Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-79b67bcb76-5vsr4 Total loading time: 0.225 Render date: 2021-05-13T17:10:45.515Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }


Published online by Cambridge University Press:  25 October 2017

Lisa C. Nevett
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
E. Bettina Tsigarida
Greek Archaeological Service
Zosia H. Archibald
University of Liverpool
David L. Stone
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Timothy J. Horsley
Northern Illinois University
Bradley A. Ault
University at Buffalo, State University of New York
Anna Panti
Greek Archaeological Service
Kathleen M. Lynch
University of Cincinnati
Hannah Pethen
University of Liverpool
Susan M. Stallibrass
University of Liverpool
Elina Salminen
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Christopher Gaffney
Bradford University
Thomas J. Sparrow
Bradford University
Sean Taylor
University of Cambridge
John Manousakis
Elxis Group, Athens
Dimitrios Zekkos
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
E-mail address:


Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.

Προς μια πολυεπίπεδη και πολυεπιστημονική προσέγγιση της ελληνικής πόλης των κλασικών χρόνων: “το Πρόγραμμα της Ολύνθου”

Η έρευνα των πόλεων της κλασικής Ελλάδας για μεγάλο διάστημα επικεντρωνόταν στη χαρτογράφηση της οργάνωσης του αστικού χώρου και στη μελέτη των σπουδαιότερων δημόσιων και λατρευτικών κτιρίων. Τα τελευταία χρόνια, σύγχρονες τεχνικές, όπως η επιφανειακή έρευνα και η γεωφυσική διασκόπηση, διευκολύνουν την εξερεύνηση των ορίων και του χαρακτήρα ευρύτερων περιοχών μέσα σε οικισμούς με αστικό χαρακτήρα, εγείροντας ερωτήματα σχετικά με τις κοινωνικές και οικονομικές διαδικασίες. Συγχρόνως, η λεπτομερής ανάλυση των κατοικιών μετέφερε την έμφαση στην κατανόηση κάποιων λειτουργικών, κοινωνικών και μορφολογικών πτυχών του δομημένου περιβάλλοντος. Αυτή η εργασία προβάλλει τα πλεονεκτήματα της ανάλυσης των ελληνικών πόλεων μέσα σε ένα πολυεπιστημονικό και πολυεπίπεδο πλαίσιο, που αγκαλιάζει όλες αυτές τις προσεγγίσεις και προσθέτει περισσότερες αναλυτικές μεθόδους (ιδιαίτερα μικρο-αρχαιολογία). Πιστεύουμε ότι αυτή η στρατηγική οδηγεί σε μια πιο ολιστική άποψη της πόλης, όχι μόνο ως φυσικό τόπο, αλλά και ως δυναμική κοινότητα που αποκαλύπτει τις ρίζες της, την ανάπτυξή της και τα πρότυπα κοινωνικής και οικονομικής δραστηριότητας. Το επιχείρημά μας στηρίζεται στον σχεδιασμό της έρευνας, τη μεθοδολογία και τα αποτελέσματα των τριών πρώτων περιόδων των εργασιών πεδίου στην αρχαία Όλυνθο, που διενεργείται από το Πρόγραμμα της Ολύνθου (Olynthos Project).

Copyright © The Council, British School at Athens 2017 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Archibald, Z.H. 2012. ‘Agoranomoi in Macedonia’, in Capdetrey and Hasenohr (eds) 2012, 109–19.Google Scholar
Archibald, Z.H. 2013. Ancient Economies of the Northern Aegean, Fifth to First Centuries bc (Oxford).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Athanasiou, F. 1992. “Αρχαία Όλυνθος: Μεθοδολογία αποκατάστασης οικιών βόρειου λόφου”, Το Αρχαιολογικό Έργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη 6, 503–10.Google Scholar
Ault, B.A. and Nevett, L.C. 2005. Ancient Greek Houses and Households: Chronological, Regional and Social Diversity (Philadelphia).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bilouka, A., Vasileiou, S. and Graikos, J. 2000. “Αρχαιολογικές μαρτυρίες από τη Ν. Καλλικράτεια Χαλκιδικής”, Το Αρχαιολογικό Έργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη 14, 299310.Google Scholar
Bing, P. 2002. ‘Medeios of Olynthos, son of Lampon, and the “Iamatika” of Posidippos’, ZPE 140, 297300.Google Scholar
Bintliff, J. 2012. ‘Contemporary issues in surveying complex urban sites in the Mediterranean region: the example of the city of Thespiai (Boiotia, central Greece)’, in Vermeulen, F., Burgers, G.-J., Keay, S. and Corsi, C. (eds), Urban Landscape Survey in Italy and the Mediterranean (Oxford), 4452.Google Scholar
Bintliff, J., Howard, P. and Snodgrass, A.M. 2007. Testing the Hinterland: The Work of the Boeotia Survey (1989–1991) in the Southern Approaches to the City of Thespiai (Cambridge).Google Scholar
Blanton, R. 1994. Houses and Households: A Comparative Study (New York and London).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourdieu, P. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice (Cambridge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bresson, A. 2016. The Making of the Ancient Greek Economy. Institutions, Markets, and Growth in the City-States (Princeton and Oxford).Google Scholar
Brown, B. 2001. ‘Thing Theory’, Critical Inquiry 28(1), 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bullock, P., Fedoroff, N., Jongerius, A., Stoops, G. and Tursina, T. 1985. Handbook for Soil Thin Section Description (Wolverhampton).Google Scholar
Cahill, N.D. 2002. Household and City Organization at Olynthus (New Haven).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Capdetrey, L. and Hasenohr, C. (eds) 2012. Institutions des marchés: Agoranomes et édiles 1, Atelier de recherche GDRI, Les Marchés dans le monde antique: espaces, pratiques, institutions (Bordeaux).Google Scholar
Chankowski, V. and Karvonis, P. 2012. Tout vendre, tout acheter. Structures et équipements des marchés antiques. Actes du colloque d'Athènes, 16–19 juin 2009 (Ausonius, Scripta antiqua, 42; Bordeaux and Athens).Google Scholar
Davis, J.L., Alcock, S.E., Bennet, J., Lolos, Y. and Shelmerdine, C.W. 1997. ‘The Pylos Regional Archaeological Project: introduction and archaeological survey’, Hesperia 66, 391494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donati, J.C. and Sarris, A. 2016. ‘Geophysical survey in Greece: recent developments, discoveries and future prospects’, AR 2015–16, 6376.Google Scholar
Drerup, H. 1967. ‘Prostashaus und Pastashaus’, Marburger Winckelmann-Programm for 1967 , 617.Google Scholar
Driesch, A. von den 1976. A Guide to the Measurements of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites (Cambridge, Mass.).Google Scholar
Drougou, S. and Vokotopoulou, I. 1989. “Όλυνθος – η οικία BVII1”, Το Αρχαιολογικό Έργο στη Μακεδονία και στη Θράκη 3, 339–50.Google Scholar
Faucher, T., Marcellesi, M.-C., and Picard, O. (eds) 2011. Nomisma: la circulation monétaire dans le monde grec antique: actes du colloque international, Athènes, 14–17 avril 2010. (BCH Suppl.; Athens).Google Scholar
Flensted-Jensen, P. 2004. ‘Thrace from Axios to Strymon’, in Hansen, M.H. and Nielsen, H.N. (eds), An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis. An Investigation Conducted by the Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation (Oxford).Google Scholar
Gatzolis, C. 2009. “Η κυκλοφορία του χάλκινου νομίσματος στη Μακεδονία. 5ος–4ος αι. π.Χ”. (unpublished PhD thesis, Thessaloniki University), 484–93.Google Scholar
Gatzolis, C. 2011. ‘Royal and Civic Bronze Coinage: Monetary Circulation between the Macedonian Kingdom and the Chalcidic Peninsula’, in Faucher, Marcellesi and Picard (eds) 2011, 185–98.Google Scholar
Gell, A. 1998. Art and Agency (Oxford).Google Scholar
Graham, J.W. 1966. ‘The origins and interrelations of the Greek house and the Roman house’, Phoenix 20, 331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, A. 1982. ‘The use of tooth wear as a guide to the ageing of domestic ungulates’, in Wilson, B., Grigson, C. and Payne, S. (eds), Ageing and Sexing Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites (Oxford), 91108.Google Scholar
Hamilakis, Y. 2007. The Nation and its Ruins (Oxford).Google Scholar
Harris, E.M., Lewis, D.M. and Woolmer, M. (eds) 2016. The Ancient Greek Economy. Markets, Households, and City-States (Cambridge).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatzopoulos, M. 1996. Macedonian Institutions under the Kings. I. A Historical and Epigraphic Study; II. Epigraphic Appendix (MELETHMATA 22; Athens and Paris).Google Scholar
Hornblower, S. 1997. ‘Thucydides and “Chalkidic” Torone (IV.110.1)’, OJA 16(2), 177–86.Google Scholar
Johnson, P. and Millett, M. (eds) 2013. Archaeological Survey and the City (Oxford).Google Scholar
Knoepfler, D. 1990. ‘The Calendar of Olynthos and the Origin of the Chalkidians in Thrace’, in Descoeudres, J.-P. (ed), Greek Colonists and Native Populations. Proceedings of the First Australian Congress of Classical Archaeology Held in Honour of Emeritus Professor A.D. Trendall (Oxford), 99115.Google Scholar
Lolos, Y., Gourley, B. and Stewart, D. 2007. ‘The Sikyon Survey Project: a blue-print for urban survey?’, JMA 20, 267–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, D. 2010. Stuff. (Cambridge).Google ScholarPubMed
MOLAS 1994. Archaeological Site Manual (Museum of London Archaeology Service; London).Google Scholar
Morris, I. 1987. Burial and Ancient Society (Cambridge).Google Scholar
Murphy, C.P. 1986. Thin Section Preparation of Soils and Sediments (Berkhamsted).Google Scholar
Mylonas, G. 1929. Excavations at Olynthus Part 1: The Neolithic Settlement (Baltimore).Google Scholar
Mylonas, G. 1933. ‘Pre-Persian Pottery from Olynthus’, in Robinson, D.M., Excavations at Olynthus Part V: Mosaics, Vases, and Lamps of Olynthus (Baltimore), 1563.Google Scholar
Mylonas, G. 1946. ‘Excursus II, The oecus unit of the Olynthian House’, in Robinson, D.M., Excavations at Olynthus Part XII: Domestic and Public Architecture (Baltimore), 369–98.Google Scholar
Nevett, L.C. 1999. House and Society in the Ancient Greek World (Cambridge).Google Scholar
Nevett, L.C. 2015. ‘Artefact assemblages in Classical Greek contexts: towards a new approach’ in Müller, M. (ed.), Household Studies in Complex Societies: (Micro)archaeological and Textual Approaches (Oriental Institute Seminars; Chicago), 101–16.Google Scholar
Nevett, L.C. forthcoming. ‘Structural history and Classical archaeology, 25 years on’, in Nevett, L.C. and Whitley, J. (eds), An Age of Experiment: Classical Archaeology Transformed (Cambridge).Google Scholar
Nevett, L.C. in press. ‘Disentangling our data sources for domestic activity: a case-study from Classical Olynthos, Greece’, in Bourgeois, A. and Pomadère, M. (eds), La forme de la maison dans l'antiquité (Rennes).Google Scholar
Oliver, G. 2012. ‘The ἀγορανόμοι at Athens’, in Capdetrey and Hasenohr (eds) 2012, 81100.Google Scholar
Papadopoulos, J. 2016. ‘Komai, colonies and cities in Epirus and southern Albania: the failure of the polis and the rise of urbanism on the fringes of the Greek world’, in Molloy, B. (ed.), Of Odysseys and Oddities: Scales and Modes of Interaction Between Prehistoric Aegean Societies and their Neighbours (Oxford and Philadelphia), 435–60.Google Scholar
Protopsalti, S. 1994. “Όλυνθος”, ArchDelt 49 (Βʹ2), 458–9.Google Scholar
Psoma, S. 2001. Olynthe et les Chalcidiens de Thrace. Études de numismatique et d'histoire (Stuttgart).Google Scholar
Psoma, S. 2009. ‘ Tas sitarchias kai tous misthous ([Arist.], Oec. 1351b), bronze currencies and cash allowances in mainland Greece, Thrace, and the kingdom of Macedonia’, RBN 155, 338.Google Scholar
Rainville, L. 2005. Investigating Upper Mesopotamian Households Using Micro-Archaeological Techniques (Oxford).Google Scholar
Rapoport, A. 1982. The Meaning of the Built Environment (Oakland).Google Scholar
Robinson, D.M. 1929–52. Excavations at Olynthus, 14 vols (Baltimore).Google Scholar
Robinson, D.M. 1930. Excavations at Olynthus Part II: Architecture and Sculpture: Houses and Other Buildings (Baltimore).Google Scholar
Robinson, D.M. 1946. Excavations at Olynthus Part XII: Domestic and Public Architecture (Baltimore).Google Scholar
Robinson, D.M. and Graham, J.W. 1938. Excavations at Olynthus Part VIII: the Hellenic House (Baltimore).Google Scholar
Sheedy, K., Gore, D.B. and Ponting, M. 2015. ‘The bronze issues of the Athenian General Timotheus: evaluating the evidence of Polyaenus’ Stratagemata ’, AJN 27, 120.Google Scholar
Silver, I. A. 1969. ‘The ageing of domestic animals’, in Brothwell, D. and Higgs, E. (eds), Science and Archaeology (London), 283302.Google Scholar
Snodgrass, A.M. 1980. Archaic Greece: The Age of Experiment (London, Berkeley and Los Angeles).Google Scholar
Stone, D., Mattingly, D. and Ben Lazreg, N. 2011. Leptiminus (Lamta). Report no. 3: The Field Survey (Journal of Roman Archaeology Suppl. 87; Portsmouth, RI.).Google Scholar
Stone, D., Mattingly, D. and Dore, J. 2011. ‘Methodology and fieldwalking data’, in Stone, Mattingly and Ben Lazreg (eds) 2011, 4989.Google Scholar
Stoops, G. 2003. Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections (Madison).Google Scholar
Touratsoglou, Y.P. 2010. A Contribution to the Economic History of the Kingdom of Ancient Macedonia (6th – 3rd century bc) (KERMA 2; Athens).Google Scholar
Tselekas, P. 2011. ‘Observations on the silver coin production and use in the Chalkidike during the 5th century bc’, in Faucher, Marcellesi and Picard (eds) 2011, 169–83.Google Scholar
Tsigarida, E.B. 2011. ‘Chalcidice’, in Lane Fox, R.J. (ed.), Brill's Companion to Ancient Macedon: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Macedon, 650bc–300ad (Leiden, Boston), 137–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whitelaw, T.M. 2013. ‘Collecting classical cities: prospects and problems’, in Johnson and Millett (eds) 2013, 70106.Google Scholar
Wright, E., Viner-Daniels, S., Parker Pearson, M. and Umberto Albarella, U. 2014. ‘Age and season of pig slaughter at Late Neolithic Durrington Walls (Wiltshire, UK) as detected through a new system for recording tooth wear’, JAS 52, 497514.Google Scholar
Wycherley, R. 1962. How the Greeks Built Cities, 2nd edn (London).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zahrnt, M. 1971. Olynth und die Chalkidier (Vestigia 14; Stuttgart).Google Scholar

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *