 1992 Constitution: Theoretical and practical issues], vol 1 (Hong Duc Publishing House 2012) 236.
177. Lam, Nguyen Duc, ‘Kiểm Soát Quyền Lực Trong Hiến Pháp [The Control of Power in the Constitution]’, in Thai, Pham Hong et al. (eds), Sửa đổi, bổ sung Hiến Pháp 1992: Những vấn đề lý luận và thực tiễn [Amendment and supplement to the 1992 Constitution: Theoretical and practical issues], vol 1 (Hong Duc Publishing House 2012) 275Google Scholar.
178. McGee, David, Parliamentary Practice in New Zealand (4th edn, Harris, Mary & Wilson, David eds, Oratia 2017) 459, 460Google Scholar.
179. 2015 Civil Code, art 6: ‘Application of analogy of laws: 1. In cases where relations are governed by the civil law and not agreed upon by the parties, and there are no provisions of law and no customary law, the analogy of law shall apply; 2. Where it is impossible to apply the analogy of law as provided by clause 1 of this Article, then apply the basic principles of civil law prescribed in Article 3 of this Code, precedent and equity.’
180. Do Van Dai, ‘Lãi Chậm Trả Tiền Trong Án Lệ Năm 2016 [Interest of Delayed Payment in Precedent in 2016]’ (Conference on ‘Precedent in Vietnam – The fact of application’, Hanoi, 17 Mar 2017).
181. Nguyen Thanh Dinh, ‘Án Lệ - Một Loại Nguồn Quan Trọng Góp Phần Hoàn Thiện Hệ Thống Pháp Luật Việt Nam [Case Law – An Important Legal Source Completes the Legal System of Vietnam]’, in Ngo Huy Cuong & Hoang Thi Kim Que (eds), Văn hóa pháp luật - Những vấn đề lý luận cơ bản và ứng dụng chuyên ngành [Legal Culture – Basic Fundamental Theories and Specialised Applications] (Vietnam National University Press 2011) 280.
182. Resolution No 03/2015/NQ-HDTP (n 74).
183. Do Thanh Trung (n 134).
185. Truong Hoa Binh (n 72).
186. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Challenge of and Direction for the Application of Case Law in Vietnam’ (n 135).
187. Ricci (n 59) 53.
188. Law of Organisation of the People's Courts of Vietnam, art 20.
189. Lafon, Jacqueline Lucienne, ‘France’, in Tate, C Neal & Vallinder, Torbjorn (eds), The Global Expansion of Judicial Power (New York University Press 2005) 292Google Scholar.
190. Do Van Dai, ‘Recognizing the Value of Contents in the Case Law-Making Decision’ (n 148).
191. Supreme People's Court of Vietnam, Scheme No 230/TANDTC-TCCB on the organizing of online training courses in 2018 (13 Apr 2018).
192. Representative of the Legal and Scientific Department of the Supreme People's Court, ‘Some Reports on the Application of Precedent’ (Paper presented at the international workshop on ‘Precedent - Theory, Practice in Vietnam and some countries’, Hanoi Law University, Hanoi, 4 Jul 2017).
193. Mai Thi Mai (n 145).
194. Do Van Dai, ‘Interest of Delayed Payment in Precedent in 2016’ (n 180).
195. Mai Thi Mai (n 145).
196. Dau Cong Hiep & Ha Thi Phuong Tra (n 162).
197. Mai Thi Mai (n 145).
198. Chau Hoang Than, ‘Structure and Application of Precedent in Vietnam’ (n 37): ‘According to a report of the Judiciary Committee of the National Assembly: in the year 2014, more than 4600 civil judgments and decisions were found in violation, 560 civil verdicts were unclear, there were errors, difficult to enforce. This report also indicates that there is a case which has been through 13 times of first instance and appealing, 3 times of cassation review, and after 19 years it is now back to the first instance. The rate of cancellation, correction is still high … In particular, the subjective reasons of the cancellation of the judgments always account for a very high proportion of the total number of canceled judgments or decisions. In addition, the skills of writing, presenting the judgment, deciding when applying the precedent in the trial is a big question in the development and application of precedent in our country.’
199. Mai Thi Mai (n 145).
200. Do Thanh Trung (n 134).
202. Nguyen Van Nam (n 151) 191.
203. Padden, Amy L, ‘Overruling Decisions in the Supreme Court: The Role of a Decision's Vote, Age, and Subject Matter in the Application of Stare Decisis after Payne v. Tennessee’, in Altschuler, Bruce E, Sgroi, Celia A & Ryniker, Margaret R (eds), Understanding Law in a Changing Society (3rd edn, Routledge 2016) 135Google Scholar; Mary Garvey Algero (n 87).
204. Nguyen Van Nam (n 151) 191.
205. Resolution No 03/2015/NQ-HDTP (n 74), art 9.
206. Truong Nhat Quang, ‘Áp Dụng Án Lệ [The Application of Case Law]’ (Conference on ‘Precedent in Vietnam – The fact of application’, Hanoi, 17 Mar 2017).
210. Cairns (n 2) 637.
211. Kahn-Freund (n 207).
212. Sauveplane (n 100) 120.
No CrossRef data available.