Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-768ffcd9cc-nzrtw Total loading time: 0.401 Render date: 2022-12-04T02:14:39.697Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Emotional force of languages in multilingual speakers in Finland

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 December 2012

SANNA HEINI MARIA RÄSÄNEN*
Affiliation:
University of Liverpool
JULIAN M. PINE
Affiliation:
University of Liverpool
*
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Sanna Räsänen, Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, Bedford Street South, Liverpool, UK. E-mail: S.H.M.Rasanen@liverpool.ac.uk

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the better recall of emotional words applies to both native and later-learned languages. In a mixed design, 41 native Finnish speakers, who were substantially less proficient in their later-learned languages, which were English (second language) and Swedish (third language), were shown negative/taboo, positive, and neutral words in the three languages. Their memory for the words was assessed in an unexpected free recall test preceded by a depth of processing task (deep or shallow). The results revealed that an emotion-word advantage was visible for negatively valenced words (negative/taboo) in the native language, Finnish, and the second language, English. However, the nature of the processing task had no significant effect on recall. Additional self-report measures indicated that English was perceived as more emotional and more frequently used than Swedish. These results suggest that the amount and frequency of everyday exposure to a particular language are two critical factors in determining the degree of emotionality of that language for the speaker.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Algom, D., Chajut, E., & Lev, S. (2004). A rational look at the emotional Stroop phenomenon: A generic slowdown, not a Stroop effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133, 323338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altarriba, J., & Bauer, L. (2004). The distinctiveness of emotion concepts: A comparison between emotion, abstract, and concrete words. American Journal of Psychology, 117, 389410.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anooshian, L. J., & Hertel, P. T. (1994). Emotionality in free recall: Language specificity in bilingual memory. Cognition and Emotion, 8, 503514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aycicegi, A., & Harris, C. L. (2004). Bilinguals’ recall and recognition of emotion words. Cognition and Emotion, 18, 977987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Aycicegi-Dinn, A., & Caldwell-Harris, C. L. (2009). Emotion-memory effects in bilingual speakers: A levels-of-processing approach. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 291303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bloom, L., & Beckwith, R. (1989). Talking with feeling: Integrating affective and linguistic expression in early language development. Cognition and Emotion, 3, 313342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bond, M. H., & Lai, T. (1986). Embarrassment and code-switching into a second language. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 179186.Google Scholar
Caldwell-Harris, C. L., & Aycicegi-Dinn, A. (2009). Emotion and lying in a nonnative language. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71, 193204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cervantes, C. A. (2002). Explanatory emotion talk in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American families. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 138163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Craik, F. I., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewaele, J-M. (2004a). Blistering barnacles! What language do multilinguals swear in?! Estudios de Sociolinguistica, 5, 83105.Google Scholar
Dewaele, J-M. (2004b). The emotional force of swearwords and taboo words in the speech of multilinguals. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25, 204222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewaele, J-M. (2008). The emotional weight of I love you in multilinguals’ languages. Journal of Pragmatics, 40, 17531780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewaele, J-M. (2011). The differences in self-reported use and perception of the L1 and L2 of maximally proficient bi- and multilinguals: A quantitative and qualitative investigation. International Journal of Sociology of Language, 208, 2551.Google Scholar
Eilola, T. M., & Havelka, J. (2010). Affective norms for 210 British English and Finnish nouns. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 134140.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eilola, T. M., & Havelka, J. (2011). Behavioural and physiological responses to the emotional and taboo Stroop tasks in native and nonnative speakers of English. International Journal of Bilingualism, 15, 353369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eilola, T. M., Havelka, J., & Sharma, D. (2007). Emotional activation in the first and second language. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 10641076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Engman, M. (1995). Finns and Swedes in Finland. In Tägil, S. (Ed.), Ethnicity and Nation Building in the Nordic World. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
Ferre, P., Garcia, T., Fraga, I., Sanchez-Casas, R., & Molero, M. (2010). Memory for emotional words in bilinguals: Do words have the same emotional intensity in the first and in the second language? Cognition and Emotion, 24, 760785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Foa, E. G., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing and fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 942958.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Forsman, L. (2000). Effects of media input on incidental learning of English and on linguistic attitudes among Finland–Swedish high-school students. In Sjöholm, K. & Ostern, A. (Eds.), Perspectives on language and communication in multilingual education (Reports from the Faculty of Education, No. 6). Vasa, Finland: Åbo Akademi University, Faculty of Education.Google Scholar
Gonzalez-Regiosa, F. (1976). The anxiety arousing effect of taboo words in bilinguals. In Spielberger, C. D. & Diaz-Guerrero, R. (Eds.), Cross-cultural anxiety (pp. 89105). Washington DC: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
Harris, C. L. (2004). Bilingual speakers in the lab: Psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25, 223247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, C. L., Aycicegi, A., & Gleason, J. B. (2003). Taboo words and reprimands elicit greater autonomic reactivity in a first than in a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 561578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harris, C. L., Gleason, J. B., & Aycicegi, A. (2006). When is a first language more emotional? Psychophysiological evidence from bilingual speakers. In Pavlenko, A. (Ed.), Bilingual minds: Emotional experience, expression, and representation. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
Javier, R. A., Barroso, F., & Munoz, M. A. (1993). Autobiographical memory in bilinguals. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 449472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Javier, R. A., & Marcos, L. R. (1989). The role of stress on the language-independence and code-switching phenomena. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18, 449472.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jay, T. (2000). Why we curse: A neuropsychosocial theory of speech. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
Jay, T., Caldwell-Harris, C., & King, K. (2008). Recalling taboo and nontaboo words. American Journal of Psychology, 121, 83103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kensinger, E. A., & Corkin, S. (2003). Memory enhancement for emotional words: Are emotional words more vividly remembered than neutral words? Memory & Cognition, 31, 11691180.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kinginger, C. (2008). Language learning in study abroad: Case studies of Americans in France. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Kinginger, C. (2009). Language learning and study abroad. A critical reading of research. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kissler, J., Herbert, C., Peyk, P., & Junghofer, M. (2007). Buzzwords: Early cortical responses to emotional words during reading. Psychological Science, 18, 475480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kousta, S.-T., Vinson, D. P., & Vigliocco, G. (2009). Emotion words, regardless of polarity, have a processing advantage over neutral words. Cognition, 112, 473481.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LaBar, K. S., & Phelps, E. A. (1998). Arousal-mediated memory consolidation: Role of the medial temporal lobe in humans. Psychological Science, 9, 490493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacKay, D. G., & Ahmetzanov, M. V. (2005). Emotion, memory, and attention in the taboo Stroop paradigm: An experimental analog of flashbulb memories. Psychological Science, 16, 2532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marian, V., & Kaushanskaya, M. (2004). Self-construal and emotion in bicultural bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 190201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McDaniel, M. A., Einstein, G. O., DeLosh, E. L., May, C. P., & Brady, P. (1995). The bizarreness effect: It's not surprising, it's complex. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 422435.Google Scholar
McKenna, F. P., & Sharma, D. (1995). Intrusive cognitions: An investigation of the emotional Stroop task. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 15951607.Google Scholar
Pavlenko, A. (2005). Emotions and multilingualism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Peeters, G., & Czapinski, J. (1990). Positive-negative asymmetry in evaluations: The distinction between affective and informational negativity effects. European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 3360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pietilä, P. (2001). Speaking skills in a foreign language: Reflections on the teaching of conversational skills. In Gill, M., Johnson, A., Koski, L. M., Sell, R., & Wårvik, B. (Eds.), Language, learning, literature: Studies presented to Håkan Ringbom (English Department Publication 4). Åbo, Finland: Åbo Akademi University.Google Scholar
Rubin, D. C., & Friendly, M. (1986). Predicting which words get recalled: Measures of free recall, availability, goodness, emotionality, and pronunciability for 925 nouns. Memory & Cognition, 14, 7994.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sajavaara, K. (2006). Kielivalinnat ja kielten opetus peruskoulussa ja lukiossa. Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän yliopisto.Google Scholar
Schrauf, R. W. (2000). Bilingual autobiographical memory: Experimental studies and clinical cases. Culture Psychology, 6, 387417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shepherd, J. (2000). Implementation gap: An investigation of the 1994 EL curriculum in Finnish upper-secondary classes using a multiple method perspective approach. Unpublished licentiate thesis, University of Vaasa, Finland.Google Scholar
Sjöholm, K. (2000). Attitudes towards English and two national languages in Finland. In Sjöholm, K. & Ostern, A. (Eds.), Perspectives on language and communication in multilingual education (Reports from the Faculty of Education, No. 6). Vasa, Finland: Åbo Akademi University, Faculty of Education.Google Scholar
Sutton, T. M., Altarriba, J., Gianico, J. L., & Basnight-Brown, D. M. (2007). The automatic access of emotion: Emotional Stroop effects in Spanish–English bilingual speakers. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 10771090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Talmi, D., & Moscovitch, S. (2004). Can semantic relatedness explain the enhancement of memory for emotional words? Memory & Cognition, 32, 742751.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tilastokeskus. (2009). Väestörakenne. Helsinki.Google Scholar
Virkkunen, H. (2009, 20 March). Kysy hennalta [Online forum message]. Retrieved from http://www.hennavirkkunen.fi/index.php?option=com_bookjoomlas&Itemid=26Google Scholar
Zied, M. K., Phillipe, A., Pinon, K., Havet-Thomassin, V., Aubin, G., Roy, A., et al. (2004). Bilingualism and adult differences in inhibitory mechanisms: Evidence from a bilingual Stroop task. Brain and Cognition, 54, 254256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
3
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Emotional force of languages in multilingual speakers in Finland
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Emotional force of languages in multilingual speakers in Finland
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Emotional force of languages in multilingual speakers in Finland
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *