Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-564cf476b6-dr4jh Total loading time: 0.289 Render date: 2021-06-19T04:46:17.591Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Checklist of the species of notothenioid fishes

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 April 2021

Joseph T. Eastman
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH, 45701-2979, USA
Richard R. Eakin
31223 Jonston Road, Guys Mills, PA, 16327-4737, USA
E-mail address:


We provide our perspective on the species-level taxonomy of notothenioid fishes, the dominant component of the fish fauna of Antarctica. There are 140 species in 45 genera, an increase of 15% since the previous summary in 2000. Biogeographically, 30 species are non-Antarctic, 33 are sub-Antarctic and 77 are Antarctic. The checklist is documented with footnotes that provide the rationale for our decisions. Supplementary Material provides additional details for our decisions on two species of Pogonophryne.

Copyright © Antarctic Science Ltd 2021

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Balushkin, A.V. 1991. Review of green notothenias, Gobionotothen, Balushkin (Nototheniidae) of the Antarctic and Subantarctic. Journal of Ichthyology, 31, 4255.Google Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. 1992. Classification, phylogenetic relationships, and origins of the families of the suborder Notothenioidei (Perciformes). Journal of Ichthyology, 32, 90110.Google Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. 2000. Morphology, classification, and evolution of notothenioid fishes of the Southern Ocean (Notothenioidei, Perciformes). Journal of Ichthyology, 40, Supplement 1, S74S109.Google Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. 2013. A new species of Pogonophryne (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea, Antarctica. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 317, 119124 [In Russian; diagnosis in English].Google Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. 2014. Taxonomic status of goby-like notothens of the genus Gobionotothen Balushkin (Nototheniidae) from the Kerguelen Plateau (Southern Ocean) and Jordan's Rule. Journal of Ichthyology, 54, 615619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. 2016. Systematics of the Antarctic thornfishes of the genus Bovichtus (Bovichtidae) of the seamounts of the New Zealand Basin. Journal of Ichthyology, 56, 499507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. & Korolkova, E.D. 2013. New species of plunderfish Pogonophryne favosa sp. n. (Artedidraconidae, Notothenioidei, Perciformes) from the Cosmonauts Sea (Antarctica) with the description in artedidraconids of unusual anatomical structures-convexitas superaxillaris. Journal of Ichthyology, 53, 562574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. & Spodareva, V.V. 2013a. Dwarf toad plunderfish Pogonophryne minor sp. n. (Artedidraconidae; Notothenioidei; Perciformes) - a new species and one of the smallest species of autochthonous ichthyofauna of marginal seas of the Antarctic continent. Journal of Ichthyology, 53, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. & Spodareva, V.V. 2013b. Pogonophryne skorai sp. n. (Perciformes: Artedidraconidae), a new species of toadlike plunderfish from the Bransfield Strait and coastal waters of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 39, 190196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. & Spodareva, V.V. 2013c. Pogonophryne sarmentifera sp. nov. (Artedidraconidae; Notothenioidei; Perciformes) - the deep-water species of Antarctic plunderfishes from the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean). Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta, 317, 275281 [In Russian; diagnosis in English].Google Scholar
Balushkin, A.V. & Spodareva, V.V. 2015. New species of the toad plunderfish of the “Albipinna” group, genus Pogonophryne (Artedidraconidae) from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Journal of Ichthyology, 55, 757764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Balushkin, A.V., Petrov, A.F. & Prutko, V.G. 2010. Pogonophryne brevibarbata sp. nov. (Artedidraconidae, Notothenioidei, Perciformes) - a new species of toadlike plunderfish from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute Academy of Sciences USSR, 314, 381386 [In Russian; English abstract].Google Scholar
Bowen, B.W., Forsman, Z.H., Whitney, J.L., Faucci, A., Hoban, M., Canfield, S.J., et al. 2020. Species radiations in the sea: what the flock? Journal of Heredity, 111, 10.1093/jhered/esz075CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bravo, R., Lloris, D., Pequeño, G. & Rucabado, J. 1999. Revisión de las distintas especies del género Bovichtus (Perciformes, Bovichtidae) citadas para el cono sur americano y península Antártica. Revista de Biologia Marina y Oceanografia, 34, 123137 [In Spanish; English abstract].Google Scholar
Causse, R., Ozouf-Costaz, C., Koubbi, P., Lamy, D., Eleaume, M., Dettai, A., Duhamel, G., Busson, F., Pruvost, P., Post, A., Beaman, R.J. & Riddle, M.J. 2011. Demersal ichthyofaunal shelf communities from the Dumont d'Urville Sea (East Antarctica). Polar Science, 5, 272285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ceballos, S.G., Roesti, M., Matschiner, M., Fernández, D.A., Damerau, M., Hanel, R. & Salzburger, W. 2019. Phylogenomics of an extra-Antarctic notothenioid radiation reveals a previously unrecognized lineage and diffuse species boundaries. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 10.1186/s12862-019-1345-zCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cziko, P.A. & Cheng, C.-H.C. 2006. A new species of nototheniid (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) fish from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Copeia, 4, 752759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dettai, A., Berkani, M., Lautrédou, A.-C., Couloux, A., Lecointre, G., Ozouf-Costaz, C. & Gallut, C. 2012. Tracking the elusive monophyly of nototheniid fishes (Teleostei) with multiple mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Marine Genomics, 8, 10.1016/j.margen.2012.02.00CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dettai, A., Adamowizc, S.J., Allcock, L. & Arango, C.P., et al. 2011a. DNA barcoding and molecular systematics of the benthic and demersal organisms of the CEAMARC survey. Polar Science, 5, 298312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dettai, A., Lautrédou, A.-C., Bonillo, C., Goimbault, E., Busson, F., Causse, R., et al. 2011b. The actinopterygian diversity of the CEAMARC cruises: barcoding and molecular taxonomy as a multi-level tool for new findings. Deep-Sea Research Part II, 58, 250263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dornburg, A., Federman, S., Eytan, R.I. & Near, T.J. 2016a. Cryptic species diversity in sub-Antarctic islands: A case study of Lepidonotothen. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 104, 3243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dornburg, A., Eytan, R.I., Federman, S., Pennington, J.N., Stewart, A.L., Jones, C.D. & Near, T.J. 2016b. Molecular data support the existence of two species of the Antarctic fish genus Cryodraco (Channichthyidae). Polar Biology, 39, 10.1007/s00300-015-1859-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Duhamel, G., Gasco, N. & Davaine, P. 2005. Poissons des îles Kerguelen et Crozet. Guide régional de l'océan Austral. Patrimoines naturels, vol. 63. Paris: Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 419 pp.Google Scholar
Eakin, R.R., Eastman, J.T. & Matallanas, J. 2008. New species of Pogonophryne (Pisces, Artedidraconidae) from the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 31, 11751179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eakin, R.R., Eastman, J.T. & Near, T.J. 2009. A new species and a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic fish genus Pogonophryne (Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae). Copeia, 4, 705713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eakin, R.R., Riginella, E. & La Mesa, M. 2015. A new species of Artedidraco (Pisces: Artedidraconidae) from the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Polar Biology, 38, 15971603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastman, J.T. 2020. The buoyancy-based biotope axis of the evolutionary radiation of Antarctic cryonotothenioid fishes. Polar Biology, 43, 10.1007/s00300-020-02702-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eastman, J.T. & Eakin, R.R. 2000. An updated species list for notothenioid fish (Perciformes; Notothenioidei), with comments on Antarctic species. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research, 48, 1120.Google Scholar
Eastman, J.T. & La Mesa, M. 2021. Neuromorphological disparity in deep-living sister species of the Antarctic fish genus Trematomus. Polar Biology, 44, 10.1007/s00300-020-02794-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & Fong, J.D. 2020a. Species by family/subfamily., accessed 2 June 2020.Google Scholar
Fricke, R., Eschmeyer, W.N. & van Der Laan, R., eds. 2020b. Eschmeyer's Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References., accessed 2 June 2020.Google Scholar
Ghigliotti, L., Cheng, C.C.-H., Ozouf-Costaz, C., Vacchi, M. & Pisano, E. 2015. Cytogenetic diversity of notothenioid fish from the Ross Sea: historical overview and updates. Hydrobiologia, 761, 373396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gon, O. & Heemstra, P.C., eds. 1990. Fishes of the Southern Ocean. Grahamstown: J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, 462 pp.Google Scholar
Hardy, G.S. 1988. A revision of Bovichtus Cuvier, 1831 (Pisces: Bovichthyidae) from Australasia, with description of a new deepwater species from the New Zealand Subantarctic. Journal of Natural History, 22, 16391655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwami, T. & Kock, K.-H. 1990. Channichthyidae. In Gon, O. & Heemstra, P.C., eds. Fishes of the Southern Ocean. Grahamstown: J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, 381399.Google Scholar
Kock, K.-H. 2005. Antarctic icefishes (Channichthyidae): a unique family of fishes. A review, Part I. Polar Biology, 28, 862895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koerber, S. 2009. From sponges to primates: Emendation of 30 species nomina dedicated to the Swedish zoologist Einar Lönnberg. Zootaxa, 2201, 6368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kuhn, K.L. & Near, T.J. 2009. Phylogeny of Trematomus (Notothenioidei: Nototheniidae) inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Antarctic Science, 21, 10.1017/S0954102009990253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
La Mesa, M., Vacchi, M., Iwami, T. & Eastman, J.T. 2002. Taxonomic studies of the Antarctic icefish genus Cryodraco Dollo, 1900 (Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae). Polar Biology, 25, 384390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Last, P.R., Balushkin, A.V. & Hutchins, J.B. 2002. Halaphritis platycephala (Notothenioidei: Bovichtidae): a new genus and species of temperate icefish from southeastern Australia. Copeia, 2, 433440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lautrédou, A.-C., Bonillo, C., Denys, G., Cruaud, C., Ozouf-Costaz, C., Lecointre, G. & Dettai, A. 2010. Molecular taxonomy and identification within the Antarctic genus Trematomus (Notothenioidei, Teleostei): How valuable is barcoding with COI. Polar Science, 4, 333352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lautrédou, A.-C., Hisinger, D.D., Gallut, C., Cheng, C.-H.C., Berkani, M., Ozouf-Costaz, C., et al. 2012. Phylogenetic footprints of an Antarctic radiation: the Trematominae (Notothenioidei, Teleostei). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65, 87101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lecointre, G., Gallut, C., Bonillo, C., Couloux, A., Ozouf-Costaz, C. & Dettaï, A. 2011. The Antarctic fish genus Artedidraco is paraphyletic (Teleostei, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae). Polar Biology, 34, 10.1007/s00300-011-0974-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayr, E. & Ashlock, P.D. 1991. Principles of systematic zoology, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 475 pp.Google Scholar
Miya, T., Gon, O., Mwale, M. & Poulin, E. 2016. Molecular systematics and taxonomic status of three latitudinally widespread nototheniid (Perciformes: Notothenioidei) fishes from the Southern Ocean. Zootaxa, 4061, 381396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Near, T.J., Dornburg, A., Harrington, R.C., Oliveira, C., Pietsch, T.W., Thacker, C.E., et al. 2015. Identification of the notothenioid sister lineage illuminates the biogeographic history of an Antarctic adaptive radiation. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 15, 10.1186/s12862-015-0362-9.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Near, T.J., Macguigan, D.J., Parker, E., Struthers, C.D., Jones, C.D. & Dornburg, A. 2018. Phylogenetic analysis of Antarctic notothenioids illuminates the utility of RADseq for resolving Cenozoic adaptive radiations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 129, 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.09.001CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neyelov, A.V. & Prirodina, V.P., 2006. Description of Harpagifer permitini sp. nova (Harpagiferidae) from the sublittoral zone of South Georgia and redescription of the littoral H. georgianus Nybelin. Journal of Ichthyology, 46, 112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prirodina, V.P. 2000. On the systematic position of littoral and deep-water species of the genus Harpagifer (Harpagiferidae, Notothenioidei) from Macquarie Island with a description of two new species. Journal of Ichthyology, 40, 488494.Google Scholar
Prirodina, V.P. 2002. Redescription of littoral and deep-sea species of the genus Harpagifer (Harpagiferidae, Notothenioidei) off islands of the Indian Ocean Sector of the Southern Ocean with the description of a new species. Journal of Ichthyology, 42, 701712.Google Scholar
Prirodina, V.P. 2004. Harpagifer crozetensis sp. nova (Harpagiferidae, Notothenioidei), a new species from the littoral of the Crozet Islands (Indian Ocean Sector of the Antarctic). Journal of Ichthyology, 44, 395399.Google Scholar
Sanchez, S., Dettaï, A., Bonillo, C., Ozouf-Costaz, C., Detrich III, H.W. & Lecointre, G. 2007. Molecular and morphological phylogenies of the Antarctic teleostean family Nototheniidae, with emphasis on the Trematominae. Polar Biology, 30, 10.1007/s00300-006-0170-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shandikov, G.A. 2011. Channichthys richardsoni sp. n., a new Antarctic icefish (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Channichthyidae) from the Kerguelen Islands area, Indian sector of the Southern Ocean. Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Series: Biology, Issue 14, No. 971, 125134.Google Scholar
Shandikov, G.A. & Eakin, R.R. 2013. Pogonophryne neyelovi, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes, Notothenioidei, Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea. ZooKeys, 296, 5977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shandikov, G.A., Eakin, R.R. & Usachev, S. 2013. Pogonophryne tronio, a new species of Antarctic short-barbeled plunderfish (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae) from the deep Ross Sea with new data on Pogonophryne brevibarbata. Polar Biology, 36, 273289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheiko, B. 2019. Comments on the nomenclature of genus- and family-series taxa of notothenioid fishes (Perciformes, Notothenioidei). Bionomina, 16, 10.11646/bionomina.16.1.3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, P.J., Steinke, D., Dettai, A., Mcmillan, P., Welsford, D., Stewart, A. & Ward, R.D. 2012. DNA barcodes and species identifications in Ross Sea and Southern Ocean fishes. Polar Biology, 35, 12971310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spodareva, V.V. & Balushkin, A.V. 2014. Description of a new species of plunderfish genus Pogonophryne (Perciformes: Artedidraconidae) from the Bransfield Strait (Antarctica) with a key for the identification of species of the group “marmorata”. Journal of Ichthyology, 54, 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stewart, A.L. 2015. Family Bovichthyidae. In Roberts, C.D., et al. eds. The fishes of New Zealand, vol. 4. Wellington: Te Papa Press, 14341437.Google Scholar
Van Der Laan, R. & Fricke, R. 2020. Eschmeyer's Catalog of fishes: Family-group names. ( Electronic version accessed 2 June 2020Google Scholar
Voskoboinikova, O.S. & Kellermann, A. 1993. Gvozdarus balushkini sp. n. from the Weddell Sea (Pisces, Perciformes: Nototheniidae). Zoosystematica Rossica, 2, 313316.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: PDF

Eastman and Eakin supplementary material

Eastman and Eakin supplementary material

Download Eastman and Eakin supplementary material(PDF)

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Checklist of the species of notothenioid fishes
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Checklist of the species of notothenioid fishes
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Checklist of the species of notothenioid fishes
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *