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Cytotoxic and antibacterial properties of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas (bivalve molluscs) hemolymph

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  15 April 1996

Florence Hubert
Affiliation:
IFREMER-CNRS-Université de Montpellier 2, Défense et Résistance chez les Invertébrés marins (DRIM), 2, place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Wil van der Knaap
Affiliation:
IFREMER-CNRS-Université de Montpellier 2, Défense et Résistance chez les Invertébrés marins (DRIM), 2, place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Thierry Noël
Affiliation:
IFREMER-CNRS-Université de Montpellier 2, Défense et Résistance chez les Invertébrés marins (DRIM), 2, place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
Philippe Roch
Affiliation:
IFREMER-CNRS-Université de Montpellier 2, Défense et Résistance chez les Invertébrés marins (DRIM), 2, place Eugène Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
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Abstract

Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plasma contains cytotoxic activity against both vertebrate (erythrocytes and mouse tumour) and protozoan cells. Procaryotes (Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus) were not sensitive to the cytotoxicity. The activity was still present in dialyzed samples but was inhibited by heating at 45 °C. Large individual variability which was not correlated with protein concentration and an increasing number of reactive specimens following injection, suggested that naive mussels were in various stages of immune response. Purification by anion exchange chromatography followed by gel filtration revealed a 320 kDa cytotoxic polymeric protein that acts through a polymerization process after binding onto target cell membranes as revealed by ultrastructural observation.

European and Pacific oysters (Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas) expressed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria which was most probably due to small proteins. When tested against the marine pathogenic Vibrio alginolyticus, hemocyte lysates of both species were more active than cell-free plasma. Antibacterial activity showed significant individual variability that was dramatically reduced by stimulation through mechanical stress or injection. The number of spontaneously active Pacific oysters increased from 50 to 100% following a single injection of bacteria.

These results strongly support the view that bivalve molluscs possess sensitive immuno-defense mechanisms that will greatly aid the development of aquaculture systems by employing refined techniques of transgenesis.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© IFREMER-Gauthier-Villars, 1996

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Cytotoxic and antibacterial properties of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas (bivalve molluscs) hemolymph
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Cytotoxic and antibacterial properties of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas (bivalve molluscs) hemolymph
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Cytotoxic and antibacterial properties of Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis and Crassostrea gigas (bivalve molluscs) hemolymph
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