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Souveraineté et territoire: enjeux et perspectives

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Résumé

Par sa victoire dans la guerre de Sécession, l' Union scelle l' affirmation de la souveraineté nationale des États-Unis. L’après-guerre est tout entier absorbé à en tirer les conséquences. C’est pourtant dans ce contexte que la politique monétaire devient un contentieux qui aboutira à une redéfinition de la souveraineté. Cet article explore comment la structure institutionnelle et le système politique permettent à la monnaie de devenir un enjeu spatialisé, opposant entre elles les grandes régions du pays, et comment ce phénomène, appelé sectionalisme, aboutit à la confrontation de plusieurs conceptions de la souveraineté, mêlant légitimité politique et échelles spatiales, et une redéfinition du périmètre de celle-ci abandonnant la monnaie comme instrument du souverain à la fin du XIXe siècle.

Abstract

Abstract

With its victory in the Civil War, the Union affirmed the primacy of the national sovereignty of the United States. After the conflict, the country was absorbed by the consequences of this momentous event. Yet, even in this context, the monetary policies of the Government became contentious and led to the eventual redefinition of sovereignty. This article explores how the American institutional structure and political system allowed the money question to become a spatial issue, opposing the great sections of the country, and how this sectionalism triggered a confrontation between alternative understandings of what sovereignty entailed, both in political legitimacy and spatial scales. The eventual redefinition of its perimeter, at the end of the century, excluded the currency as an instrument of the sovereign.

Type
Souveraineté et territoire (XIXe-XXe siècle)
Copyright
Copyright © Les Éditions de l' EHESS 2014

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References

1 Camilleri, Joseph A. et Falk, Jim, The End of Sovereignty: The Politics of a Shrinking and Fragmenting World, Aldershot, E. Elgar, 1992 Google Scholar ; Bartelson, Jens, A Genealogy of Sovereignty, Stockholm, University of Stockholm, 1993 Google Scholar ; Shinoda, Hideaki, Re-Examining Sovereignty: From Classical Theory to the Global Age, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2000 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ; Jackson, Robert, Sovereignty: Evolution of an Idea, Cambridge/Malden, Polity, 2007 Google Scholar ; Pemberton, Jo-Anne, Sovereignty: Interpretations, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

2 Stoler, Ann Laura, « On Degrees of Imperial Sovereignty », Public Culture, 18-1, 2006, p. 125146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar ; Burbank, Jane et Cooper, Frederick, Empires. De la Chine ancienne à nos jours, Paris, Payot, 2011 Google Scholar.

3 Skinner, Quentin, «The Sovereign State: A Genealogy », in Kalmo, H. et Skinner, Q. (dir.), Sovereignty in Fragments: The Past, Present and Future of a Contested Concept, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 2646 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

4 Badie, Bertrand, La fin des territoires. Essai sur le désordre international et sur l' utilité sociale du respect, Paris, Fayard, 1995, p. 46 Google Scholar.

5 Pour un exemple de circulation de ces nouvelles définitions, voir Armitage, David, Du Nouveau Monde à l' Amérique d’Obama. Un empire contre nature, trad. par Jaquet, C., Nantes, L’Atalante, [2007] 2009 Google Scholar.

6 Ozouf-Marignier, Marie-Vic, « De l' universalisme constituant aux intérêts locaux : le débat sur la formation des départements en France (1789-1790) », Annales ESC, 41-6, 1986, p. 11931213, citation p. 1210Google Scholar.

7 Entre autres nombreuses références, voir les actes du colloque La souveraineté dans tous ses états, organisé par le Centre de recherches Hannah Arendt les 7 et 8 avril 2008 à l' Institut catholique d’études supérieures, Paris, Éd. Cujas, 2011.

8 Sassen, Saskia, Critique de l' État. Territoire, autorité et droits, de l' époque médiévale à nos jours, trad. par Israël, F., Paris, Demopolis/Le Monde diplomatique, [2006] 2009 Google Scholar ; Agnew, John, Globalization and Sovereignty, New York, Rowman and Littelfield, 2009 Google Scholar.

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