Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-544b6db54f-2p87r Total loading time: 0.228 Render date: 2021-10-23T14:52:50.030Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Article contents

New radiocarbon dates and the herder occupation at Kasteelberg B, South Africa

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 September 2017

Karim Sadr*
Affiliation:
Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa
C. Britt Bousman
Affiliation:
Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Anthropology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Thomas A. Brown
Affiliation:
Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550, USA
Kamela G. Sekonya
Affiliation:
iThemba LABS, PO Box 722, Somerset West 7129, South Africa School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa
Elias Sideras-Haddad
Affiliation:
School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, 1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Braamfontein 2000, Johannesburg, South Africa
Andrew B. Smith
Affiliation:
Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
*
*Author for correspondence (Email: karim.sadr@wits.ac.za)

Abstract

The archaeological sequence at Kasteelberg B, in the Western Cape of South Africa, spans a millennium and covers several distinct occupational phases in the early pastoralist settlement history of the region. Attempts to understand that history through coordinating archaeological, linguistic and genetic evidence have proved problematic. The refined programme of radiocarbon dating presented here sheds further light on the different phases of occupation. More remarkably, it suggests, despite changes in material culture, the persistence of a single population over time, rather than population replacement as has been previously conjectured.

Type
Research
Information
Antiquity , Volume 91 , Issue 359 , October 2017 , pp. 1299 - 1313
Copyright
Copyright © Antiquity Publications Ltd, 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Allen, M.S. & Morrison, A.E.. 2013. Modelling site formation dynamics: geoarchaeological, chronometric and statistical approaches to a stratified rockshelter sequence, Polynesia. Journal of Archaeological Science 40: 4560–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.06.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbieri, C., Güldemann, T., Naumann, C., Gerlach, L., Berthold, F., Nakagawa, H., Mpoloka, S.W., Stoneking, M. & Pakendorf, B.. 2014. Unravelling the complex maternal history of southern African Khoisan populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 153: 435–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbujani, G. & Sokal, R.R.. 1990. Zones of sharp genetic change in Europe are also linguistic boundaries. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 87: 1816–19. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.5.1816 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bollong, C., Smith, A. & Sampson, G.. 1997. Khoikhoi and Bushman pottery in the Cape Colony: ethnohistory and Later Stone Age ceramics of the South African interior. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 16: 269–99. https://doi.org/10.1006/jaar.1997.0311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bousman, C.B., Mauldin, R., Zoppi, U., Higham, T., Scott, L. & Brink, J.. 2016. The quest for evidence of domestic stock at Blydefontein rock shelter. South African Humanities 28: 3960.Google Scholar
Bronk, Ramsey C. 2009. Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. Radiocarbon 51: 337–60. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200033865 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bronk, Ramsey C. 2013. OxCal v4.2.2. Available at: https://c14.arch.ox.ac.uk/oxcal.html#old (accessed 16 May 2017).Google Scholar
Burley, D.V. & Edinborough, K.. 2014. Discontinuity in the Fijian archaeological record supported by a Bayesian radiocarbon model. Radiocarbon 56: 295303. https://doi.org/10.2458/56.16482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Piazza, A., Menozzi, P. & Mountain, J.. 1988. Reconstruction of human evolution: bringing together genetic, archaeological, and linguistic data. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 85: 60026006. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.85.16.6002 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cherkinsky, A. & Di Lernia, S.. 2013. Bayesian approach to 14C dates for estimation of long-term archaeological sequences in arid environments: the Holocene site of Takarkori Rockshelter, southwest Libya. Radiocarbon 55: 771–82. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200057933 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Copley, M.S., Hansel, F.A., Sadr, K. & Evershed, R.P.. 2004. Organic residue evidence for the processing of marine animal products in pottery vessels from the pre-colonial archaeological site of Kasteelberg D east, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 100: 279–83.Google Scholar
Davies, K.C. & Jarvis, J.U.. 1986. The burrow systems and burrowing dynamics of the mole‐rats Bathyergus suillus and Cryptomys hottentotus in the fynbos of the south‐western Cape, South Africa. Journal of Zoology 209: 125–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1986.tb03570.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dewar, G., Reimer, P.J., Sealy, J. & Woodborne, S.. 2012. Late-Holocene marine radiocarbon reservoir correction (ΔR) for the west coast of South Africa. The Holocene 22: 1481–89. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683612449755 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donahue, D.J., Linick, T.W. & Jull, A.J.T.. 1990. Isotope-ratio and background corrections for accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon measurements. Radiocarbon 32: 135–42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200040121 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edinborough, K., Martindale, A., Cook, G.T., Supernant, K. & Ames, K.M.. 2016. A marine reservoir effect ΔR value for Kitandach, in Prince Rupert Harbour, British Columbia, Canada. Radiocarbon 58: 885–91. https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2016.46 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finkelstein, I. & Piasetzky, E.. 2015. Radiocarbon dating Khirbet Qeiyafa and the Iron I–IIA phases in the Shephelah: methodological comments and a Bayesian model. Radiocarbon 57: 891907. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_rc.57.18336 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Güldemann, T. 2008. A linguist's view: Khoe-Kwadi speakers as the earliest food-producers of southern Africa. Southern African Humanities 20: 93132.Google Scholar
Henn, B.M., Gignoux, C., Lin, A.A., Oefner, P.J., Shen, P., Scozzari, R., Cruciani, F., Tishkoff, S.A., Mountain, J.L. & Underhill, P.. 2008. Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105: 10693–98. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0801184105 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hogg, A., Hua, Q., Blackwell, P.G., Niu, M., Buck, C.E., Guilderson, T.P., Heaton, T.J., Palmer, J.G., Reimer, P.J., Reimer, R.W., Turney, C.S.M. & Zimmerman, S.R.H.. 2013. SHCal13 southern hemisphere calibration, 0–50,000 years cal BP. Radiocarbon 55: 1889–903. https://doi.org/10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16783 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hunley, K., Dunn, M., Lindström, E., Reesink, G., Terrill, A., Healy, M.E., Koki, G., Friedlaender, F.R. & Friedlaender, J.S.. 2008. Genetic and linguistic coevolution in northern Island Melanesia. PLoS Genetics 4: e1000239. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000239 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Klein, R.G. 1986. The prehistory of Stone Age herders in the Cape Province of South Africa. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 5: 512.Google Scholar
Klein, R.G. & Cruz-Uribe, K.. 1989. Faunal evidence for prehistoric herder-forager activities at Kasteelberg, Western Cape Province, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 44: 8297. https://doi.org/10.2307/3887649 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macholdt, E., Lede, V., Barbieri, C., Mpoloka, S.W., Chen, H., Slatkin, M., Pakendorf, B. & Stoneking, M.. 2014. Tracing pastoralist migrations to southern Africa with lactase persistence alleles. Current Biology 24: 875–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.027 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mitchell, P. 2002. The archaeology of southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Orton, J. 2015. The introduction of pastoralism to southernmost Africa: thoughts on new contributions to an ongoing debate. Azania 50: 250–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/0067270X.2015.1019262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patrick, M., Smith, A. & De Koning, A.J.. 1985. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of fatty acids in food residues from ceramics found in the south-western Cape, South Africa. Archaeometry 27: 231–36. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4754.1985.tb00366.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pleurdeau, D., Imalwa, E., Détroit, F., Lesur, J., Veldman, A., Bahain, J.-J. & Marais, E.. 2012. ‘Of sheep and men’: earliest direct evidence of caprine domestication in southern Africa at Leopard Cave (Erongo, Namibia). PLoS ONE 7: e40340. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0040340 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Riede, F. & Edinborough, K.. 2012. Bayesian radiocarbon models for the cultural transition during the Allerød in southern Scandinavia. Journal of Archaeological Science 39: 744–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2011.11.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robbins, L.H., Campbell, A.C., Murphy, M.L., Brook, G.A., Srivastava, P. & Badenhorst, S.. 2005. The advent of herding in southern Africa: early AMS dates on domestic livestock from the Kalahari Desert. Current Anthropology 46: 671–77. https://doi.org/10.1086/432748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rockman, M. 2003. Knowledge and learning in the archaeology of colonization, in Rockman, M. & Steele, J. (ed.) Colonization of unfamiliar landscapes: the archaeology of adaptation: 324. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rogers, E.M. 2003. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.Google ScholarPubMed
Rudner, J. 1968. Strandloper pottery from south and south west Africa. Annals of the South African Museum 49: 441663.Google Scholar
Russell, T. & Lander, F.. 2015. ‘What is consumed is wasted’: from foraging to herding in the southern African Later Stone Age. Azania 50: 267317. https://doi.org/10.1080/0067270X.2015. 1079082 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadr, K. 1998. The first herders at the Cape of Good Hope. African Archaeological Review 15: 101–32. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022158701778 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sadr, K. 2014. Radiocarbon dates, stone tools and the origins of herding on the west coast of South Africa (Reports in African Archaeology 6). Frankfurt: Africa Magna.Google Scholar
Sadr, K. 2015. Livestock first reached southern Africa in two separate events. PLoS ONE 10: e0134215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 0134215 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sadr, K. & Fauvelle-Aymar, F.-X.. 2006. Ellipsoid grinding hollows on the west coast of South Africa. Southern African Humanities 18 (2): 2950.Google Scholar
Sadr, K. & Smith, A.B.. 1991. On ceramic variation in the south-western Cape, South Africa. South African Archaeological Bulletin 46: 107–15. https://doi.org/10.2307/3889089 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sagart, L., Blench, R. & Sanchez-Mazas, A.. 2005. Introduction, in Blench, R., Sagart, L. & Sanchez-Mazas, A. (ed.) The peopling of East Asia: putting together archaeology, linguistics and genetics: 114. London: Routledge Curzon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scheinfeldt, L.B., Soi, S. & Tishkoff, S.A.. 2010. Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (suppl. 2): 8931–38. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1002563107 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scott, K. & Plug, I.. 2016. Osteomorphology and osteometry versus aDNA in taxonomic identification of fragmentary sheep and sheep/goat bones from archaeological deposits: Blydefontein shelter, Karoo, South Africa. Southern African Humanities 28: 6179.Google Scholar
Smith, A.B. 1983. Prehistoric pastoralism in the southwestern Cape, South Africa. World Archaeology 15: 7989. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1983.9979886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, A.B. 1987. Seasonal exploitation of resources on the Vredenburg Peninsula after 2000 BP, in Parkington, J. & Hall, M. (ed.) Papers in the prehistory of the Western Cape, South Africa (British Archaeological Reports international series 332): 393402. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.Google Scholar
Smith, A.B. 1993. Exploitation of marine mammals by prehistoric Cape herders. South African Journal of Science 89: 162–65.Google Scholar
Smith, A.B. 2006. Excavations at Kasteelberg, and the origins of the Khoekhoen in the Western Cape, South Africa (British Archaeological Reports international series 1537). Oxford: Archaeopress.Google Scholar
Smith, A.B. & Poggenpoel, C.A.. 1988. The technology of bone tool fabrication in the south-western Cape, South Africa. World Archaeology 20: 103–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.1988.9980059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, B.A. 2005. Charring patterns on reconstructed ceramics from Dunefield Midden: implications for Khoekhoe vessel form and function. Before Farming 2005: 1128. https://doi.org/10.3828/bfarm.2005.1.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stuiver, M. & Polach, H.A.. 1977. Discussion: reporting of C-14 data. Radiocarbon 19: 355–63. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200003672 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thakar, H.B. 2014. Sites forlorn: dating intervals of abandonment at three shell middens on Santa Cruz Island, California using Bayesian chronological models. Journal of Archaeological Science 52: 633–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2014.03.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyson, P.D., Odada, E.O. & Partridge, T.C.. 2001. Late Quaternary environmental change in southern Africa: START regional syntheses. South African Journal of Science 97 (3–4): 139.Google Scholar
Uren, C., Kim, M., Martin, A.R., Bobo, D., Gignoux, C.R., Van Helden, P.D., Möller, M., Hoal, E.G. & Henn, B.M.. 2016. Fine-scale human population structure in southern Africa reflects ecogeographic boundaries. Genetics 204: 303–14. https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.116.187369 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Vogel, J.S., Nelson, D.E. & Southon, J.R.. 1987. 14C background levels in an accelerator mass spectrometry system. Radiocarbon 29: 323–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200043733 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, R.H., Redd, A., Valencia, D., Frazier, B. & Pääbo, S.. 1993. Genetic and linguistic differentiation in the Americas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 90: 10663–67. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.90.22.10663 CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wicks, K., Pirie, A. & Mithen, S.J.. 2014. Settlement patterns in the late Mesolithic of western Scotland: the implications of Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates and inter-site technological comparisons. Journal of Archaeological Science 41: 406–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.07.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, R. 2015. From revolution to convention: the past, present and future of radiocarbon dating. Journal of Archaeological Science 56: 6172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.02.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Woodborne, S. 1996. A taphonomic study of seal remains from archaeological sites on the Western Cape coast. Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
Woodborne, S., Hall, G., Robertson, I., Patrut, A., Rouault, M., Loader, N.J. & Hofmeyr, M.. 2015. A 1000-year carbon isotope rainfall proxy record from South African baobab trees (Adansonia digitata L.). PLoS ONE 10: e0124202. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124202 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wuttmann, M., Briois, F., Midant-Reynes, B. & Dachy, T.. 2012. Dating the end of the Neolithic in an eastern Sahara oasis: modelling absolute chronology. Radiocarbon 54: 305–18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033822200047093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

New radiocarbon dates and the herder occupation at Kasteelberg B, South Africa
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

New radiocarbon dates and the herder occupation at Kasteelberg B, South Africa
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

New radiocarbon dates and the herder occupation at Kasteelberg B, South Africa
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *