Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-8bbf57454-nshs2 Total loading time: 0.295 Render date: 2022-01-23T21:06:42.307Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true, "newUsageEvents": true }

Gift, Sacrifice, and Sorcery: The Moral Economy of Alms in Senegal

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  04 April 2017

Julien Bondaz
Affiliation:
EA HICSA/Labex CAP (Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne), Institut interdisciplinaire d’anthropologie du contemporain (EHESS-CNRS)
Julien Bonhomme
Affiliation:
École normale supérieure, Laboratoire d’anthropologie sociale

Abstract

In 2010, Senegal was gripped by a strange rumor known as the “death offering”: a mysterious individual driving a 4×4 was said to be distributing alms that killed all who accepted them. The story made the headlines, and several individuals accused of making deadly offerings were beaten by crowds. In this article, we show that the rumor destabilizes the everyday routines of charity and the religious solidarity that underpins them. In the context of Senegalese Islam, the rumor thus exposes the ambiguities inherent in the moral economy of alms (or sarax in Wolof). This paradigmatic case of the poisoned gift reveals a grey area between religion, magic, and sorcery. It also anxiously questions the relation between gift and sacrifice, two classic concepts in anthropology since Marcel Mauss.

Type
Charity and Sorcery in Senegal
Copyright
Copyright © Les Éditions de l’EHESS 2014

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1. “Folle rumeur à Dakar et environs. L’offrande de la mort installe la panique!” L’Observateur, January 26, 2010. The information was printed on the front page.

2. Bonhomme, Julien, The Sex Thieves: The Anthropology of a Rumor, trans. Horsfall, Dominic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2016)Google Scholar; Bonhomme, , “Les numéros de téléphone portable qui tuent. Épidémiologie culturelle d’une rumeur transnationale,” Tracés 21 (2011): 125–50 Google Scholar; Bonhomme, , “The Dangers of Anonymity: Witchcraft, Rumor, and Modernity in Africa,” HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 2, no. 2 (2012): 205–33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Bondaz, Julien, “Un fantôme sur iPhone. Apparition miraculeuse et imagerie mouride au temps du numérique,” Communication & langages 174 (2012): 3–17 Google Scholar.

3. The Wolof are the main ethnic group in Senegal. Their language, also called Wolof, is the lingua franca throughout most of the country. For its transcription, we have followed the spellings provided by Diouf, Jean-Léopold, Dictionnaire wolof-français et français-wolof (Paris: Karthala, 2003)Google Scholar.

4. Mauss, Marcel, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, trans. Halls, W. D. (London: Routledge, 2002), 4 Google Scholar.

5. Here, the notion of “gift register” is borrowed from Natalie Zemon Davis. This notion enables us to conceptualize the relationships between different kinds of gifts obeying distinct rules and values within a single society: see Davis, Zemon, The Gift in Sixteenth-Century France (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2000)Google Scholar.

6. Mauss, Marcel, “Gift-gift” [1924], in Œuvres (Paris: Éd. de Minuit, 1969), 3:46–51 Google Scholar.

7. Parry, Jonathan, “The Gift, the Indian Gift and the ‘Indian Gift,’Man 21, no. 3 (1986): 453–73 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Raheja, Gloria Goodwin, The Poison in the Gift: Ritual, Prestation, and the Dominant Caste in a North Indian Village (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988)Google Scholar; Laidlaw, James, “A Free Gift Makes No Friends,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 6, no. 4 (2000): 617–34 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; and Snodgrass, Jeffrey G., “Beware of Charitable Souls: Contagion, Roguish Ghosts and the Poison(s) of Hindu Alms,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 7, no. 4 (2001): 687–703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8. Thompson, E. P., “The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century,” Past & Present 50 (1971): 76–136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

9. Scott, James C., The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1976)Google Scholar; Fassin, Didier, “Les économies morales revisitées,” Annales HSS 64, no. 6 (2009): 1237–66 Google Scholar.

10. Weber’s works on the “Economic Ethics of the World Religions,” composed between 1910 and 1920, have been assembled and translated into French: see Weber, Max, “L’éthique économique des religions mondiales,” in Sociologie des religions, trans. Grossein, Jean-Pierre (Paris: Gallimard, 1996), 329–486 Google Scholar. A selection of the same texts, including the Introduction to the Economic Ethics of the World Religions,” can be found in The Essential Weber: A Reader, ed. Whimster, Sam (London/New York: Routledge, 2004)Google Scholar.

11. Triaud, Jean-Louis and Villalón, Leonardo, eds., “Économie morale et mutations de l’islam en Afrique subsaharienne,” special issue, Afrique contemporaine 231, no. 3 (2009)Google Scholar. On the uses of the concept of moral economy in African Studies, see Siméant, Johanna, “‘Économie morale’ et protestation – détours africains,” Genèses 81, no. 4 (2010): 142–60 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

12. Comaroff, Jean and Comaroff, John, “Occult Economies and the Violence of Abstraction: Notes from the South African Postcolony,” American Ethnologist 26, no. 2 (1999): 279–303 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Comaroff, and Comaroff, , Zombies et frontières à l’ère néolibérale. Le cas de l’Afrique du Sud post-apartheid (Paris: Les Prairies ordinaires, 2010)Google Scholar.

13. Mauss, Marcel and Hubert, Henri, Sacrifice: Its Nature and Functions, trans. Halls, W. D. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964)Google Scholar.

14. On the heuristic fertility of the “case” in the social sciences, see Passeron, Jean-Claude and Revel, Jacques, eds., Penser par cas (Paris: Éd. de l’EHESS, 2005)Google Scholar.

15. The expression “sorcery crisis” is borrowed from Laurent, Pierre-Joseph, Les pente-cotistes du Burkina Faso. Mariage, pouvoir et guérison (Paris: IRD/Karthala, 2003)Google Scholar.

16. This collective fieldwork benefitted from funding within the context of the RITME research program (ANR-08-CREA-053-02) directed by Carlo Severi.

17. Meat and money are the elements of the offering that are the most frequently mentioned (80 percent of the versions in our corpus).

18. This is where, in February 2010, one of us first heard about the death offering while conducting fieldwork on an unrelated subject.

19. The “grand-places” are the public squares where people from the same neighborhood meet to play cards or checkers and to discuss the news of the day. The “titro-logues” (from titre, or “title” in French) debate the titles on the front pages of the newspapers—without necessarily having read the content of the articles. This neologism probably comes from the Ivory Coast. See Bahi, Aghi Auguste, “L’effet ‘titrologues.’ Une étude exploratoire dans les espaces de discussion des rues d’Abidjan,” En quête 8 (2001): 129–67 Google Scholar.

20. On “pavement radio,” see Ellis, Stephen, “Tuning in to Pavement Radio,” African Affairs 88, no. 352 (1989): 321–30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

21. On the process of the collective elaboration of rumors, see Shibutan, Tamotsu, Improvised News: A Sociological Study of Rumor (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966)Google Scholar.

22. On the Magal, see Coulon, Christian, “The Grand Magal in Touba: A Religious Festival of the Mouride Brotherhood of Senegal,” African Affairs 98, no. 391 (1999): 195–210 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

23. Baraka (barke in Wolof) refers to the charisma attributed to the brotherhood’s dignitaries, affording them a power of grace and blessing.

24. “Rumeur sur l’offrande mortelle: à Touba, l’aumône se prend sans panique,” Walf Grand Place, February 3, 2010.

25. Ten thousand CFA francs is equivalent to fifteen euros. The average monthly income in Senegal is roughly forty thousand francs, or sixty euros (World Bank data, 2010).

26. See Tall, Serigne Mansour, Investir dans la ville africaine. Les émigrés et l’habitat à Dakar (Paris/Dakar: Karthala/CREPOS, 2009)Google Scholar.

27. On poverty and its social perception in Senegal, see Abdou Fall, Salam, Bricoler pour survivre. Perceptions de la pauvreté dans l’agglomération urbaine de Dakar (Paris: Karthala, 2007)Google Scholar.

28. On the notion of moral imagination, see Beidelman, Thomas O., Moral Imagination in Kaguru Modes of Thought (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986)Google Scholar.

29. In addition to the work by the Comaroffs cited above, see Geschiere, Peter, The Modernity of Witchcraft: Politics and the Occult in Postcolonial Africa (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997)Google Scholar, especially 137-68.

30. Gemmeke, Amber B., Marabout Women in Dakar: Creating Trust in a Rural Urban Space (Vienna: Lit Verlag, 2008)Google Scholar, particularly 25ff; Schulz, Dorothea, “Love Potions and Money Machines: Commercial Occultism and the Reworking of Social Relations in Urban Mali,” in Wari Matters: Ethnographic Explorations of Money in the Mande World, ed. Wooten, Stephen (Münster: Lit Verlag, 2005), 93–115 Google Scholar.

31. Austen, Ralph A., “The Moral Economy of Witchcraft: An Essay in Comparative History,” in Modernity and its Malcontents: Ritual and Power in Postcolonial Africa, ed. Comaroff, John and Comaroff, Jean (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993) 89–110 Google Scholar.

32. On Senegal in the 2000s, see: Dahou, Tarik and Foucher, Vincent, “Senegal since 2000: Rebuilding Hegemony in a Global Age,” in Turning Points in African Democracy, ed. Mustapha, Abdel Raufu and Whitfield, Lindsay (Melton: James Currey, 2009), 13–30 Google Scholar; Diop, Momar-Coumba, ed., Le Sénégal sous Abdoulaye Wade. Le Sopi à l’épreuve du pouvoir (Paris: CRES/Karthala, 2013)Google Scholar.

33. O’Brien, Donal B. Cruise, “Les négociations du contrat social sénégalais,” in La construction de l’État au Sénégal, ed. O’Brien, Donal B. Cruise, Diop, Momar-Coumba, and Diouf, Mamadou (Paris: Karthala, 2003), 83–93 Google Scholar.

34. “Offrande mortelle: la police décide de sévir contre la rumeur,” Seneweb.com, January 28, 2010.

35. Scott, James C., Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985)Google Scholar.

36. White, Luise, Speaking with Vampires: Rumor and History in Colonial Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 127–30 Google Scholar.

37. “Not appearing—being able to hide behind tinted glass, for example—is thus a sign of privilege, and much is vested in the possibility of acting without being seen.” Pfeil, Gretchen, “Sarax and the City: Almsgiving and Anonymous Objects in Dakar, Senegal,” in The Anthropology of Ignorance: An Ethnographic Approach, ed. High, Casey, Kelly, Ann H., and Mair, Jonathan (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012), 33–54, here p. 41 Google Scholar.

38. Collignon, René, “La lutte des pouvoirs publics contre les ‘encombrements humains’ à Dakar,” Canadian Journal of African Studies 18, no. 3 (1984): 573–82 Google Scholar; Faye, Ousseynou and Thioub, Ibrahima, “Les marginaux et l’État à Dakar,” Le Mouvement social 204 (2003): 93–108 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

39. Talibé refers to the disciple of a marabout. However, in humanitarian discourse the term tends to be used for children who are “exploited” by a Quranic master. See Perry, Donna L., “Muslim Child Disciples, Global Civil Society, and Children’s Rights in Senegal: The Discourses of Strategic Structuralism,” Anthropological Quarterly 77, no. 1 (2004): 47–86 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

40. Fall, Aminata Sow, La grève des bàttu ou Les déchets humains (Paris: Le Serpent à plumes, 1979 Google Scholar; repr. 2001). The novel, published in Dakar in 1979, was awarded the Grand Prix littéraire de l’Afrique noire the following year. Since then, it has featured consistently on school reading lists in Senegal. It was published in English as The Beggars’ Strike, or The Dregs of Society, trans. Dorothy Blair (Harlow: Longman, 1986).

41. Zysow, Aron, “Zaka¯t,” in The Encyclopeædia of Islam (Leiden: Brill, 1995), 11:406–22 Google Scholar.

42. Benthall, Jonathan, “Financial Worship: The Quranic Injunction to Almsgiving,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 5, no. 1 (1999): 27–42 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

43. See Weir, T. H., “Sadaka,” in The Encyclopedia of Islam, 8:708–16 Google Scholar.

44. O’Brien, Donal B. Cruise, “Le talibé mouride: la soumission dans une confrérie religieuse sénégalaise,” Cahiers d’études africaines 10, no. 40 (1970): 562–78 Google Scholar; Copans, Jean, Les marabouts de l’arachide. La confrérie mouride et les paysans du Sénégal (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1980 Google Scholar; repr. 1989), particularly p. 182.

45. On the Mouride brotherhood in urban areas, see: Diop, Momar-Coumba, “Fonctions et activités des dahira mourides urbains (Sénégal),” Cahiers d’études africaines 21, nos. 81/83 (1981): 79–91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Bava, Sophie, “Le dahira urbain, lieu de pouvoir du mouridisme,” Les Annales de la recherche urbaine 96 (2004): 135–43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar. On the contemporary dynamics of Senegalese Islam, divided between brotherhood, neo-brotherhood, and reformism, see: Samson, Fabienne, “Identités islamiques revendicatives et mobilisations citoyennes au Sénégal: deux mouvements néo-confrériques inscrits dans la globalisation et confrontés au désengagement de l’État,” in Islam, État et société en Afrique, ed. Otayek, René and Soares, Benjamin F. (Paris: Karthala, 2009), 491–512 Google Scholar; Ba, Mame-Penda, “La diversité du fondamentalisme sénégalais. Éléments pour une sociologie de la connaissance,” Cahiers d’études africaines 2, nos. 206/7 (2012): 575–602 Google Scholar.

46. O’Brien, Donal B. Cruise, “Don divin, don terrestre: l’économie de la confrérie mou-ride,” Archives européennes de sociologie 15 (1974): 82–100 Google Scholar.

47. On the transmission of baraka, see Schmitz, Jean, “Le souffle de la parenté. Mariage et transmission de la baraka chez les clercs musulmans de la vallée du Sénégal,” L’Homme 154 (2000): 241–78 Google Scholar.

48. Cited in Coulon, Christian, Le Marabout et le Prince. Islam et pouvoir au Sénégal (Paris: A. Pedone, 1981), 107 Google Scholar.

49. Cruise O’Brien, “Don divin,” 97.

50. The prosperous trader is thus found at the crossroads of heaven and earth, where profits meet prophets and prayers meet prosperity,” as Beth Buggenhagen notes in “Prophets and Profits: Gendered and Generational Visions of Wealth and Value in Senegalese Murid Households,” Journal of Religion in Africa 21, no. 4 (2001), 373–401 Google Scholar, here p. 374.

51. Weber, “Introduction to the Economic Ethics of the World Religions,” in Whimster, Essential Weber, 55–80, here p. 66.

52. Kuran, Timur, “Islamic Redistribution through Zakat: Historical Record and Modern Realities,” in Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts, ed. Bonner, Michael, Ener, Mine, and Singer, Amy (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003), 275–93, here p. 275Google Scholar.

53. See Guèye, Moustapha, Le droit chemin dans la pratique islamique parfaite (Dakar: NEAS, 2010)Google Scholar. The author of this religious treaty is a renowned imam in Senegal and president of its National Association of Imams and Ulama.

54. Vuarin, Robert, “L’enjeu de la misère pour l’Islam sénégalais,” Revue Tiers Monde 123 (1990): 601–21, here p. 608Google Scholar.

55. Weir, “Sadaka,” 710 and 714.

56. Bava, Sophie, “De la ‘baraka aux affaires’: ethos économico-religieux et transnationalité chez les migrants sénégalais mourides,” Revue européenne des migrations internationales 19, no. 2 (2003): 69–84 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

57. According to Cheikh Ahmadou Bamba, almsgiving “affords the courageous person who practices it the prayers of the poor and the needy.” This phrase comes from one of the many texts attributed to him and broadly distributed in the form of brochures, entitled Les itinéraires du Paradis (Masaalik-Ul Jinaan) .

58. The notion of prayer economy comes from Soares, Benjamin F., Islam and the Prayer Economy: History and Authority in a Malian Town (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005)Google Scholar.

59. Roch, Jean-Louis, “Le jeu de l’aumône au Moyen Age,” Annales ESC 44, no. 3 (1989): 505–27, here p. 505Google Scholar.

60. Bourdieu, Pierre, Practial Reason: On the Theory of Action, trans. Johnson, Randal (Stan ford: Polity Press, 1998), 85 Google Scholar.

61. Frenkel, Miriam and Lev, Yaacov, eds., Charity and Giving in Monotheistic Religions (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

62. On caritas, see Guerreau-Jalabert, Anita, “‘Caritas’ y don en la sociedad medieval occidental,” Hispania 204 (2000): 27–62 Google Scholar. On zedaka (or zedaqa, as Mauss spells it), see Silber, Ilana F., “Beyond Purity and Danger: Gift-Giving in the Monotheistic Religions,” in Gifts and Interests, ed. Vandevelde, Antoon (Leuven: Peeters, 2000), 115–32 Google Scholar.

63. Parry, “The Gift.”

64. Mauss, The Gift, 22–23.

65. This reticence toward dealing with almsgiving can also be applied to the political dimension of The Gift . As Florence Weber notes in her preface to the recent French edition of Essai sur le don (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 2007), in his concluding chapter Mauss criticizes the charitable conception of social assistance, stating that “the unreciprocated gift still makes the person who has accepted it inferior, particularly when it has been accepted with no thought of returning it ... . Charity is still wounding for him who has accepted it [here, there is a footnote mentioning the Quran, sura 2 265] and the whole tendency of our morality is to strive to do away with the unconscious and injurious patronage of the rich almsgiver.” Mauss, The Gift, 83–84. In the final pages of the book, Mauss again cites a sura on charity from the Quran, but proposes to “substitute for the name of Allah that of society” and to replace “the concept of alms by that of co-operation.” Ibid., 90.

66. Lévi-Strauss, Claude, Introduction to the Work of Marcel Mauss, trans. Baker, Felicity (London: Routledge, 1987 Google Scholar; repr. 2001).

67. Testart, Alain, Critique du don. Études sur la circulation non marchande (Paris: Syllepse, 2007)Google Scholar.

68. The circular model of generalized exchange involves at least three participants: A gives to B, who gives to C, who gives to A. See Lévi-Strauss, Claude, The Elementary Structures of Kinship, ed. and trans. Bell, James Harle, von Sturmer, John Richard, and Needham, Rodney (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969)Google Scholar.

69. Hence the limits of Anita Guerreau-Jalabert’s proposition to consider the economy of religious gifts according to the model of generalized exchange that regulates matrimonial alliances in certain societies. Implying asymmetrical relations between social groups that are alternatively in the position of recipients and givers of women, the cycle of matrimonial reciprocity remains horizontal. The cycle of the religious gift, however, presupposes a relationship to God that is asymmetrical but also vertical.

70. “Marabout” is a polysemous word (as is its Wolof equivalent sériñ). It can designate a dignitary of a Sufi brotherhood, a Quranic master, or, as it does here, a healer-diviner.

71. On maraboutic practices, see: Sow, Ibrahima, Divination marabout destin. Aux sources de l’imaginaire (Dakar: IFAN Cheikh Anta Diop, 2009)Google Scholar; Gemmeke, Marabout Women in Dakar. On the adaptation of these practices in France, see Kuczynski, Liliane, Les marabouts africains à Paris (Paris: CNRS Éditions, 2003)Google Scholar.

72. “Objects given as sarax ... point to someone’s personal problem or secret, and they suggest, by their size, something about the scale of the problem.” Gretchen Pfeil, “Sarax and the City,” 39.

73. The distinction between liggéey and dëmm overlaps with the distinction—traditional in anthropology since Edward Evans-Pritchard—between sorcery (malevolent magic) and witchcraft (malevolent power inherent to a person).

74. Fassin, Didier, Pouvoir et maladie en Afrique. Anthropologie sociale dans la banlieue de Dakar (Paris: PUF, 1992), 139–46 Google Scholar. This is an evolution that the Ortigues had already observed in the 1960s. See Ortigues, Marie-Cécile and Ortigues, Edmond, Œdipe africain (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1966; repr. 1984), 195Google Scholar.

75. See Gemmeke, Marabout Women in Dakar, 181ff.

76. On the distinction between magic and sorcery see Hamès, Constant, “Problématiques de la magie-sorcellerie en islam et perspectives africaines,” Cahiers d’études africaines, 189/190, nos. 1/2 (2008): 81–99 Google Scholar.

77. Mauss and Hubert’s A General Theory of Magic is usually remembered for its canonical distinction between magic and religion. In reality, the entire text is swarming with ambiguous phenomena that challenge the distinction, “those antinomian confusions which abound in the history of both magic and religion.” Mauss, Marcel and Hubert, Henri, A General Theory of Magic [1902–1903], trans. Brain, Robert (London: Routledge, 2011), 101 Google Scholar.

78. Zempléni, András, “L’interprétation et la thérapie traditionnelles du désordre mental chez les Wolof et les Lébou (Sénégal)” (PhD diss., University of Paris, 1968), 449 Google Scholar.

79. Gemmeke, Marabout Women in Dakar, 27.

80. Fassin, Pouvoir et maladie en Afrique, 274.

81. On the links between alms and sacrifice in West African societies marked by the cohabitation between Islam and “paganism,” see Bazin, Jean, “Retour aux choses-dieux,” in Des clous dans la Joconde. L’anthropologie autrement (Toulouse: Anacharsis, 2008), 493–520 Google Scholar, particularly pp. 495–99.

82. This is confirmed by the work of Gretchen Pfeil: “Sarax remains a form of sacrifice, not gifting” (Pfeil, “Sarax and the City,” 37). On the general affinity between offering and sacrifice, see Firth, Raymond, “Offering and Sacrifice: Problems of Organization,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 93, no. 1 (1963): 12–24 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

83. Since Mauss and Hubert’s Sacrifice, a distinction is commonly made between the sacrificer (the official performing the ritual) and the sacrifier (the person or persons benefitting from the ritual). To these roles we propose to add that of the “sacrificee,” in order to give a specific name to the donee or recipient of a sacrifice.

84. Bonte, Pierre, Brisebarre, Anne-Marie, and Gokalp, Altan, eds., Sacrifices en islam. Espaces et temps d’un rituel (Paris: CNRS Éditions, 1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. See also Hamès, Constant, “Le sacrifice animal au regard des textes islamiques canoniques,” Archives de sciences sociales des religions 101 (1998): 5–25 Google Scholar.

85. Brisebarre, Anne-Marie and Kuczynski, Liliane, eds., La Tabaski au Sénégal. Une fête musulmane en milieu urbain (Paris: Karthala, 2009)Google Scholar.

86. Mauss and Hubert, A General Theory of Magic, 30.

87. A. Moustapha Diop, “Le sacrifice en milieu lébu (Sénégal),” in Bonte, Brisebarre, and Gokalp, Sacrifices, 331–53; Zempléni, András, “La dimension thérapeutique du culte des rab, Ndöp, Tuuru et Samp. Rites de possession chez les Lébou et Wolof,” Psychopathologie africaine 2, no. 3 (1966): 295–439 Google Scholar.

88. Zempléni, “La dimension thérapeutique,” 379 and 426.

89. Diop, “Le sacrifice en milieu lébu,” 337.

90. On the Bambara, see Jean Bazin, “Retour aux choses-dieux.” On the Hausa, see Nicolas, Guy, Don rituel et échange marchand dans une société sahélienne (Paris: Institut d’ethnologie, 1986)Google Scholar.

91. Mauss and Hubert, Sacrifice, 100.

92. Godelier, Maurice, The Enigma of the Gift, trans. Scott, Nora (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 29–31 Google Scholar and 179–98.

94. These stories of “ritual crimes,” however, are not entirely new in Senegal. In the 1970s, there were recurrent rumors of children being kidnapped for human sacrifices. See Sémédo, Raymond, “Les rumeurs sénégalaises,” Revue africaine de communication 11 (1998): 3–24 Google Scholar.

95. Marie, Alain, “Avatars de la dette communautaire. Crise des solidarités, sorcellerie et procès d’individualisation (itinéraires abidjanais),” in L’Afrique des individus, ed. Marie, Alain (Paris: Karthala, 1997), 249–328 Google Scholar.

96. Boeck, Filip De, “The Divine Seed: Children, Gift, and Witchcraftinthe Democratic Republic of Congo,” in Makers and Breakers: Children and Youth in Postcolonial Africa, ed. Honwana, Alcinda and de Boeck, Filip (Oxford: James Currey, 2005), 188–214 Google Scholar.

97. Ibid., 209.

98. Mauss, The Gift, 3

99. Parry, Jonathan, “On the Moral Perils of Exchange,” in Money and the Morality of Exchange, ed. Parry, Jonathan and Bloch, Maurice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 64–93 CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

1
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Gift, Sacrifice, and Sorcery: The Moral Economy of Alms in Senegal
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Gift, Sacrifice, and Sorcery: The Moral Economy of Alms in Senegal
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Gift, Sacrifice, and Sorcery: The Moral Economy of Alms in Senegal
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *