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Palaeolithic Investigations in Epirus: The Results of the First Season's Excavations at Klithi, 1983

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 September 2013

Abstract

Evidence of Palaeolithic occupation in Epirus discovered in 1962 by the late E. S. Higgs is re-analysed, especially that from Asprochaliko and Kastritsa. The paper also presents the results of the first season's excavations at the rock-shelter of Klithi, which throws light on problems connected with the interpretation of the earlier excavation and the different functions of the two sites. The new excavations demonstrate that Klithi contains a rich Palaeolithic deposit, perhaps dating within the period 20,000 to 12,000 years ago.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Council, British School at Athens 1984

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References

1 Dakaris, S. I., Higgs, E. S., and Hey, R. W., PPS 30 (1964) 199244Google Scholar; Higgs, E. S. in Bordes, F. and de Sonneville Bordes, D. (eds.), La Préhistoire, problèmes et tendances, pp. 223–35 (Paris, 1968)Google Scholar; Higgs, , ADelt 23 (1969) 296–8Google Scholar; Higgs, , in Brice, W. C. (ed.), The Environmental History of the Near and Middle East since the Last Ice Age, pp. 41–9 (New York, 1978)Google Scholar; Higgs, E. S. and Vita-Finzi, C., PPS 32 (1966) 129Google Scholar; Higgs, E. S. and Webley, D. P., PPS 37 (1971) 367–80Google Scholar; Higgs, E. S., Vita-Finzi, C., Harris, D. R., and Fagg, A. E.PPS 33 (1967) 129Google Scholar; Sordinas, A., Balkan Studies 10 (1969) 393424Google Scholar; Vita-Finzi, C., Archaeological Sites in their Setting (London, 1978).Google Scholar

2 Circles of 10 km radius were used to define the effective environment of each site, representing an early form of site catchment analysis.

3 Higgs et al., op. cit.; Legge, A. J. in Higgs, (ed.), Papers in Economic Prehistory (Cambridge 1972) 97103.Google Scholar

4 e.g. Bailey, G. N. (ed.), Hunter-Gatherer Economy in Prehistory (Cambridge, 1983)Google Scholar; Binford, L. R., Nunamiut Ethnoarchaeology (New York, 1978)Google Scholar; Binford, , American Antiquity 45 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

5 Bailey, Carter, Gamble, and Higgs undertook work on the excavated material stored in the Ioannina Museum in 1979. This was followed by further museum work in 1980 and re-examination of the Asprochaliko sections and collection of new dating samples in 1981, in collaboration with J. A. J. Gowlett of the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Project. This work would not have been possible without the financial support of the British Academy, the Science and Engineering Research Council, and the Universities of Cambridge and Southampton, or the co-operation of the Ioannina ephorate, especially Mr. E. Andreou, Mrs. I. Andreou, and Dr. E. Touloupa, and the British School at Athens.

6 See G. N. Bailey, P. L. Carter, C. S. Gamble, and H. P. Higgs, in Bailey (ed.), op. cit. (1983) 64–78; id.PPS 49 (1984).

7 26,100 ± 900 (I 1956).

8 See Bailey et al., op. cit.

9 Work at the site lasted from 3 August to 20 September. John Gowlett assisted with the collection of sediment and radiocarbon samples and with the interpretation of stratigraphy, and we acknowledge financial support from the Science and Engineering Research Council (to Gowlett), the British Academy, the Society of Antiquaries, and the Universities of Cambridge and Southampton. We are immensely grateful for co-operation and assistance at many stages in the organization of this season's work to the British School at Athens, and in particular to Dr. H. W. Catling and Mr. R. Just; to the Ioannina ephorate, especially Mr. E. Andreou and Mrs. I. Andreou; to Metropolitan Sebastian of Konitsa; and to the village councils of Klithonia and Agios Menas.

10 Colin Shell organized the slope survey and the plans and sections of the shelter, and Derrick Webley and Derek and Carolyn Sturdy the survey of the modern environment. We are also indebted to Eugenia Adam, Simon Coleman, Vasso Fotou, Amanda Gibbs, Bryn Higgs, Hannah Jones, Sheila King, Elaine Morris, Evangelos Papaconstantinou, Nicholas Tiley, Erica Utsi, and Demetra Vasilopoulou for assistance with excavation and processing, and to Suzanne Bailey, Meryn and Penaran Higgs, Vincent Utsi, Teresa Wasilewski, Joan Webley, and Paula Wilby for essential logistic support.

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